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    Michael German, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentDiabetes Center
    Address35 Medical Center way
    San Fancisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-9262

       Biography 
       Awards and Honors
      Western Regional Islet Study Group2013Gerold Grodsky Award
      University of Chicago2011Donald F. Steiner Award for Outstanding Achievement in Diabetes Research
      University of Minnesota Medical School2010Arnold Lazarow Memorial Lecture
      Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard University Medical School2009Alexander Marble Lectureship
      University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston2009Pfizer Visiting Professorship
      Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2008David Rumbough Award for Scientific Excellence
      Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2007Scholars Award
      UCSF2006Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators Excellence in Teaching Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. German is a Professor in the Department of Medicine at UCSF, Clinical Director of the UCSF Diabetes Center, Director of the UCSF NIH Diabetes Research Center (DRC) and the UCSF Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Fellowship Training Program, and a Principle Investigator in the Hormone Research Institute and the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. He cares for patients at the UCSF Diabetes Clinic and hospital wards, teaches medical students and housestaff, and lectures at the UCSF Diabetes Center’s patient self-management training courses, while maintaining a basic research laboratory investigating diabetes. The central focus of Dr.German’s research program is the pancreatic beta-cells. His group studies the mechanisms that underlie beta-cell formation and function, where these mechanisms break down in diabetes, and the translation of our knowledge of the beta-cell into novel strategies for curing diabetes.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Miyatsuka T, Matsuoka TA, Sasaki S, Kubo F, Shimomura I, Watada H, German MS, Hara M. Chronological analysis with Fluorescent Timer reveals unique features of newly generated ß cells. Diabetes. 2014 May 16.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Baeyens L, Lemper M, Leuckx G, De Groef S, Bonfanti P, Stangé G, Shemer R, Nord C, Scheel DW, Pan FC, Ahlgren U, Gu G, Stoffers DA, Dor Y, Ferrer J, Gradwohl G, Wright CV, Van de Casteele M, German MS, Bouwens L, Heimberg H. Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice. Nat Biotechnol. 2014 Jan; 32(1):76-83.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ohara-Imaizumi M, Kim H, Yoshida M, Fujiwara T, Aoyagi K, Toyofuku Y, Nakamichi Y, Nishiwaki C, Okamura T, Uchida T, Fujitani Y, Akagawa K, Kakei M, Watada H, German MS, Nagamatsu S. Serotonin regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ß cells during pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 26; 110(48):19420-5.
        View in: PubMed
      4. German MS. Anonymous sources: where do adult ß cells come from? J Clin Invest. 2013 May 1; 123(5):1936-8.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Ku GM, Kim H, Vaughn IW, Hangauer MJ, Myung Oh C, German MS, McManus MT. Research resource: RNA-Seq reveals unique features of the pancreatic ß-cell transcriptome. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Oct; 26(10):1783-92.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Lazo de la Vega-Monroy ML, Larrieta E, German MS, Baez-Saldana A, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effects of biotin supplementation in the diet on insulin secretion, islet gene expression, glucose homeostasis and beta-cell proportion. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Jan; 24(1):169-77.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Andersson O, Adams BA, Yoo D, Ellis GC, Gut P, Anderson RM, German MS, Stainier DY. Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic ß cells in vivo. Cell Metab. 2012 Jun 6; 15(6):885-94.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Ku GM, Pappalardo Z, Luo CC, German MS, McManus MT. An siRNA screen in pancreatic beta cells reveals a role for Gpr27 in insulin production. PLoS Genet. 2012 Jan; 8(1):e1002449.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Ohta Y, Kosaka Y, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Smith SB, Honig G, Kim H, Gasa RM, Neubauer N, Liou A, Tecott LH, Deneris ES, German MS. Convergence of the insulin and serotonin programs in the pancreatic ß-cell. Diabetes. 2011 Dec; 60(12):3208-16.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Yao LJ, McCormick JA, Wang J, Yang KY, Kidwai A, Colussi GL, Boini KM, Birnbaum MJ, Lang F, German MS, Pearce D. Novel role for SGK3 in glucose homeostasis revealed in SGK3/Akt2 double-null mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Dec; 25(12):2106-18.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Kwak SH, Park BL, Kim H, German MS, Go MJ, Jung HS, Koo BK, Cho YM, Choi SH, Cho YS, Shin HD, Jang HC, Park KS. Association of variations in TPH1 and HTR2B with gestational weight gain and measures of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jan; 20(1):233-8.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Macarthur CC, Xue H, Van Hoof D, Lieu PT, Dudas M, Fontes A, Swistowski A, Touboul T, Seerke R, Laurent LC, Loring JF, German MS, Zeng X, Rao MS, Lakshmipathy U, Chesnut JD, Liu Y. Chromatin insulator elements block transgene silencing in engineered human embryonic stem cell lines at a defined chromosome 13 locus. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Jan 20; 21(2):191-205.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Larrieta E, Vega-Monroy ML, Vital P, Aguilera A, German MS, Hafidi ME, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effects of biotin deficiency on pancreatic islet morphology, insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr; 23(4):392-9.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Van Hoof D, Mendelsohn AD, Seerke R, Desai TA, German MS. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into pancreatic endoderm in patterned size-controlled clusters. Stem Cell Res. 2011 May; 6(3):276-85.
