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Ralph Gonzales, MD, MSPH

TitleAssociate Dean
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
Address350 Parnassus Ave, Box 0361
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-514-6457
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of California, San Francisco Residency 1995School of Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.1991 Medicine
    University of Colorado Health Sciences CenterMSPH1997Preventive Medicine & Biometrics

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Ralph Gonzales is Associate Dean for Clinical Innovation and Chief Innovation Officer for UCSF Health. His research has played a significant role in national and global efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance by improving antibiotic prescribing practices - the body of which provides a successful roadmap for translating evidence into practice, policy and public health. Dr Gonzales’ research is multidisciplinary, patient-centered, and informed by relevant stakeholders and policy makers such as the CDC, NCQA, professional societies and community clinicians and patients. It represents the full spectrum of translational research - from practice guideline development, to implementation of innovative health care interventions, to conducting larger community-based trials to examine the comparative effectiveness of different health care interventions.
    In addition, Dr. Gonzales is currently leading several project teams in designing, implementing and evaluating new ways to improve primary care-specialty care communication and care coordination, focusing on strategies that achieve the triple aim of improving quality, outcomes and decreasing costs. One includes the use of eReferrals and eConsults to streamline the referral and coordination process; another project is evaluating new team-based strategies to reduce unnecessary follow-up visits in specialty care.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Novel Strategies to Reduce Inapprop
    CDC/NCPDCID R01CI000611Sep 15, 2008 - Sep 14, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Improving Antibiotic Use in Acute Care Settings
    AHRQ R01HS013915Aug 7, 2003 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Minimizing Antibiotic Resistance in Colorado (MARC)
    AHRQ R01HS013001Jul 1, 2001 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Twitter

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Selected Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Moriates C, Boscardin CK, Catschegn S, Rajkomar A, Bozic KJ, Soo Hoo K, Goldberg AN, Pitts L, Lawton MT, Dudley RA, Gonzales R. Association Between Surgeon Scorecard Use and Operating Room Costs. JAMA Surg. 2016 Dec 07. PMID: 27926758.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Moriates C, Boscardin C, Catschegn S, Goldberg A, Bozic K, Hoo KS, Wustrack R, Pitts LH, Dudley A, Gonzales R, Lawton MT. 152 A Prospective Controlled Trial of the Effect of Surgeon Cost Scorecards on Operating Room Surgical Cost Reduction. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:161-2. PMID: 27399431.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Zygourakis CC, Liu C, Theodosopoulos PV, Lawton MT, Dudley A, Gonzales R. 153 Significant Interhospital Variation in Cranial Surgery Costs Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:162. PMID: 27399432.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Zygourakis CC, Yoon S, Valencia V, Boscardin C, Moriates C, Gonzales R, Lawton MT. Operating room waste: disposable supply utilization in neurosurgical procedures. J Neurosurg. 2016 May 6; 1-6. PMID: 27153160.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Otto ME, Senter C, Gonzales R, Gleason N. Referring wisely: orthopedic referral guidelines at an academic institution. Am J Manag Care. 2016; 22(5):e185-91. PMID: 27266584.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ackerman SL, Boscardin C, Karliner L, Handley MA, Cheng S, Gaither TW, Hagey J, Hennein L, Malik F, Shaw B, Trinidad N, Zahner G, Gonzales R. The Action Research Program: Experiential Learning in Systems-Based Practice for First-Year Medical Students. Teach Learn Med. 2016 Apr-Jun; 28(2):183-91. PMID: 27064720.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Schierenberg A, Minnaard MC, Hopstaken RM, van de Pol AC, Broekhuizen BD, de Wit NJ, Reitsma JB, van Vugt SF, Graffelman AW, Melbye H, Rainer TH, Steurer J, Holm A, Gonzales R, Dinant GJ, de Groot JA, Verheij TJ. External Validation of Prediction Models for Pneumonia in Primary Care Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149895. PMID: 26918859.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gonzales R, Cattamanchi A. Changing Clinician Behavior When Less Is More. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Dec 1; 175(12):1921-2. PMID: 26457364.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Boscardin CK, Gonzales R, Bradley KL, Raven MC. Predicting cost of care using self-reported health status data. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015; 15(1):406. PMID: 26399319; PMCID: PMC4580365.
