Michael German, MD

Title(s)Professor, Diabetes Center
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address35 Medical Center Way, #1025
San Francisco CA 94143
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-3833-7680 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoEndocrinology Fellowship1989 School of Medicine
    University of ArizonaInternal Medicine Residency 1986School of Medicine
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolM.D.1983School of Medicine
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    European Association for the Study of Diabetes2016Albert Renold Prize
    University of California Los Angeles2016Josiah Brown Professorship
    Vanderbilt University2016Albert Weinstein Lectureship
    Rachmiel Levine-Arthur Riggs Diabetes Research Symposium2016Arthur Riggs Award
    Western Regional Islet Study Group2013Gerold Grodsky Award
    University of Chicago2011Donald F. Steiner Award for Outstanding Achievement in Diabetes Research
    University of Minnesota Medical School2010Arnold Lazarow Memorial Lecture
    Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard University Medical School2009Alexander Marble Lectureship
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston2009Pfizer Visiting Professorship
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2008David Rumbough Award for Scientific Excellence
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2007Scholars Award
    UCSF2006Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators Excellence in Teaching Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. German is a Professor in the Department of Medicine, Clinical Director of the UCSF Diabetes Center, Director of the UCSF NIH Diabetes Research Center (DRC) and Hillblom Islet Genesis Network, and Principle Investigator in the Hormone Research Institute and the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research. He cares for patients in the Diabetes Clinic and hospital wards, teaches medical students, graduate students and housestaff, and lectures at the Diabetes Center’s patient self-management courses. His group studies the formation, turnover and function of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas, how these processes break down in diabetes, hypoglycemia and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and the translation of this knowledge into novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Expanding beta-cell mass
    NIH U01DK089541Sep 15, 2010 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Role of microRNA in Pancreas Development
    NIH R01DK077874Apr 1, 2007 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Diabetes Research Center
    NIH P30DK063720Sep 1, 2002 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Control of Pancreatic Islet Development
    NIH U19DK061245Sep 30, 2001 - Jul 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01DK055340Sep 30, 1998 - Aug 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01DK048281Sep 1, 1996 - Aug 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R55DK048281Sep 30, 1995 - Aug 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH F32DK008359Sep 1, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH P01DK041822Aug 1, 1989 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism Training Grant
    NIH T32DK007418Jul 1, 1981 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Differentiation in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas
    NIH R56DK021344Dec 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Differentiation in the Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas
    NIH R01DK021344Sep 15, 1977 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. A genomic data archive from the Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes. Sci Data. 2023 05 26; 10(1):323. Perry DJ, Shapiro MR, Chamberlain SW, Kusmartseva I, Chamala S, Balzano-Nogueira L, Yang M, Brant JO, Brusko M, Williams MD, McGrail KM, McNichols J, Peters LD, Posgai AL, Kaddis JS, Mathews CE, Wasserfall CH, Webb-Robertson BM, Campbell-Thompson M, Schatz D, Evans-Molina C, Pugliese A, Concannon P, Anderson MS, German MS, Chamberlain CE, Atkinson MA, Brusko TM. PMID: 37237059; PMCID: PMC10219990.