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      15. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German MS. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 4; 108(1):185-90.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Shimajiri Y, Kosaka Y, Scheel DW, Lynn FC, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Zhao S, German MS. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes. Dis Model Mech. 2011 Mar; 4(2):268-76.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Honig G, Liou A, Berger M, German MS, Tecott LH. Precise pattern of recombination in serotonergic and hypothalamic neurons in a Pdx1-cre transgenic mouse line. J Biomed Sci. 2010; 17:82.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Kalousova A, Mavropoulos A, Adams BA, Nekrep N, Li Z, Krauss S, Stainier DY, German MS. Dachshund homologues play a conserved role in islet cell development. Dev Biol. 2010 Dec 15; 348(2):143-52.
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      19. Kim H, Toyofuku Y, Lynn FC, Chak E, Uchida T, Mizukami H, Fujitani Y, Kawamori R, Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Yang K, Honig G, van der Hart M, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Yagihashi S, Tecott LH, Watada H, German MS. Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy. Nat Med. 2010 Jul; 16(7):804-8.
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      20. Wang YC, Zuraek MB, Kosaka Y, Ota Y, German MS, Deneris ES, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. The ETS oncogene family transcription factor FEV identifies serotonin-producing cells in normal and neoplastic small intestine. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Mar; 17(1):283-91.
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      21. Smith SB, Qu HQ, Taleb N, Kishimoto NY, Scheel DW, Lu Y, Patch AM, Grabs R, Wang J, Lynn FC, Miyatsuka T, Mitchell J, Seerke R, Désir J, Vanden Eijnden S, Abramowicz M, Kacet N, Weill J, Renard ME, Gentile M, Hansen I, Dewar K, Hattersley AT, Wang R, Wilson ME, Johnson JD, Polychronakos C, German MS. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010 Feb 11; 463(7282):775-80.
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      22. Halban PA, German MS, Kahn SE, Weir GC. Current status of islet cell replacement and regeneration therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar; 95(3):1034-43.
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      23. Van Hoof D, D'Amour KA, German MS. Derivation of insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2009 Sep-Nov; 3(2-3):73-87.
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      24. Miyatsuka T, Li Z, German MS. Chronology of islet differentiation revealed by temporal cell labeling. Diabetes. 2009 Aug; 58(8):1863-8.
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      25. Baeyens L, Bonné S, Bos T, Rooman I, Peleman C, Lahoutte T, German M, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. Notch signaling as gatekeeper of rat acinar-to-beta-cell conversion in vitro. Gastroenterology. 2009 May; 136(5):1750-60.e13.
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      26. Cai J, Donaldson A, Yang M, German MS, Enikolopov G, Iacovitti L. The role of Lmx1a in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and after transplantation into a Parkinson's disease model. Stem Cells. 2009 Jan; 27(1):220-9.
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      27. Wang YC, Gallego-Arteche E, Iezza G, Yuan X, Matli MR, Choo SP, Zuraek MB, Gogia R, Lynn FC, German MS, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. Homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 functions in immature cells to control enteroendocrine differentiation and is expressed in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Mar; 16(1):267-79.
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      28. German MS. New beta-cells from old acini. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 26(10):1092-3.
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      29. Reid JG, Nagaraja AK, Lynn FC, Drabek RB, Muzny DM, Shaw CA, Weiss MK, Naghavi AO, Khan M, Zhu H, Tennakoon J, Gunaratne GH, Corry DB, Miller J, McManus MT, German MS, Gibbs RA, Matzuk MM, Gunaratne PH. Mouse let-7 miRNA populations exhibit RNA editing that is constrained in the 5'-seed/ cleavage/anchor regions and stabilize predicted mmu-let-7a:mRNA duplexes. Genome Res. 2008 Oct; 18(10):1571-81.