    10. Ho CK, Boscardin CK, Gleason N, Collado D, Terdiman J, Terrault NA, Gonzales R. Optimizing the pre-referral workup for gastroenterology and hepatology specialty care: consensus using the Delphi method. J Eval Clin Pract. 2015 Jul 30. PMID: 26223584.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Cruz ML, Gleason N, Wang M, Wrenn K, Gonzales R. Transforming the endocrine consult: asynchronous provider consultations. Endocr Pract. 2015 May; 21(5):514-21. PMID: 25667365.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ackerman S, Gleason N, Gonzales R. Using Rapid Ethnography to Support the Design and Implementation of Health Information Technologies. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015; 215:14-27. PMID: 26249181.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Khanna R, Stoddard PJ, Gonzales EN, Villagran-Flores M, Thomson J, Bayard P, Palos Lucio AG, Schillinger D, Bertozzi S, Gonzales R. An automated telephone nutrition support system for Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2014 Nov; 8(6):1115-20. PMID: 25239122; PMCID: PMC4455455.
    14. Tang N, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Variations in 30-day hospital readmission rates across primary care clinics within a tertiary referral center. J Hosp Med. 2014 Nov; 9(11):688-94. PMID: 25130292.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ackerman SL, Gleason N, Monacelli J, Collado D, Wang M, Ho C, Catschegn-Pfab S, Gonzales R. When to repatriate? Clinicians' perspectives on the transfer of patient management from specialty to primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Oct; 29(10):1355-61. PMID: 24934146; PMCID: PMC4175642.
    16. Lee HC, Bardach NS, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Emergency department visits in the neonatal period in the United States. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014 May; 30(5):315-8. PMID: 24759490; PMCID: PMC4160308.
    17. Moy NY, Lee SJ, Chan T, Grovey B, Boscardin WJ, Gonzales R, Pierluissi E. Development and sustainability of an inpatient-to-outpatient discharge handoff tool: a quality improvement project. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2014 May; 40(5):219-27. PMID: 24919253.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Eng JA, Hunter CJ, Handley MA, Boscardin CK, Gonzales R, Ackerman SL. Patient attitudes about specialty follow-up care by telephone. Am J Manag Care. 2014 Feb; 20(2):164-7. PMID: 24738534; PMCID: PMC4207649.
    19. Ackerman SL, Gonzales R, Stahl MS, Metlay JP. One size does not fit all: evaluating an intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013; 13:462. PMID: 24188573; PMCID: PMC4228248.
    20. Nguyen OK, Tang N, Hillman JM, Gonzales R. What's cost got to do with it? Association between hospital costs and frequency of admissions among "high users" of hospital care. J Hosp Med. 2013 Dec; 8(12):665-71. PMID: 24173680.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Gonzales R, Metlay JP. Shifting the paradigm for promoting appropriate antibiotic use. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jun; 28(6):756-7. PMID: 23636914; PMCID: PMC3663945.
    22. Ackerman S, Auer R, Gonzales R. Cultural capital: accounting for power in patient-physician interactions. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Mar 11; 173(5):393-4. PMID: 23479112.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Boscardin CK, Gonzales R. The impact of demographic characteristics on nonresponse in an ambulatory patient satisfaction survey. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2013 Mar; 39(3):123-8. PMID: 23516762.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Gonzales R, Anderer T, McCulloch CE, Maselli JH, Bloom FJ, Graf TR, Stahl M, Yefko M, Molecavage J, Metlay JP. A cluster randomized trial of decision support strategies for reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Feb 25; 173(4):267-73. PMID: 23319069; PMCID: PMC3582762.