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. ABCC8-Related Monogenic Diabetes Presenting Like Type 1 Diabetes in an Adolescent. AACE Clin Case Rep. 2023 Jul-Aug; 9(4):101-103. Grier AE, McGill JB, Lord SM, Speake C, Greenbaum C, Chamberlain CE, German MS, Anderson MS, Hirsch IB. PMID: 37520758; PMCID: PMC10382606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    3. Diabetes With Multiple Autoimmune and Inflammatory Conditions Linked to an Activating SKAP2 Mutation. Diabetes Care. 2021 08; 44(8):1816-1825. Rutsch N, Chamberlain CE, Dixon W, Spector L, Letourneau-Freiberg LR, Lwin WW, Philipson LH, Zarbock A, Saintus K, Wang J, German MS, Anderson MS, Lowell CA. PMID: 34172489; PMCID: PMC8385470.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Identification of novel, clinically correlated autoantigens in the monogenic autoimmune syndrome APS1 by proteome-wide PhIP-Seq. Elife. 2020 05 15; 9. Vazquez SE, Ferré EM, Scheel DW, Sunshine S, Miao B, Mandel-Brehm C, Quandt Z, Chan AY, Cheng M, German M, Lionakis M, DeRisi JL, Anderson MS. PMID: 32410729; PMCID: PMC7228772.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    5. Lactation improves pancreatic β cell mass and function through serotonin production. Sci Transl Med. 2020 04 29; 12(541). Moon JH, Kim H, Kim H, Park J, Choi W, Choi W, Hong HJ, Ro HJ, Jun S, Choi SH, Banerjee RR, Shong M, Cho NH, Kim SK, German MS, Jang HC, Kim H. PMID: 32350130; PMCID: PMC8276761.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Null mutations of NEUROG3 are associated with delayed-onset diabetes mellitus. JCI Insight. 2020 01 16; 5(1). Solorzano-Vargas RS, Bjerknes M, Wang J, Wu SV, Garcia-Careaga MG, Pitukcheewanont P, Cheng H, German MS, Georgia S, Martín MG. PMID: 31805014; PMCID: PMC7030873.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    7. The Need for Precision Medicine to be Applied to Diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2020 11; 14(6):1122-1128. Klonoff DC, Florez JC, German M, Fleming A. PMID: 31903769; PMCID: PMC7645141.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Serotonin Regulates Adult β-Cell Mass by Stimulating Perinatal β-Cell Proliferation. Diabetes. 2020 02; 69(2):205-214. Moon JH, Kim YG, Kim K, Osonoi S, Wang S, Saunders DC, Wang J, Yang K, Kim H, Lee J, Jeong JS, Banerjee RR, Kim SK, Wu Y, Mizukami H, Powers AC, German MS, Kim H. PMID: 31806625; PMCID: PMC6971487.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Elastase 3B mutation links to familial pancreatitis with diabetes and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Invest. 2019 08 01; 129(11):4676-4681. Moore PC, Cortez JT, Chamberlain CE, Alba D, Berger AC, Quandt Z, Chan A, Cheng MH, Bautista JL, Peng J, German MS, Anderson MS, Oakes SA. PMID: 31369399; PMCID: PMC6819098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    10. A Patient-derived Xenograft Model of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Identifies Sapanisertib as a Possible New Treatment for Everolimus-resistant Tumors. Mol Cancer Ther. 2018 12; 17(12):2702-2709. Chamberlain CE, German MS, Yang K, Wang J, VanBrocklin H, Regan M, Shokat KM, Ducker GS, Kim GE, Hann B, Donner DB, Warren RS, Venook AP, Bergsland EK, Lee D, Wang Y, Nakakura EK. PMID: 30254185; PMCID: PMC6279485.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. A Genetic Interaction Map of Insulin Production Identifies Mfi as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Fission. Endocrinology. 2018 09 01; 159(9):3321-3330. Lee J, Pappalardo Z, Chopra DG, Hennings TG, Vaughn I, Lan C, Choe JJ, Ang K, Chen S, Arkin M, McManus MT, German MS, Ku GM. PMID: 30059978; PMCID: PMC6112596.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. (Re)generating Human Beta Cells: Status, Pitfalls, and Perspectives. Physiol Rev. 2018 07 01; 98(3):1143-1167. Baeyens L, Lemper M, Staels W, De Groef S, De Leu N, Heremans Y, German MS, Heimberg H. PMID: 29717931; PMCID: PMC6088144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Ectopic serotonin production in β-cell specific transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 01 08; 495(2):1986-1991. Kim H, Kim H, Kim K, German MS, Kim H. PMID: 29223399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. A new familial form of a late-onset, persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy caused by a novel mutation in KCNJ11. Channels (Austin). 2017 Nov 02; 11(6):636-647. Yang YY, Long RK, Ferrara CT, Gitelman SE, German MS, Yang SB. PMID: 29087246; PMCID: PMC5786184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Effects of Biotin Supplementation During the First Week Postweaning Increases Pancreatic Islet Area, Beta-Cell Proportion, Islets Number, and Beta-Cell Proliferation. J Med Food. 2018 Mar; 21(3):274-281. Tixi-Verdugo W, Contreras-Ramos J, Sicilia-Argumedo G, German MS, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 29068758; PMCID: PMC5865616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Human pancreatic neuro-insular network in health and fatty infiltration. Diabetologia. 