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      30. Lynn FC, Sanchez L, Gomis R, German MS, Gasa R. Identification of the bHLH factor Math6 as a novel component of the embryonic pancreas transcriptional network. PLoS One. 2008; 3(6):e2430.
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      31. Nekrep N, Wang J, Miyatsuka T, German MS. Signals from the neural crest regulate beta-cell mass in the pancreas. Development. 2008 Jun; 135(12):2151-60.
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      32. Louet JF, Smith SB, Gautier JF, Molokhia M, Virally ML, Kevorkian JP, Guillausseau PJ, Vexiau P, Charpentier G, German MS, Vaisse C, Urbanek M, Mauvais-Jarvis F. Gender and neurogenin3 influence the pathogenesis of ketosis-prone diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Sep; 10(10):912-20.
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      33. Cano DA, Rulifson IC, Heiser PW, Swigart LB, Pelengaris S, German M, Evan GI, Bluestone JA, Hebrok M. Regulated beta-cell regeneration in the adult mouse pancreas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr; 57(4):958-66.
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      34. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Sanchez L, Yang KY, Lin CH, Gomis R, German MS. Induction of pancreatic islet cell differentiation by the neurogenin-neuroD cascade. Differentiation. 2008 Apr; 76(4):381-91.
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      35. Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus MT, Harfe BD, German MS. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007 Dec; 56(12):2938-45.
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      36. Lynn FC, Smith SB, Wilson ME, Yang KY, Nekrep N, German MS. Sox9 coordinates a transcriptional network in pancreatic progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19; 104(25):10500-5.
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      37. Hughes SA, Ozgur BM, German M, Taylor WR. Prolonged Jackson-Pratt drainage in the management of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Surg Neurol. 2006 Apr; 65(4):410-4, discussion 414-5.
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      38. Baeyens L, Bonné S, German MS, Ravassard P, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. Ngn3 expression during postnatal in vitro beta cell neogenesis induced by the JAK/STAT pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2006 Nov; 13(11):1892-9.
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      39. Kanno R, Ogihara T, Igarashi Y, Tanaka Y, Smith SB, Kojima I, German MS, Kawamori R, Watada H. Activin A-induced expression of PAX4 in AR42J-B13 cells involves the increase in transactivation of E47/E12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jan-Feb; 1759(1-2):44-50.
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      40. Khan A, Su C, German M, Storch GA, Clifford DB, Sibley LD. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from immunocompromised patients reveals high prevalence of type I strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Dec; 43(12):5881-7.
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      41. Wilson ME, Yang KY, Kalousova A, Lau J, Kosaka Y, Lynn FC, Wang J, Mrejen C, Episkopou V, Clevers HC, German MS. The HMG box transcription factor Sox4 contributes to the development of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 2005 Dec; 54(12):3402-9.
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      42. Lappin AK, German M. Feeding behavior modulation in the leopard lizard (Gambelia wislizenii): effects of noxious versus innocuous prey. Zoology (Jena). 2005; 108(4):287-95.
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      43. Schisler JC, Jensen PB, Taylor DG, Becker TC, Knop FK, Takekawa S, German M, Weir GC, Lu D, Mirmira RG, Newgard CB. The Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor suppresses glucagon expression and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islet beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 17; 102(20):7297-302.
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      44. Kawahira H, Scheel DW, Smith SB, German MS, Hebrok M. Hedgehog signaling regulates expansion of pancreatic epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2005 Apr 1; 280(1):111-21.
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      45. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Smith SB, Le May C, Leal SM, Gautier JF, Molokhia M, Riveline JP, Rajan AS, Kevorkian JP, Zhang S, Vexiau P, German MS, Vaisse C. PAX4 gene variations predispose to ketosis-prone diabetes. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Dec 15; 13(24):3151-9.
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      46. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Leachman N, Otten M, Barnes M, Wang J, Chakrabarti S, Mirmira R, German M. Proendocrine genes coordinate the pancreatic islet differentiation program in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7; 101(36):13245-50.
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      47. Khoo S, Gibson TB, Arnette D, Lawrence M, January B, McGlynn K, Vanderbilt CA, Griffen SC, German MS, Cobb MH. MAP kinases and their roles in pancreatic beta-cells. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004; 40(3 Suppl):191-200.
