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    Helen Kim, MPH, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 10
    San Francisco CA 94110
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      My research focuses on identifying risk factors that predispose younger individuals to stroke and cardiovascular disease. Currently, my group is studying the genetic epidemiology of hemorrhagic stroke and modifiers of outcome after hemorrhage or treatment in patients with brain vascular malformations. I collaborate closely with a multidisciplinary group of investigators at the UCSF Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Oakland, Duke University, and the University of New Mexico. Several large case-cohort studies of brain arteriovenous malformations, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral cavernous malformations, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia are underway. These vascular-related disorders, while distinct, share to some degree similar clinical symptoms and features. We are taking both candidate gene and genome-wide approaches to identify genetic factors associated with disease susceptibility and progression, including SNP and expression arrays, and next-gen sequencing. Additional research interests include investigating approaches for population stratification, multivariate phenotypes, admixture mapping, and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Pekmezci M, Nelson J, Su H, Hess C, Lawton MT, Sonmez M, Young WL, Kim H, Tihan T. Morphometric characterization of brain arteriovenous malformations for clinical and radiological studies to identify silent intralesional microhemorrhages. Clin Neuropathol. 2016 May-Jun; 35(3):114-21. PMID: 27049066.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Hallam DK, Kim H, Hetts SW, Ghodke BV. Less can be more: Targeted embolization of aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations unsuitable for surgical resection. Interv Neuroradiol. 2016 Aug; 22(4):445-51. PMID: 27066813.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Weinsheimer S, Bendjilali N, Nelson J, Guo DE, Zaroff JG, Sidney S, McCulloch CE, Al-Shahi Salman R, Berg JN, Koeleman BP, Simon M, Bostroem A, Fontanella M, Sturiale CL, Pola R, Puca A, Lawton MT, Young WL, Pawlikowska L, Klijn CJ, Kim H. Genome-wide association study of sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26818729.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Choquet H, Trapani E, Goitre L, Trabalzini L, Akers A, Fontanella M, Hart BL, Morrison LA, Pawlikowska L, Kim H, Retta SF. Cytochrome P450 and matrix metalloproteinase genetic modifiers of disease severity in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation type 1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Mar; 92:100-9. PMID: 26795600.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Kim HK, Andreazza AC, Elmi N, Chen W, Young LT. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3 (NLRP3) in the post-mortem frontal cortex from patients with bipolar disorder: A potential mediator between mitochondria and immune-activation. J Psychiatr Res. 2016 Jan; 72:43-50. PMID: 26540403.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Hu Y, Kim H, Blackwell CM, Slingluff CL. Long-term outcomes of helper peptide vaccination for metastatic melanoma. Ann Surg. 2015 Sep; 262(3):456-64; discussion 462-4. PMID: 26258314; PMCID: PMC4756583.
      7. Whitlock EL, Kim H, Auerbach AD. Harms associated with single unit perioperative transfusion: retrospective population based analysis. BMJ. 2015; 350:h3037. PMID: 26070979; PMCID: PMC4463965.
      8. Lawton MT, Rutledge WC, Kim H, Stapf C, Whitehead KJ, Li DY, Krings T, terBrugge K, Kondziolka D, Morgan MK, Moon K, Spetzler RF. Brain arteriovenous malformations. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015; 1:15008. PMID: 27188382.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Abla AA, Nelson J, Kim H, Hess CP, Tihan T, Lawton MT. Silent arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage and the recognition of "unruptured" arteriovenous malformation patients who benefit from surgical intervention. Neurosurgery. 2015 May; 76(5):592-600; discussion 600. PMID: 25714514; PMCID: PMC4425306 [Available on 05/01/16].
      10. Choquet H, Pawlikowska L, Lawton MT, Kim H. Genetics of cerebral cavernous malformations: current status and future prospects. J Neurosurg Sci. 2015 Sep; 59(3):211-20. PMID: 25900426; PMCID: PMC4461471 [Available on 09/01/16].
      11. Davies JM, Kim H, Lawton MT. Surgical treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg Sci. 2015 Sep; 59(3):255-70. PMID: 25881653.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Kim H, Nelson J, Krings T, terBrugge KG, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Young WL, Faughnan ME. Hemorrhage rates from brain arteriovenous malformation in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Stroke. 2015 May; 46(5):1362-4. PMID: 25858236; PMCID: PMC4415515 [Available on 05/01/16].