2018 01; 61(1):168-181. Tang SC, Baeyens L, Shen CN, Peng SJ, Chien HJ, Scheel DW, Chamberlain CE, German MS. PMID: 28852792.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on glucagon production, secretion, and action. Nutrition. 2017 Nov - Dec; 43-44:47-53. Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy ML, Larrieta E, Tixi-Verdugo W, Ramírez-Mondragón R, Hernández-Araiza I, German MS, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 28935144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Phosphorylation of NEUROG3 Links Endocrine Differentiation to the Cell Cycle in Pancreatic Progenitors. Dev Cell. 2017 04 24; 41(2):129-142.e6. Krentz NAJ, van Hoof D, Li Z, Watanabe A, Tang M, Nian C, German MS, Lynn FC. PMID: 28441528; PMCID: PMC5517315.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. A Whole-Genome RNA Interference Screen Reveals a Role for Spry2 in Insulin Transcription and the Unfolded Protein Response. Diabetes. 2017 06; 66(6):1703-1712. Pappalardo Z, Gambhir Chopra D, Hennings TG, Richards H, Choe J, Yang K, Baeyens L, Ang K, Chen S, Arkin M, German MS, McManus MT, Ku GM. PMID: 28246293; PMCID: PMC5440024.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. β-Cell adaptation in pregnancy. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 09; 18 Suppl 1:63-70. Baeyens L, Hindi S, Sorenson RL, German MS. PMID: 27615133; PMCID: PMC5384851.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. A Path to Insulin Independence: "The End of the Beginning". Cell Stem Cell. 2016 Apr 07; 18(4):431-3. Stock PG, German MS. PMID: 27058933.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. Generation of a Conditional Allele of the Transcription Factor Atonal Homolog 8 (Atoh8). PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146273. Ejarque M, Mir-Coll J, Gomis R, German MS, Lynn FC, Gasa R. PMID: 26752640; PMCID: PMC4708992.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Activation of GLP-1 and gastrin signalling induces in vivo reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into beta cells in mice. Diabetologia. 2015 Nov; 58(11):2582-91. Sasaki S, Miyatsuka T, Matsuoka TA, Takahara M, Yamamoto Y, Yasuda T, Kaneto H, Fujitani Y, German MS, Akiyama H, Watada H, Shimomura I. PMID: 26290048.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Follicle dynamics and global organization in the intact mouse ovary. Dev Biol. 2015 Jul 01; 403(1):69-79. Faire M, Skillern A, Arora R, Nguyen DH, Wang J, Chamberlain C, German MS, Fung JC, Laird DJ. PMID: 25889274; PMCID: PMC4469539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Gαi/o-coupled receptor signaling restricts pancreatic β-cell expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 03; 112(9):2888-93. Berger M, Scheel DW, Macias H, Miyatsuka T, Kim H, Hoang P, Ku GM, Honig G, Liou A, Tang Y, Regard JB, Sharifnia P, Yu L, Wang J, Coughlin SR, Conklin BR, Deneris ES, Tecott LH, German MS. PMID: 25695968; PMCID: PMC4352814.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine cells to β-like cells. Cell Death Differ. 2015 Jul; 22(7):1117-30. Lemper M, Leuckx G, Heremans Y, German MS, Heimberg H, Bouwens L, Baeyens L. PMID: 25476775; PMCID: PMC4572860.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Functional role of serotonin in insulin secretion in a diet-induced insulin-resistant state. Endocrinology. 2015 Feb; 156(2):444-52. Kim K, Oh CM, Ohara-Imaizumi M, Park S, Namkung J, Yadav VK, Tamarina NA, Roe MW, Philipson LH, Karsenty G, Nagamatsu S, German MS, Kim H. PMID: 25426873; PMCID: PMC4298319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Use of copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid resorbable plates in repair of orbital floor fractures. Facial Plast Surg. 2014 Oct; 30(5):581-6. Lin J, German M, Wong B. PMID: 25397715.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Menin determines K-RAS proliferative outputs in endocrine cells. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep; 124(9):4093-101. Chamberlain CE, Scheel DW, McGlynn K, Kim H, Miyatsuka T, Wang J, Nguyen V, Zhao S, Mavropoulos A, Abraham AG, O'Neill E, Ku GM, Cobb MH, Martin GR, German MS. PMID: 25133424; PMCID: PMC4153699.