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      48. Liu R, Cai J, Hu X, Tan M, Qi Y, German M, Rubenstein J, Sander M, Qiu M. Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 2003 Dec; 130(25):6221-31.
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      49. Smith SB, Watada H, German MS. Neurogenin3 activates the islet differentiation program while repressing its own expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Jan; 18(1):142-9.
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      50. Maestro MA, Boj SF, Luco RF, Pierreux CE, Cabedo J, Servitja JM, German MS, Rousseau GG, Lemaigre FP, Ferrer J. Hnf6 and Tcf2 (MODY5) are linked in a gene network operating in a precursor cell domain of the embryonic pancreas. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Dec 15; 12(24):3307-14.
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      51. Gratton MO, Torban E, Jasmin SB, Theriault FM, German MS, Stifani S. Hes6 promotes cortical neurogenesis and inhibits Hes1 transcription repression activity by multiple mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Oct; 23(19):6922-35.
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      52. Hald J, Hjorth JP, German MS, Madsen OD, Serup P, Jensen J. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003 Aug 15; 260(2):426-37.
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      53. Sheu E, Rothman S, German M, Wang X, Finer M, McMahon BM. The Gene Pill and its therapeutic applications. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2003 Aug; 5(4):420-7.
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      54. Suzuki R, Tobe K, Terauchi Y, Komeda K, Kubota N, Eto K, Yamauchi T, Azuma K, Kaneto H, Taguchi T, Koga T, German MS, Watada H, Kawamori R, Wright CV, Kajimoto Y, Kimura S, Nagai R, Kadowaki T. Pdx1 expression in Irs2-deficient mouse beta-cells is regulated in a strain-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31; 278(44):43691-8.
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      55. Smith SB, Gasa R, Watada H, Wang J, Griffen SC, German MS. Neurogenin3 and hepatic nuclear factor 1 cooperate in activating pancreatic expression of Pax4. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 3; 278(40):38254-9.
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      56. Khoo S, Griffen SC, Xia Y, Baer RJ, German MS, Cobb MH. Regulation of insulin gene transcription by ERK1 and ERK2 in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 29; 278(35):32969-77.
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      57. Ogihara T, Watada H, Kanno R, Ikeda F, Nomiyama T, Tanaka Y, Nakao A, German MS, Kojima I, Kawamori R. p38 MAPK is involved in activin A- and hepatocyte growth factor-mediated expression of pro-endocrine gene neurogenin 3 in AR42J-B13 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13; 278(24):21693-700.
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      58. Watada H, Scheel DW, Leung J, German MS. Distinct gene expression programs function in progenitor and mature islet cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 9; 278(19):17130-40.
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      59. Wilson ME, Scheel D, German MS. Gene expression cascades in pancreatic development. Mech Dev. 2003 Jan; 120(1):65-80.
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      60. Lee J, Wu Y, Qi Y, Xue H, Liu Y, Scheel D, German M, Qiu M, Guillemot F, Rao M, Gradwohl G. Neurogenin3 participates in gliogenesis in the developing vertebrate spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2003 Jan 1; 253(1):84-98.
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      61. Wilson ME, Kalamaras JA, German MS. Expression pattern of IAPP and prohormone convertase 1/3 reveals a distinctive set of endocrine cells in the embryonic pancreas. Mech Dev. 2002 Jul; 115(1-2):171-6.
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      62. Thameem F, Wolford JK, Wang J, German MS, Bogardus C, Prochazka M. Cloning, expression and genomic structure of human LMX1A, and variant screening in Pima Indians. Gene. 2002 May 15; 290(1-2):217-25.
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      63. Lee JC, Smith SB, Watada H, Lin J, Scheel D, Wang J, Mirmira RG, German MS. Regulation of the pancreatic pro-endocrine gene neurogenin3. Diabetes. 2001 May; 50(5):928-36.
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      64. Fernandez-Mejia C, Vega-Allende J, Rojas-Ochoa A, Rodriguez-Dorantes M, Romero-Navarro G, Matschinsky FM, Wang J, German MS. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate increases pancreatic glucokinase activity and gene expression. Endocrinology. 2001 Apr; 142(4):1448-52.
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      65. del Bosque-Plata L, Lin J, Horikawa Y, Schwarz PE, Cox NJ, Iwasaki N, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, German MS, Bell GI. Mutations in the coding region of the neurogenin 3 gene (NEUROG3) are not a common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese subjects. Diabetes. 2001 Mar; 50(3):694-6.