      13. Pawlikowska L, Nelson J, Guo DE, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Young WL, Kim H, Faughnan ME. The ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G polymorphism is associated with organ vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients with ENG mutations, but not in patients with ACVRL1 mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Jun; 167(6):1262-7. PMID: 25847705; PMCID: PMC4449292 [Available on 06/01/16].
      14. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Kim AS, Nelson J, Kim H, Amans MR, Settecase F, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Lesion location, stability, and pretreatment management: factors affecting outcomes of endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 May; 8(5):466-70. PMID: 25795438.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Potts MB, Lau D, Abla AA, Kim H, Young WL, Lawton MT. Current surgical results with low-grade brain arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2015 Apr; 122(4):912-20. PMID: 25658789; PMCID: PMC4422639 [Available on 04/01/16].
      16. Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Nelson J, Guo DE, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Kim H, Hetts SW. Association between Venous Angioarchitectural Features of Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Intracranial Hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 May; 36(5):949-52. PMID: 25634722; PMCID: PMC4433780 [Available on 05/01/16].
      17. Krings T, Kim H, Power S, Nelson J, Faughnan ME, Young WL, terBrugge KG. Neurovascular manifestations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: imaging features and genotype-phenotype correlations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 May; 36(5):863-70. PMID: 25572952; PMCID: PMC4433843 [Available on 05/01/16].
      18. Golden MJ, Morrison LA, Kim H, Hart BL. Increased number of white matter lesions in patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 May; 36(5):899-903. PMID: 25556204; PMCID: PMC4433814 [Available on 05/01/16].
      19. Han SJ, Englot DJ, Kim H, Lawton MT. Brainstem arteriovenous malformations: anatomical subtypes, assessment of "occlusion in situ" technique, and microsurgical results. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jan; 122(1):107-17. PMID: 25343188.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Kim H, Abla AA, Nelson J, McCulloch CE, Bervini D, Morgan MK, Stapleton C, Walcott BP, Ogilvy CS, Spetzler RF, Lawton MT. Validation of the supplemented Spetzler-Martin grading system for brain arteriovenous malformations in a multicenter cohort of 1009 surgical patients. Neurosurgery. 2015 Jan; 76(1):25-31; discussion 31-2; quiz 32-3. PMID: 25251197; PMCID: PMC4270816 [Available on 01/01/16].
      21. Latino GA, Kim H, Nelson J, Pawlikowska L, Young W, Faughnan ME. Severity score for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014; 9:188. PMID: 25928712; PMCID: PMC4302697.
      22. Mohr JP, Hartmann A, Kim H, Pile-Spellman J, Stapf C. Viewpoints on the ARUBA trial. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Apr; 36(4):615-7. PMID: 25542877.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Choquet H, Pawlikowska L, Nelson J, McCulloch CE, Akers A, Baca B, Khan Y, Hart B, Morrison L, Kim H. Polymorphisms in inflammatory and immune response genes associated with cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 severity. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 38(6):433-40. PMID: 25472749; PMCID: PMC4297571 [Available on 12/03/15].
      24. Abla AA, Rutledge WC, Seymour ZA, Guo D, Kim H, Gupta N, Sneed PK, Barani IJ, Larson D, McDermott MW, Lawton MT. A treatment paradigm for high-grade brain arteriovenous malformations: volume-staged radiosurgical downgrading followed by microsurgical resection. J Neurosurg. 2015 Feb; 122(2):419-32. PMID: 25423274.
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      25. Rutledge WC, Abla AA, Nelson J, Halbach VV, Kim H, Lawton MT. Treatment and outcomes of ARUBA-eligible patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations at a single institution. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):E8. PMID: 25175446; PMCID: PMC4420142.
      26. Abla AA, Nelson J, Rutledge WC, Young WL, Kim H, Lawton MT. The natural history of AVM hemorrhage in the posterior fossa: comparison of hematoma volumes and neurological outcomes in patients with ruptured infra- and supratentorial AVMs. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):E6. PMID: 25175444; PMCID: PMC4425310.