    25. Gonzales R, Ackerman S, Handley M. Can implementation science help to overcome challenges in translating judicious antibiotic use into practice? Arch Intern Med. 2012 Oct 22; 172(19):1471-3. PMID: 23007141.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Fahimi J, Herring A, Harries A, Gonzales R, Alter H. Computed tomography use among children presenting to emergency departments with abdominal pain. Pediatrics. 2012 Nov; 130(5):e1069-75. PMID: 23045569.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Ackerman SL, Tebb K, Stein JC, Frazee BW, Hendey GW, Schmidt LA, Gonzales R. Benefit or burden? A sociotechnical analysis of diagnostic computer kiosks in four California hospital emergency departments. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Dec; 75(12):2378-85. PMID: 23063214.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Schwarz EB, Burch EJ, Parisi SM, Tebb KP, Grossman D, Mehrotra A, Gonzales R. Computer-assisted provision of hormonal contraception in acute care settings. Contraception. 2013 Feb; 87(2):242-50. PMID: 22921686; PMCID: PMC4063121.
    29. Ackerman S, Gonzales R. The context of antibiotic overuse. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Aug 7; 157(3):211-2. PMID: 22868840.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Roth S, Gonzales R, Harding-Anderer T, Bloom FJ, Graf T, Stahl MS, Maselli JH, Metlay JP. Unintended consequences of a quality measure for acute bronchitis. Am J Manag Care. 2012 Jun; 18(6):e217-24. PMID: 22775073.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Govindarajan P, Gonzales R, Maselli JH, Johnston SC, Fahimi J, Poisson S, Stein JC. Regional differences in emergency medical services use for patients with acute stroke (findings from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Emergency Department Data File). J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Nov; 22(8):e257-63. PMID: 22465209.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Afonso AM, Ebell MH, Gonzales R, Stein J, Genton B, Senn N. The use of classification and regression trees to predict the likelihood of seasonal influenza. Fam Pract. 2012 Dec; 29(6):671-7. PMID: 22427440.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Gonzales R, Handley MA, Ackerman S, O'sullivan PS. A framework for training health professionals in implementation and dissemination science. Acad Med. 2012 Mar; 87(3):271-8. PMID: 22373617; PMCID: PMC3307591.
    34. Gonzales R, López-Caudana AE, González-Flores T, Jayanthan J, Corbett KK, Reyes-Morales H. Antibiotic knowledge and self-care for acute respiratory tract infections in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 2012 Mar-Apr; 54(2):152-7. PMID: 22535174.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Ebell MH, Afonso AM, Gonzales R, Stein J, Genton B, Senn N. Development and validation of a clinical decision rule for the diagnosis of influenza. J Am Board Fam Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 25(1):55-62. PMID: 22218625.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Gonzales R, Handley MA. Improving glycemic control when "usual" diabetes care is not enough. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Dec 12; 171(22):1999-2000. PMID: 21986349.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Stein JC, Navab B, Frazee B, Tebb K, Hendey G, Maselli J, Gonzales R. A randomized trial of computer kiosk-expedited management of cystitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Oct; 18(10):1053-9. PMID: 21996070.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Moffett SE, Frazee BW, Stein JC, Navab B, Maselli J, Takhar SS, Gonzales R. Antimicrobial resistance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in 3 California EDs. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Jul; 30(6):942-9. PMID: 21802879.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Westphalen AC, Hsia RY, Maselli JH, Wang R, Gonzales R. Radiological imaging of patients with suspected urinary tract stones: national trends, diagnoses, and predictors. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Jul; 18(7):699-707. PMID: 21762233; PMCID: PMC3140067.
    40. Sarkar U, López A, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Adverse drug events in U.S. adult ambulatory medical care. Health Serv Res. 2011 Oct; 46(5):1517-33. PMID: 21554271; PMCID: PMC3168717.
    41. Price EL, Mackenzie TD, Metlay JP, Camargo CA, Gonzales R. A computerized education module improves patient knowledge and attitudes about appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Dec; 85(3):493-8. PMID: 21392929.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Stein JC, Jacoby VL, Vittinghoff E, Wang R, Kwan E, Reynolds T, McAlpine I, Gonzales R. Differential use of diagnostic ultrasound in u.s. Emergency departments by time of day. West J Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 12(1):90-5. PMID: 21691478; PMCID: PMC3088381.