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      66. Griffen SC, Wang J, German MS. A genetic defect in beta-cell gene expression segregates independently from the fa locus in the ZDF rat. Diabetes. 2001 Jan; 50(1):63-8.
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      67. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, Schwitzgebel V, Hayes-Jordan A, German M. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000 Dec; 127(24):5533-40.
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      68. Smith SB, Watada H, Scheel DW, Mrejen C, German MS. Autoregulation and maturity onset diabetes of the young transcription factors control the human PAX4 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 24; 275(47):36910-9.
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      69. Watada H, Mirmira RG, Leung J, German MS. Transcriptional and translational regulation of beta-cell differentiation factor Nkx6.1. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 3; 275(44):34224-30.
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      70. Horikawa Y, Horikawa Y, Cox NJ, Iwasaki N, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, Schwitzgebel V, German MS, Bell GI. beta-cell transcription factors and diabetes: no evidence for diabetes-associated mutations in the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neurogenic differentiation 4 (NEUROD4) in Japanese patients with MODY. Diabetes. 2000 Nov; 49(11):1955-7.
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      71. Sander M, Paydar S, Ericson J, Briscoe J, Berber E, German M, Jessell TM, Rubenstein JL. Ventral neural patterning by Nkx homeobox genes: Nkx6.1 controls somatic motor neuron and ventral interneuron fates. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 1; 14(17):2134-9.
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      72. Watada H, Mirmira RG, Kalamaras J, German MS. Intramolecular control of transcriptional activity by the NK2-specific domain in NK-2 homeodomain proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 15; 97(17):9443-8.
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      73. Ohneda K, Ee H, German M. Regulation of insulin gene transcription. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2000 Aug; 11(4):227-33.
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      74. Schwitzgebel VM, Scheel DW, Conners JR, Kalamaras J, Lee JE, Anderson DJ, Sussel L, Johnson JD, German MS. Expression of neurogenin3 reveals an islet cell precursor population in the pancreas. Development. 2000 Aug; 127(16):3533-42.
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      75. Mirmira RG, Watada H, German MS. Beta-cell differentiation factor Nkx6.1 contains distinct DNA binding interference and transcriptional repression domains. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 12; 275(19):14743-51.
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      76. Dreyer SD, Morello R, German MS, Zabel B, Winterpacht A, Lunstrum GP, Horton WA, Oberg KC, Lee B. LMX1B transactivation and expression in nail-patella syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2000 Apr 12; 9(7):1067-74.
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      77. Ohneda K, Mirmira RG, Wang J, Johnson JD, German MS. The homeodomain of PDX-1 mediates multiple protein-protein interactions in the formation of a transcriptional activation complex on the insulin promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Feb; 20(3):900-11.
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      78. Smith SB, Ee HC, Conners JR, German MS. Paired-homeodomain transcription factor PAX4 acts as a transcriptional repressor in early pancreatic development. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Dec; 19(12):8272-80.
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      79. Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, Matschinsky FM, Velazquez A, Wang J, Fernandez-Mejia C. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999 Oct; 140(10):4595-600.
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      80. Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, Matschinsky FM, Wang J, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effect of retinoic acid on glucokinase activity and gene expression and on insulin secretion in primary cultures of pancreatic islets. Endocrinology. 1999 Jul; 140(7):3091-6.
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      81. Sander M, Griffen SC, Huang J, German MS. A novel glucose-responsive element in the human insulin gene functions uniquely in primary cultured islets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11572-7.
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      82. Furuta H, Horikawa Y, Iwasaki N, Hara M, Sussel L, Le Beau MM, Davis EM, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, German MS, Bell GI. Beta-cell transcription factors and diabetes: mutations in the coding region of the BETA2/NeuroD1 (NEUROD1) and Nkx2.2 (NKX2B) genes are not associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese. Diabetes. 1998 Aug; 47(8):1356-8.
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      83. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL, German MS. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998 Jun; 125(12):2213-21.
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      84. Iannotti CA, Inoue H, Bernal E, Aoki M, Liu L, Donis-Keller H, German MS, Permutt MA. Identification of a human LMX1 (LMX1.1)-related gene, LMX1.2: tissue-specific expression and linkage mapping on chromosome 9. Genomics. 1997 Dec 15; 46(3):520-4.