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Allosteric inhibition of the IRE1α RNase preserves cell viability and function during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell. 2014 Jul 31; 158(3):534-48. Ghosh R, Wang L, Wang ES, Perera BG, Igbaria A, Morita S, Prado K, Thamsen M, Caswell D, Macias H, Weiberth KF, Gliedt MJ, Alavi MV, Hari SB, Mitra AK, Bhhatarai B, Schürer SC, Snapp EL, Gould DB, German MS, Backes BJ, Maly DJ, Oakes SA, Papa FR. PMID: 25018104; PMCID: PMC4244221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 240     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Chronological analysis with fluorescent timer reveals unique features of newly generated β-cells. Diabetes. 2014 Oct; 63(10):3388-93. Miyatsuka T, Matsuoka TA, Sasaki S, Kubo F, Shimomura I, Watada H, German MS, Hara M. PMID: 24834978; PMCID: PMC4392905.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Serotonin regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells during pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 26; 110(48):19420-5. Ohara-Imaizumi M, Kim H, Yoshida M, Fujiwara T, Aoyagi K, Toyofuku Y, Nakamichi Y, Nishiwaki C, Okamura T, Uchida T, Fujitani Y, Akagawa K, Kakei M, Watada H, German MS, Nagamatsu S. PMID: 24218571; PMCID: PMC3845121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Anonymous sources: where do adult β cells come from? J Clin Invest. 2013 May; 123(5):1936-8. German MS. PMID: 23619356; PMCID: PMC3635747.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Research resource: RNA-Seq reveals unique features of the pancreatic β-cell transcriptome. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Oct; 26(10):1783-92. Ku GM, Kim H, Vaughn IW, Hangauer MJ, Myung Oh C, German MS, McManus MT. PMID: 22915829; PMCID: PMC3458219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 69     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Effects of biotin supplementation in the diet on insulin secretion, islet gene expression, glucose homeostasis and beta-cell proportion. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Jan; 24(1):169-77. Lazo de la Vega-Monroy ML, Larrieta E, German MS, Baez-Saldana A, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 22841397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic β cells in vivo. Cell Metab. 2012 Jun 06; 15(6):885-94. Andersson O, Adams BA, Yoo D, Ellis GC, Gut P, Anderson RM, German MS, Stainier DY. PMID: 22608007; PMCID: PMC3372708.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 99     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. An siRNA screen in pancreatic beta cells reveals a role for Gpr27 in insulin production. PLoS Genet. 2012 Jan; 8(1):e1002449. Ku GM, Pappalardo Z, Luo CC, German MS, McManus MT. PMID: 22253604; PMCID: PMC3257298.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Convergence of the insulin and serotonin programs in the pancreatic β-cell. Diabetes. 2011 Dec; 60(12):3208-16. Ohta Y, Kosaka Y, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Smith SB, Honig G, Kim H, Gasa RM, Neubauer N, Liou A, Tecott LH, Deneris ES, German MS. PMID: 22013016; PMCID: PMC3219954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 72     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Novel role for SGK3 in glucose homeostasis revealed in SGK3/Akt2 double-null mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Dec; 25(12):2106-18. Yao LJ, McCormick JA, Wang J, Yang KY, Kidwai A, Colussi GL, Boini KM, Birnbaum MJ, Lang F, German MS, Pearce D. PMID: 21980074; PMCID: PMC3231839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Association of variations in TPH1 and HTR2B with gestational weight gain and measures of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jan; 20(1):233-8. Kwak SH, Park BL, Kim H, German MS, Go MJ, Jung HS, Koo BK, Cho YM, Choi SH, Cho YS, Shin HD, Jang HC, Park KS. PMID: 21836641.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    41. Chromatin insulator elements block transgene silencing in engineered human embryonic stem cell lines at a defined chromosome 13 locus. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Jan 20; 21(2):191-205. Macarthur CC, Xue H, Van Hoof D, Lieu PT, Dudas M, Fontes A, Swistowski A, Touboul T, Seerke R, Laurent LC, Loring JF, German MS, Zeng X, Rao MS, Lakshmipathy U, Chesnut JD, Liu Y. PMID: 21699412; PMCID: PMC3258440.