      27. Kremer PH, Koeleman BP, Pawlikowska L, Weinsheimer S, Bendjilali N, Sidney S, Zaroff JG, Rinkel GJ, van den Berg LH, Ruigrok YM, de Kort GA, Veldink JH, Kim H, Klijn CJ. Evaluation of genetic risk loci for intracranial aneurysms in sporadic arteriovenous malformations of the brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 May; 86(5):524-9. PMID: 25053769; PMCID: PMC4302044 [Available on 05/01/16].
      28. Kim H, Al-Shahi Salman R, McCulloch CE, Stapf C, Young WL. Untreated brain arteriovenous malformation: patient-level meta-analysis of hemorrhage predictors. Neurology. 2014 Aug 12; 83(7):590-7. PMID: 25015366; PMCID: PMC4141996.
      29. Rutledge WC, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Kim H. Hemorrhage rates and risk factors in the natural history course of brain arteriovenous malformations. Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Oct; 5(5):538-42. PMID: 24930128; PMCID: PMC4139097.
      30. Shen F, Degos V, Chu PL, Han Z, Westbroek EM, Choi EJ, Marchuk D, Kim H, Lawton MT, Maze M, Young WL, Su H. Endoglin deficiency impairs stroke recovery. Stroke. 2014 Jul; 45(7):2101-6. PMID: 24876084; PMCID: PMC4118747.
      31. Bendjilali N, Nelson J, Weinsheimer S, Sidney S, Zaroff JG, Hetts SW, Segal M, Pawlikowska L, McCulloch CE, Young WL, Kim H. Common variants on 9p21.3 are associated with brain arteriovenous malformations with accompanying arterial aneurysms. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014 Nov; 85(11):1280-3. PMID: 24777168; PMCID: PMC4201968.
      32. Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Nelson J, Gupta N, Fullerton H, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Moftakhar P, McSwain H, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Kim H. Influence of patient age on angioarchitecture of brain arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):1376-80. PMID: 24627452; PMCID: PMC4102659.
      33. Guo Y, Tihan T, Kim H, Hess C, Lawton MT, Young WL, Zhao Y, Su H. Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2014; 1(3):147-152. PMID: 25568888.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Choquet H, Nelson J, Pawlikowska L, McCulloch CE, Akers A, Baca B, Khan Y, Hart B, Morrison L, Kim H. Association of cardiovascular risk factors with disease severity in cerebral cavernous malformation type 1 subjects with the common Hispanic mutation. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 37(1):57-63. PMID: 24401931; PMCID: PMC3995158.
      35. Bendjilali N, Kim H, Weinsheimer S, Guo DE, Kwok PY, Zaroff JG, Sidney S, Lawton MT, McCulloch CE, Koeleman BP, Klijn CJ, Young WL, Pawlikowska L. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e71434. PMID: 24098321; PMCID: PMC3789669.
      36. Akers AL, Ball KL, Clancy M, Comi AM, Faughnan ME, Gopal-Srivastava R, Jacobs TP, Kim H, Krischer J, Marchuk DA, McCulloch CE, Morrison L, Moses M, Moy CS, Pawlikowska L, Young WL. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions. J Rare Disord. 2013 Apr 1; 1(1):5. PMID: 25221778.
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      37. Zaroff JG, Leong J, Kim H, Young WL, Cullen SP, Rao VA, Sorel M, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S. Cardiovascular predictors of long-term outcomes after non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2012 Dec; 17(3):374-81. PMID: 21769457.
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      38. Rodríguez-Hernández A, Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Young WL, Lawton MT. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations: anatomic subtypes, surgical results, and increased predictive accuracy of the supplementary grading system. Neurosurgery. 2012 Dec; 71(6):1111-24. PMID: 22986595; PMCID: PMC3923506.
      39. Boshuisen K, Brundel M, de Kovel CG, Letteboer TG, Rinkel GJ, Westermann CJ, Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Koeleman BP, Klijn CJ. Polymorphisms in ACVRL1 and endoglin genes are not associated with sporadic and HHT-related brain AVMs in Dutch patients. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Jun; 4(3):375-8. PMID: 24323303; PMCID: PMC4038301.