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      85. Goldfine ID, German MS, Tseng HC, Wang J, Bolaffi JL, Chen JW, Olson DC, Rothman SS. The endocrine secretion of human insulin and growth hormone by exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract. Nat Biotechnol. 1997 Dec; 15(13):1378-82.
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      86. Johnson JD, Zhang W, Rudnick A, Rutter WJ, German MS. Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Jul; 17(7):3488-96.
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      87. Sander M, Neubüser A, Kalamaras J, Ee HC, Martin GR, German MS. Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development. Genes Dev. 1997 Jul 1; 11(13):1662-73.
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      88. Sander M, German MS. The beta cell transcription factors and development of the pancreas. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997 May; 75(5):327-40.
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      89. Wang J, Shen L, Najafi H, Kolberg J, Matschinsky FM, Urdea M, German M. Regulation of insulin preRNA splicing by glucose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29; 94(9):4360-5.
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      90. Inoue H, Rudnick A, German MS, Veile R, Donis-Keller H, Permutt MA. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human Nkx6.1 gene (NKX6A), a new pancreatic islet homeobox gene. Genomics. 1997 Mar 1; 40(2):367-70.
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      91. Odagiri H, Wang J, German MS. Function of the human insulin promoter in primary cultured islet cells. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 26; 271(4):1909-15.
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      92. Collins A, German MS, Jan YN, Jan LY, Zhao B. A strongly inwardly rectifying K+ channel that is sensitive to ATP. J Neurosci. 1996 Jan; 16(1):1-9.
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      93. German M, Ashcroft S, Docherty K, Edlund H, Edlund T, Goodison S, Imura H, Kennedy G, Madsen O, Melloul D, et al. The insulin gene promoter. A simplified nomenclature. Diabetes. 1995 Aug; 44(8):1002-4.
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      94. Stoffel M, Tokuyama Y, Trabb JB, German MS, Tsaar ML, Jan LY, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Cloning of rat KATP-2 channel and decreased expression in pancreatic islets of male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 26; 212(3):894-9.
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      95. Tsaur ML, Menzel S, Lai FP, Espinosa R, Concannon P, Spielman RS, Hanis CL, Cox NJ, Le Beau MM, German MS, et al. Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding a KATP channel-like protein expressed in insulin-secreting cells, localization of the human gene to chromosome band 21q22.1, and linkage studies with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1995 May; 44(5):592-6.
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      96. Kennedy GC, German MS, Rutter WJ. The minisatellite in the diabetes susceptibility locus IDDM2 regulates insulin transcription. Nat Genet. 1995 Mar; 9(3):293-8.
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      97. Rudnick A, Ling TY, Odagiri H, Rutter WJ, German MS. Pancreatic beta cells express a diverse set of homeobox genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 6; 91(25):12203-7.
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      98. German MS, Wang J, Fernald AA, Espinosa R, Le Beau MM, Bell GI. Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13. Genomics. 1994 Nov 15; 24(2):403-4.
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      99. German MS, Wang J. The insulin gene contains multiple transcriptional elements that respond to glucose. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun; 14(6):4067-75.
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      100. German MS. Glucose sensing in pancreatic islet beta cells: the key role of glucokinase and the glycolytic intermediates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 1; 90(5):1781-5.
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      101. German MS, Wang J, Chadwick RB, Rutter WJ. Synergistic activation of the insulin gene by a LIM-homeo domain protein and a basic helix-loop-helix protein: building a functional insulin minienhancer complex. Genes Dev. 1992 Nov; 6(11):2165-76.
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      102. German MS, Moss LG, Wang J, Rutter WJ. The insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide genes contain similar cell-specific promoter elements that bind identical beta-cell nuclear complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Apr; 12(4):1777-88.
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      103. German MS, Blanar MA, Nelson C, Moss LG, Rutter WJ. Two related helix-loop-helix proteins participate in separate cell-specific complexes that bind the insulin enhancer. Mol Endocrinol. 1991 Feb; 5(2):292-9.
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      104. German MS, Moss LG, Rutter WJ. Regulation of insulin gene expression by glucose and calcium in transfected primary islet cultures. J Biol Chem. 1990 Dec 25; 265(36):22063-6.
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      105. German MS, Karam JH. Strict metabolic control and progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy. Lancet. 1987 Apr 18; 1(8538):922.
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      106. German M, Syvanen M. Incompatibility between bacteriophage lambda and the sex factor F. Plasmid. 1982 Sep; 8(2):207-10.
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