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. Effects of biotin deficiency on pancreatic islet morphology, insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr; 23(4):392-9. Larrieta E, Vega-Monroy ML, Vital P, Aguilera A, German MS, Hafidi ME, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 21596550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into pancreatic endoderm in patterned size-controlled clusters. Stem Cell Res. 2011 May; 6(3):276-85. Van Hoof D, Mendelsohn AD, Seerke R, Desai TA, German MS. PMID: 21513906.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    44. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 04; 108(1):185-90. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German MS. PMID: 21173230; PMCID: PMC3017196.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes. Dis Model Mech. 2011 Mar; 4(2):268-76. Shimajiri Y, Kosaka Y, Scheel DW, Lynn FC, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Zhao S, German MS. PMID: 21135059; PMCID: PMC3046103.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Precise pattern of recombination in serotonergic and hypothalamic neurons in a Pdx1-cre transgenic mouse line. J Biomed Sci. 2010 Oct 17; 17:82. Honig G, Liou A, Berger M, German MS, Tecott LH. PMID: 20950489; PMCID: PMC2966455.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Dachshund homologues play a conserved role in islet cell development. Dev Biol. 2010 Dec 15; 348(2):143-52. Kalousova A, Mavropoulos A, Adams BA, Nekrep N, Li Z, Krauss S, Stainier DY, German MS. PMID: 20869363; PMCID: PMC2997432.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy. Nat Med. 2010 Jul; 16(7):804-8. Kim H, Toyofuku Y, Lynn FC, Chak E, Uchida T, Mizukami H, Fujitani Y, Kawamori R, Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Yang K, Honig G, van der Hart M, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Yagihashi S, Tecott LH, Watada H, German MS. PMID: 20581837; PMCID: PMC2921604.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 272     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. The ETS oncogene family transcription factor FEV identifies serotonin-producing cells in normal and neoplastic small intestine. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Mar; 17(1):283-91. Wang YC, Zuraek MB, Kosaka Y, Ota Y, German MS, Deneris ES, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. PMID: 20048018.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010 Feb 11; 463(7282):775-80. Smith SB, Qu HQ, Taleb N, Kishimoto NY, Scheel DW, Lu Y, Patch AM, Grabs R, Wang J, Lynn FC, Miyatsuka T, Mitchell J, Seerke R, Désir J, Vanden Eijnden S, Abramowicz M, Kacet N, Weill J, Renard ME, Gentile M, Hansen I, Dewar K, Hattersley AT, Wang R, Wilson ME, Johnson JD, Polychronakos C, German MS. PMID: 20148032; PMCID: PMC2896718.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 168     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Current status of islet cell replacement and regeneration therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar; 95(3):1034-43. Halban PA, German MS, Kahn SE, Weir GC. PMID: 20061422; PMCID: PMC2841538.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    52. Derivation of insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2009 Sep-Nov; 3(2-3):73-87. Van Hoof D, D'Amour KA, German MS. PMID: 19766074.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    53. Chronology of islet differentiation revealed by temporal cell labeling. Diabetes. 2009 Aug; 58(8):1863-8. Miyatsuka T, Li Z, German MS. PMID: 19478145; PMCID: PMC2712795.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Notch signaling as gatekeeper of rat acinar-to-beta-cell conversion in vitro. Gastroenterology. 2009 May; 136(5):1750-60.e13. Baeyens L, Bonné S, Bos T, Rooman I, Peleman C, Lahoutte T, German M, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. PMID: 19208356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. The role of Lmx1a in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and after transplantation into a Parkinson's disease model. Stem Cells. 2009 Jan; 27(1):220-9. Cai J, Donaldson A, Yang M, German MS, Enikolopov G, Iacovitti L. PMID: 18832589.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 functions in immature cells to control enteroendocrine differentiation and is expressed in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Mar; 16(1):267-79. Wang YC, Gallego-Arteche E, Iezza G, Yuan X, Matli MR, Choo SP, Zuraek MB, Gogia R, Lynn FC, German MS, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. PMID: 18987169.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. New beta-cells from old acini. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 26(10):1092-3. German MS. PMID: 18846076.