      40. Khush KK, Pawlikowska L, Menza RL, Goldstein BA, Hayden V, Nguyen J, Kim H, Poon A, Sapru A, Matthay MA, Kwok PY, Young WL, Baxter-Lowe LA, Zaroff JG. Beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and cardiac graft function in potential organ donors. Am J Transplant. 2012 Dec; 12(12):3377-86. PMID: 22994654; PMCID: PMC3513582.
      41. Nishida T, Faughnan ME, Krings T, Chakinala M, Gossage JR, Young WL, Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Henderson KJ, Schrum SD, James M, Quinnine N, Bharatha A, Terbrugge KG, White RI. Brain arteriovenous malformations associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: gene-phenotype correlations. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Nov; 158A(11):2829-34. PMID: 22991266; PMCID: PMC3610331.
      42. Weinsheimer S, Brettman AD, Pawlikowska L, Wu DC, Mancuso MR, Kuhnert F, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Zaroff JG, McCulloch CE, Young WL, Kuo C, Kim H. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 124 (GPR124) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation. Transl Stroke Res. 2012 Dec; 3(4):418-27. PMID: 23329986; PMCID: PMC3544200.
      43. Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Westbroek EM, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Young WL. Evaluating performance of the spetzler-martin supplemented model in selecting patients with brain arteriovenous malformation for surgery. Stroke. 2012 Sep; 43(9):2497-9. PMID: 22821608; PMCID: PMC3431204.
      44. Kahle MP, Lee B, Pourmohamad T, Cunningham A, Su H, Kim H, Chen Y, McCulloch CE, Barbaro NM, Lawton MT, Young WL, Bix GJ. Perlecan domain V is upregulated in human brain arteriovenous malformation and could mediate the vascular endothelial growth factor effect in lesional tissue. Neuroreport. 2012 Jul 11; 23(10):627-30. PMID: 22643235; PMCID: PMC3535489.
      45. Westbroek EM, Pawlikowska L, Lawton MT, McCulloch CE, Young WL, Kim H. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism predicts worse functional outcome after surgery in patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation. Stroke. 2012 Aug; 43(8):2255-7. PMID: 22773554; PMCID: PMC3431194.
      46. Sapru A, Zaroff JG, Pawlikowska L, Liu KD, Khush KK, Baxter-Lowe LA, Hayden V, Menza RL, Convery M, Lo V, Poon A, Kim H, Young WL, Kukreja J, Matthay MA. The 4G/4G genotype of the PAI-1 (serpine-1) 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with decreased lung allograft utilization. Am J Transplant. 2012 Jul; 12(7):1848-54. PMID: 22390401; PMCID: PMC4018219.
      47. Degos V, Apfel CC, Sanchez P, Colonne C, Renuit I, Clarençon F, Nouet A, Boch AL, Pourmohamad T, Kim H, Gourraud PA, Young WL, Puybasset L. An admission bioclinical score to predict 1-year outcomes in patients undergoing aneurysm coiling. Stroke. 2012 May; 43(5):1253-9. PMID: 22363051.
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      48. Guo Y, Saunders T, Su H, Kim H, Akkoc D, Saloner DA, Hetts SW, Hess C, Lawton MT, Bollen AW, Pourmohamad T, McCulloch CE, Tihan T, Young WL. Silent intralesional microhemorrhage as a risk factor for brain arteriovenous malformation rupture. Stroke. 2012 May; 43(5):1240-6. PMID: 22308253; PMCID: PMC3335931.
      49. Davies JM, Kim H, Young WL, Lawton MT. Classification schemes for arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Jan; 23(1):43-53. PMID: 22107857.
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      50. Weinsheimer SM, Xu H, Achrol AS, Stamova B, McCulloch CE, Pawlikowska L, Tian Y, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Steinberg GK, Chang SD, Jickling G, Ander BP, Kim H, Sharp FR, Young WL. Gene expression profiling of blood in brain arteriovenous malformation patients. Transl Stroke Res. 2011 Dec 1; 2(4):575-87. PMID: 22184505; PMCID: PMC3241209.
      51. Bharatha A, Faughnan ME, Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Krings T, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pawlikowska L, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Dowd CF, Young WL, Terbrugge KG. Brain arteriovenous malformation multiplicity predicts the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: quantitative assessment. Stroke. 2012 Jan; 43(1):72-8. PMID: 22034007; PMCID: PMC3727386.