    43. Shapiro DJ, Gonzales R, Cabana MD, Hersh AL. National trends in visit rates and antibiotic prescribing for children with acute sinusitis. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan; 127(1):28-34. PMID: 21187311; PMCID: PMC3010093.
    44. Cornia PB, Hersh AL, Lipsky BA, Newman TB, Gonzales R. Does this coughing adolescent or adult patient have pertussis? JAMA. 2010 Aug 25; 304(8):890-6. PMID: 20736473.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Tang N, Stein J, Hsia RY, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Trends and characteristics of US emergency department visits, 1997-2007. JAMA. 2010 Aug 11; 304(6):664-70. PMID: 20699458; PMCID: PMC3123697.
    46. Hersh AL, Gonzales R. Decreasing out-of-pocket costs of antibiotics: the good, the bad, and the unknown. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Aug 9; 170(15):1314-6. PMID: 20696954.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Aagaard EM, Gonzales R, Camargo CA, Auten R, Levin SK, Maselli J, Metlay J. Physician champions are key to improving antibiotic prescribing quality. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010 Mar; 36(3):109-16. PMID: 20235412.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Wirtz VJ, Dreser A, Gonzales R. Trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries, 1997-2007. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010 Mar; 27(3):219-25. PMID: 20414511.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Fee C, Metlay JP, Camargo CA, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. ED antibiotic use for acute respiratory illnesses since pneumonia performance measure inception. Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Jan; 28(1):23-31. PMID: 20006197.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Tsui JI, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Sociodemographic trends in national ambulatory care visits for hepatitis C virus infection. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Dec; 54(12):2694-8. PMID: 19104932.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Steinman MA, Yang KY, Byron SC, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Variation in outpatient antibiotic prescribing in the United States. Am J Manag Care. 2009 Dec; 15(12):861-8. PMID: 20001167; PMCID: PMC2910590.
    52. Stearns CR, Gonzales R, Camargo CA, Maselli J, Metlay JP. Antibiotic prescriptions are associated with increased patient satisfaction with emergency department visits for acute respiratory tract infections. Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Oct; 16(10):934-41. PMID: 19799568.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Levin SK, Metlay JP, Maselli JH, Kersey AS, Camargo CA, Gonzales R. Perceived social support among adults seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in US EDs. Am J Emerg Med. 2009 Jun; 27(5):582-7. PMID: 19497465.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Hersh AL, Cabana MD, Gonzales R, Shenkin BN, Cho CS. Pediatricians' perspectives on the impact of MRSA in primary care: a qualitative study. BMC Pediatr. 2009; 9:27. PMID: 19366461; PMCID: PMC2671509.
    55. Gonzales R, Aagaard EM, Camargo CA, Ma OJ, Plautz M, Maselli JH, McCulloch CE, Levin SK, Metlay JP. C-reactive protein testing does not decrease antibiotic use for acute cough illness when compared to a clinical algorithm. J Emerg Med. 2011 Jul; 41(1):1-7. PMID: 19095403.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Schwarz EB, Sobota M, Gonzales R, Gerbert B. Computerized counseling for folate knowledge and use: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Dec; 35(6):568-71. PMID: 19000845; PMCID: PMC2593421.
    57. Ranji SR, Steinman MA, Shojania KG, Gonzales R. Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing: a systematic review and quantitative analysis. Med Care. 2008 Aug; 46(8):847-62. PMID: 18665065.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Hersh AL, Chambers HF, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. National trends in ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescribing for skin and soft-tissue infections. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jul 28; 168(14):1585-91. PMID: 18663172.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Wigton RS, Darr CA, Corbett KK, Nickol DR, Gonzales R. How do community practitioners decide whether to prescribe antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections? J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Oct; 23(10):1615-20. PMID: 18622651; PMCID: PMC2533389.
    60. Gonzales R, Corbett KK, Wong S, Glazner JE, Deas A, Leeman-Castillo B, Maselli JH, Sebert-Kuhlmann A, Wigton RS, Flores E, Kafadar K. "Get smart Colorado": impact of a mass media campaign to improve community antibiotic use. Med Care. 2008 Jun; 46(6):597-605. PMID: 18520314.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Schwarz EB, Gerbert B, Gonzales R. Computer-assisted provision of emergency contraception a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jun; 23(6):794-9. PMID: 18398664; PMCID: PMC2517895.