      52. Walker EJ, Su H, Shen F, Choi EJ, Oh SP, Chen G, Lawton MT, Kim H, Chen Y, Chen W, Young WL. Arteriovenous malformation in the adult mouse brain resembling the human disease. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jun; 69(6):954-62. PMID: 21437931; PMCID: PMC3117949.
      53. Mikhak B, Weinsheimer S, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Kwok PY, Lawton MT, Chen Y, Zaroff JG, Sidney S, McCulloch CE, Young WL, Kim H. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) gene polymorphisms and risk of brain arteriovenous malformations. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011; 31(4):338-45. PMID: 21212665; PMCID: PMC3030504.
      54. Kim H, Su H, Weinsheimer S, Pawlikowska L, Young WL. Brain arteriovenous malformation pathogenesis: a response-to-injury paradigm. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011; 111:83-92. PMID: 21725736; PMCID: PMC3187860.
      55. Hao Q, Zhu Y, Su H, Shen F, Yang GY, Kim H, Young WL. VEGF Induces More Severe Cerebrovascular Dysplasia in Endoglin than in Alk1 Mice. Transl Stroke Res. 2010 Sep 1; 1(3):197-201. PMID: 20640035.
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      56. Kim H, McCulloch CE, Johnston SC, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Young WL. Comparison of 2 approaches for determining the natural history risk of brain arteriovenous malformation rupture. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun 15; 171(12):1317-22. PMID: 20472570; PMCID: PMC2915493.
      57. Lawton MT, Kim H, McCulloch CE, Mikhak B, Young WL. A supplementary grading scale for selecting patients with brain arteriovenous malformations for surgery. Neurosurgery. 2010 Apr; 66(4):702-13; discussion 713. PMID: 20190666; PMCID: PMC2847513.
      58. Su H, Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Kitamura H, Shen F, Cambier S, Markovics J, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Bollen AW, Kwok PY, Reichardt L, Young WL, Yang GY, Nishimura SL. Reduced expression of integrin alphavbeta8 is associated with brain arteriovenous malformation pathogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2010 Feb; 176(2):1018-27. PMID: 20019187; PMCID: PMC2808104.
      59. Gabriel RA, Kim H, Sidney S, McCulloch CE, Singh V, Johnston SC, Ko NU, Achrol AS, Zaroff JG, Young WL. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population. Stroke. 2010 Jan; 41(1):21-6. PMID: 19926839; PMCID: PMC2847493.
      60. Leblanc GG, Golanov E, Awad IA, Young WL. Biology of vascular malformations of the brain. Stroke. 2009 Dec; 40(12):e694-702. PMID: 19834013; PMCID: PMC2810509.
      61. Weinsheimer S, Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Chen Y, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Kwok PY, McCulloch CE, Young WL. EPHB4 gene polymorphisms and risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009 Oct; 2(5):476-82. PMID: 20031623; PMCID: PMC2939745.
      62. Sorani MD, Lee M, Kim H, Meeker M, Manley GT. Race\ethnicity and outcome after traumatic brain injury at a single, diverse center. J Trauma. 2009 Jul; 67(1):75-80. PMID: 19590312.
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      63. Chen Y, Hao Q, Kim H, Su H, Letarte M, Karumanchi SA, Lawton MT, Barbaro NM, Yang GY, Young WL. Soluble endoglin modulates aberrant cerebral vascular remodeling. Ann Neurol. 2009 Jul; 66(1):19-27. PMID: 19670444; PMCID: PMC2773229.
      64. Sanchez-Mejia RO, McDermott MW, Tan J, Kim H, Young WL, Lawton MT. Radiosurgery facilitates resection of brain arteriovenous malformations and reduces surgical morbidity. Neurosurgery. 2009 Feb; 64(2):231-8; discussion 238-40. PMID: 19057424; PMCID: PMC2893586.
      65. Kim H, Hysi PG, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Burchard EG, Zaroff JG, Sidney S, Ko NU, Achrol AS, Lawton MT, McCulloch CE, Kwok PY, Young WL. Common variants in interleukin-1-Beta gene are associated with intracranial hemorrhage and susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformation. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 27(2):176-82. PMID: 19092239; PMCID: PMC2649796.
      66. Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Chen Y, Su H, Yang GY, Young WL. Brain arteriovenous malformation biology relevant to hemorrhage and implication for therapeutic development. Stroke. 2009 Mar; 40(3 Suppl):S95-7. PMID: 19064791; PMCID: PMC2677752.
      67. Kim H, Hysi PG, Pawlikowska L, Choudhry S, González Burchard E, Kwok PY, Sidney S, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Population stratification in a case-control study of brain arteriovenous malformation in Latinos. Neuroepidemiology. 2008; 31(4):224-8. PMID: 18841030; PMCID: PMC2588487.
      68. Edwards KL, Hutter CM, Wan JY, Kim H, Monks SA. Genome-wide linkage scan for the metabolic syndrome: the GENNID study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul; 16(7):1596-601. PMID: 18421265.
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      69. Ko NU, Rajendran P, Kim H, Rutkowski M, Pawlikowska L, Kwok PY, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Smith WS, Zaroff JG, Young WL. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism (-786T->C) and increased risk of angiographic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2008 Apr; 39(4):1103-8. PMID: 18309169; PMCID: PMC2650384.
      70. Frenzel T, Lee CZ, Kim H, Quinnine NJ, Hashimoto T, Lawton MT, Guglielmo BJ, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Feasibility of minocycline and doxycycline use as potential vasculostatic therapy for brain vascular malformations: pilot study of adverse events and tolerance. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008; 25(1-2):157-63. PMID: 18212521; PMCID: PMC2605012.
      71. Kim H, Marchuk DA, Pawlikowska L, Chen Y, Su H, Yang GY, Young WL. Genetic considerations relevant to intracranial hemorrhage and brain arteriovenous malformations. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008; 105:199-206. PMID: 19066109; PMCID: PMC2640934.
      72. Achrol AS, Kim H, Pawlikowska L, Trudy Poon KY, McCulloch CE, Ko NU, Johnston SC, McDermott MW, Zaroff JG, Lawton MT, Kwok PY, Young WL. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-238G>A and apolipoprotein E2 polymorphisms with intracranial hemorrhage after brain arteriovenous malformation treatment. Neurosurgery. 2007 Oct; 61(4):731-9; discussion 740. PMID: 17986934.
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      73. Kim H, Sidney S, McCulloch CE, Poon KY, Singh V, Johnston SC, Ko NU, Achrol AS, Lawton MT, Higashida RT, Young WL. Racial/Ethnic differences in longitudinal risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain arteriovenous malformation patients. Stroke. 2007 Sep; 38(9):2430-7. PMID: 17673729.
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      74. Young WL, Kwok PY, Pawlikowska L, Lawton MT, Kim H, Hysi PG, Marchuk DA. Arteriovenous malformation. J Neurosurg. 2007 Apr; 106(4):731-2; author reply 732-3. PMID: 17432733.
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      75. Li L, Cao D, Kim H, Lester R, Fukuchi K. Simvastatin enhances learning and memory independent of amyloid load in mice. Ann Neurol. 2006 Dec; 60(6):729-39. PMID: 17192930.
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      76. Kim H, Hutter CM, Monks SA, Edwards KL. Comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in detecting quantitative trait loci for alcoholism: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. BMC Genet. 2005; 6 Suppl 1:S5. PMID: 16451661; PMCID: PMC1866734.
      77. Dreisbach AW, Japa S, Sigel A, Parenti MB, Hess AE, Srinouanprachanh SL, Rettie AE, Kim H, Farin FM, Hamm LL, Lertora JJ. The Prevalence of CYP2C8, 2C9, 2J2, and soluble epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms in African Americans with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2005 Oct; 18(10):1276-81. PMID: 16202848.
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      78. Kim H, Friedlander Y, Longstreth WT, Edwards KL, Schwartz SM, Siscovick DS. Family history as a risk factor for stroke in young women. Am J Prev Med. 2004 Dec; 27(5):391-6. PMID: 15556739.
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      79. Goode EL, Badzioch MD, Kim H, Gagnon F, Rozek LS, Edwards KL, Jarvik GP. Multiple genome-wide analyses of smoking behavior in the Framingham Heart Study. BMC Genet. 2003; 4 Suppl 1:S102. PMID: 14975170; PMCID: PMC1866440.
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