    62. Gonzales R, Corbett KK, Wirtz V, Dreser A. Drug Resistant Infections in Poor Countries: A shrinking window of opportunity. BMJ. 2008 Apr 26; 336(7650):948-9. PMID: 18397943; PMCID: PMC2335223.
    63. Lurie P, Cornia PB, Lipsky BA, Gonzales R. Nothing to cough at. N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 21; 358(8):857; author reply 857. PMID: 18287613.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Pletcher MJ, Kertesz SG, Kohn MA, Gonzales R. Trends in opioid prescribing by race/ethnicity for patients seeking care in US emergency departments. JAMA. 2008 Jan 2; 299(1):70-8. PMID: 18167408.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Cals JW, Boumans D, Lardinois RJ, Gonzales R, Hopstaken RM, Butler CC, Dinant GJ. Public beliefs on antibiotics and respiratory tract infections: an internet-based questionnaire study. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Dec; 57(545):942-7. PMID: 18252068; PMCID: PMC2084132.
    66. Sarkar U, Piette JD, Gonzales R, Lessler D, Chew LD, Reilly B, Johnson J, Brunt M, Huang J, Regenstein M, Schillinger D. Preferences for self-management support: findings from a survey of diabetes patients in safety-net health systems. Patient Educ Couns. 2008 Jan; 70(1):102-10. PMID: 17997264; PMCID: PMC2745943.
    67. Cornia PB, Lipsky BA, Saint S, Gonzales R. Clinical problem-solving. Nothing to cough at--a 73-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of nonproductive cough that worsened at night. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4; 357(14):1432-7. PMID: 17914045.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Gonzales R, Auerbach A. Trainees, teams, and timely performance feedback. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Aug; 22(8):1218-9. PMID: 17577605; PMCID: PMC2305732.
    69. Gardner RL, Sarkar U, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Factors associated with longer ED lengths of stay. Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul; 25(6):643-50. PMID: 17606089.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Nolt BR, Gonzales R, Maselli J, Aagaard E, Camargo CA, Metlay JP. Vital-sign abnormalities as predictors of pneumonia in adults with acute cough illness. Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul; 25(6):631-6. PMID: 17606087.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Metlay JP, Camargo CA, MacKenzie T, McCulloch C, Maselli J, Levin SK, Kersey A, Gonzales R. Cluster-randomized trial to improve antibiotic use for adults with acute respiratory infections treated in emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Sep; 50(3):221-30. PMID: 17509729.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Aspinall SL, Metlay JP, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Impact of hospital formularies on fluoroquinolone prescribing in emergency departments. Am J Manag Care. 2007 May; 13(5):241-8. PMID: 17488189.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Vanderweil SG, Pelletier AJ, Hamedani AG, Gonzales R, Metlay JP, Camargo CA. Declining antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory infections, 1993-2004. Acad Emerg Med. 2007 Apr; 14(4):366-9. PMID: 17296803.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Schwarz EB, Gerbert B, Gonzales R. Need for emergency contraception in urgent care settings. Contraception. 2007 Apr; 75(4):285-8. PMID: 17362707.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Schwarz EB, Reeves MF, Gerbert B, Gonzales R. Knowledge of and perceived access to emergency contraception at two urgent care clinics in California. Contraception. 2007 Mar; 75(3):209-13. PMID: 17303491.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Leeman-Castillo BA, Corbett KK, Aagaard EM, Maselli JH, Gonzales R, Mackenzie TD. Acceptability of a bilingual interactive computerized educational module in a poor, medically underserved patient population. J Health Commun. 2007 Jan-Feb; 12(1):77-94. PMID: 17365350.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Aagaard E, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Physician practice patterns: chest x-ray ordering for the evaluation of acute cough illness in adults. Med Decis Making. 2006 Nov-Dec; 26(6):599-605. PMID: 17099198.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Aagaard EM, Nadler P, Adler J, Maselli J, Gonzales R. An interactive computer kiosk module for the treatment of recurrent uncomplicated cystitis in women. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Nov; 21(11):1156-9. PMID: 16879705; PMCID: PMC1831661.
    79. Steinman MA, Ranji SR, Shojania KG, Gonzales R. Improving antibiotic selection: a systematic review and quantitative analysis of quality improvement strategies. Med Care. 2006 Jul; 44(7):617-28. PMID: 16799356.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Schwarz EB, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Contraceptive counseling of diabetic women of reproductive age. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 107(5):1070-4. PMID: 16648413.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Hart AM, Pepper GA, Gonzales R. Balancing acts: deciding for or against antibiotics in acute respiratory infections. J Fam Pract. 2006 Apr; 55(4):320-5. PMID: 16608671.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Gonzales R, Camargo CA, MacKenzie T, Kersey AS, Maselli J, Levin SK, McCulloch CE, Metlay JP. Antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections in acute care settings. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Mar; 13(3):288-94. PMID: 16514122.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Flanders SA, Dudas V, Kerr K, McCulloch CE, Gonzales R. Effectiveness of ceftriaxone plus doxycycline in the treatment of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. J Hosp Med. 2006 Jan; 1(1):7-12. PMID: 17219465.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Schwarz EB, Maselli J, Norton M, Gonzales R. Prescription of teratogenic medications in United States ambulatory practices. Am J Med. 2005 Nov; 118(11):1240-9. PMID: 16271908.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Tsui JI, Pletcher MJ, Vittinghoff E, Seal K, Gonzales R. Hepatitis C and hospital outcomes in patients admitted with alcohol-related problems. J Hepatol. 2006 Feb; 44(2):262-6. PMID: 16226823.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Stein J, Louie J, Flanders S, Maselli J, Hacker JK, Drew WL, Gonzales R. Performance characteristics of clinical diagnosis, a clinical decision rule, and a rapid influenza test in the detection of influenza infection in a community sample of adults. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Nov; 46(5):412-9. PMID: 16271670.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Louie JK, Hacker JK, Gonzales R, Mark J, Maselli JH, Yagi S, Drew WL. Characterization of viral agents causing acute respiratory infection in a San Francisco University Medical Center Clinic during the influenza season. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 15; 41(6):822-8. PMID: 16107980.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Metlay JP, Camargo CA, Bos K, Gonzales R. Assessing the suitability of intervention sites for quality improvement studies in emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Jul; 12(7):667-70. PMID: 15995102.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Linder JA, Huang ES, Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Stafford RS. Fluoroquinolone prescribing in the United States: 1995 to 2002. Am J Med. 2005 Mar; 118(3):259-68. PMID: 15745724.
      View in: PubMed
    90. MacDougall C, Guglielmo BJ, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Antimicrobial drug prescribing for pneumonia in ambulatory care. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Mar; 11(3):380-4. PMID: 15757551; PMCID: PMC3298265.
    91. Pletcher MJ, Fernandez A, May TA, Westphal JR, Gamez CA, Hersh DF, Gonzales R. Unintended consequences of a quality improvement program designed to improve treatment of alcohol withdrawal in hospitalized patients. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2005 Mar; 31(3):148-57. PMID: 15828598.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Corbett KK, Gonzales R, Leeman-Castillo BA, Flores E, Maselli J, Kafadar K. Appropriate antibiotic use: variation in knowledge and awareness by Hispanic ethnicity and language. Prev Med. 2005 Feb; 40(2):162-9. PMID: 15533525.
      View in: PubMed
    93. Gonzales R, Corbett KK, Leeman-Castillo BA, Glazner J, Erbacher K, Darr CA, Wong S, Maselli JH, Sauaia A, Kafadar K. The "minimizing antibiotic resistance in Colorado" project: impact of patient education in improving antibiotic use in private office practices. Health Serv Res. 2005 Feb; 40(1):101-16. PMID: 15663704; PMCID: PMC1361128.
    94. Aagaard E, Gonzales R. Management of acute bronchitis in healthy adults. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2004 Dec; 18(4):919-37; x. PMID: 15555832.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Pletcher MJ, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Uncomplicated alcohol intoxication in the emergency department: an analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Am J Med. 2004 Dec 1; 117(11):863-7. PMID: 15589492.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Gonzales R, Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR. Strategies to diagnose and treat group A streptococcal pharyngitis. JAMA. 2004 Jul 14; 292(2):167; author reply 167-8. PMID: 15249561.
      View in: PubMed
    97. Hall MC, Kieke B, Gonzales R, Belongia EA. Spectrum bias of a rapid antigen detection test for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in a pediatric population. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul; 114(1):182-6. PMID: 15231926.
      View in: PubMed
    98. Steinman MA, Sauaia A, Maselli JH, Houck PM, Gonzales R. Office evaluation and treatment of elderly patients with acute bronchitis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jun; 52(6):875-9. PMID: 15161449.
      View in: PubMed
    99. Flanders SA, Stein J, Shochat G, Sellers K, Holland M, Maselli J, Drew WL, Reingold AL, Gonzales R. Performance of a bedside C-reactive protein test in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults with acute cough. Am J Med. 2004 Apr 15; 116(8):529-35. PMID: 15063814.
      View in: PubMed
    100. Gonzales R, Sauaia A, Corbett KK, Maselli JH, Erbacher K, Leeman-Castillo BA, Darr CA, Houck PM. Antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in the elderly: effect of a multidimensional educational intervention. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jan; 52(1):39-45. PMID: 14687313.
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    101. Nowbar S, Burkart KM, Gonzales R, Fedorowicz A, Gozansky WS, Gaudio JC, Taylor MR, Zwillich CW. Obesity-associated hypoventilation in hospitalized patients: prevalence, effects, and outcome. Am J Med. 2004 Jan 1; 116(1):1-7. PMID: 14706658.
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    102. Gonzales R. A 65-year-old woman with acute cough illness and an important engagement. JAMA. 2003 May 28; 289(20):2701-8. PMID: 12771117.
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    103. Harris RH, MacKenzie TD, Leeman-Castillo B, Corbett KK, Batal HA, Maselli JH, Gonzales R. Optimizing antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in an urban urgent care clinic. J Gen Intern Med. 2003 May; 18(5):326-34. PMID: 12795730; PMCID: PMC1494862.
    104. Steinman MA, Gonzales R, Linder JA, Landefeld CS. Changing use of antibiotics in community-based outpatient practice, 1991-1999. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Apr 1; 138(7):525-33. PMID: 12667022.
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    105. Steinman MA, Landefeld CS, Gonzales R. Predictors of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in adult primary care. JAMA. 2003 Feb 12; 289(6):719-25. PMID: 12585950.
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    106. Hoffman JR, Cooper RJ, Gonzales R. Choosing an optimal strategy to assess and treat adults with pharyngitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jan 15; 36(2):235-6. PMID: 12522760.
      View in: PubMed
    107. O'Brien MM, Gonzales R, Shroyer AL, Grunwald GK, Daley J, Henderson WG, Khuri SF, Anderson RJ. Modest serum creatinine elevation affects adverse outcome after general surgery. Kidney Int. 2002 Aug; 62(2):585-92. PMID: 12110022.
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    108. Oboler SK, Prochazka AV, Gonzales R, Xu S, Anderson RJ. Public expectations and attitudes for annual physical examinations and testing. Ann Intern Med. 2002 May 7; 136(9):652-9. PMID: 11992300.
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    109. Hambidge SJ, Davidson AJ, Gonzales R, Steiner JF. Epidemiology of pediatric injury-related primary care office visits in the United States. Pediatrics. 2002 Apr; 109(4):559-65. PMID: 11927696.
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    110. Flanders S, Gonzales R. Antibiotic prescribing: can we make it easier? J Gen Intern Med. 2002 Feb; 17(2):160-1. PMID: 11841532; PMCID: PMC1495015.
    111. Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Maselli J, Lum A, Barrett PH. Impact of reducing antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis on patient satisfaction. Eff Clin Pract. 2001 May-Jun; 4(3):105-11. PMID: 11434073.
      View in: PubMed
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