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    58. Mouse let-7 miRNA populations exhibit RNA editing that is constrained in the 5'-seed/ cleavage/anchor regions and stabilize predicted mmu-let-7a:mRNA duplexes. Genome Res. 2008 Oct; 18(10):1571-81. Reid JG, Nagaraja AK, Lynn FC, Drabek RB, Muzny DM, Shaw CA, Weiss MK, Naghavi AO, Khan M, Zhu H, Tennakoon J, Gunaratne GH, Corry DB, Miller J, McManus MT, German MS, Gibbs RA, Matzuk MM, Gunaratne PH. PMID: 18614752; PMCID: PMC2556275.
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    59. Identification of the bHLH factor Math6 as a novel component of the embryonic pancreas transcriptional network. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 18; 3(6):e2430. Lynn FC, Sanchez L, Gomis R, German MS, Gasa R. PMID: 18560595; PMCID: PMC2413403.
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    60. Signals from the neural crest regulate beta-cell mass in the pancreas. Development. 2008 Jun; 135(12):2151-60. Nekrep N, Wang J, Miyatsuka T, German MS. PMID: 18506029.
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    61. Gender and neurogenin3 influence the pathogenesis of ketosis-prone diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Sep; 10(10):912-20. Louet JF, Smith SB, Gautier JF, Molokhia M, Virally ML, Kevorkian JP, Guillausseau PJ, Vexiau P, Charpentier G, German MS, Vaisse C, Urbanek M, Mauvais-Jarvis F. PMID: 18093211.
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    62. Regulated beta-cell regeneration in the adult mouse pancreas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr; 57(4):958-66. Cano DA, Rulifson IC, Heiser PW, Swigart LB, Pelengaris S, German M, Evan GI, Bluestone JA, Hebrok M. PMID: 18083786.
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    63. Induction of pancreatic islet cell differentiation by the neurogenin-neuroD cascade. Differentiation. 2008 Apr; 76(4):381-91. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Sanchez L, Yang KY, Lin CH, Gomis R, German MS. PMID: 17924961.
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    64. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007 Dec; 56(12):2938-45. Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus MT, Harfe BD, German MS. PMID: 17804764.
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    65. Sox9 coordinates a transcriptional network in pancreatic progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19; 104(25):10500-5. Lynn FC, Smith SB, Wilson ME, Yang KY, Nekrep N, German MS. PMID: 17563382; PMCID: PMC1965542.
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    66. Ngn3 expression during postnatal in vitro beta cell neogenesis induced by the JAK/STAT pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2006 Nov; 13(11):1892-9. Baeyens L, Bonné S, German MS, Ravassard P, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. PMID: 16514419.
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    67. Activin A-induced expression of PAX4 in AR42J-B13 cells involves the increase in transactivation of E47/E12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jan-Feb; 1759(1-2):44-50. Kanno R, Ogihara T, Igarashi Y, Tanaka Y, Smith SB, Kojima I, German MS, Kawamori R, Watada H. PMID: 16546275.
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    68. The HMG box transcription factor Sox4 contributes to the development of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 2005 Dec; 54(12):3402-9. Wilson ME, Yang KY, Kalousova A, Lau J, Kosaka Y, Lynn FC, Wang J, Mrejen C, Episkopou V, Clevers HC, German MS. PMID: 16306355.
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    69. The Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor suppresses glucagon expression and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islet beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 17; 102(20):7297-302. Schisler JC, Jensen PB, Taylor DG, Becker TC, Knop FK, Takekawa S, German M, Weir GC, Lu D, Mirmira RG, Newgard CB. PMID: 15883383; PMCID: PMC1091752.
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    70. Hedgehog signaling regulates expansion of pancreatic epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2005 Apr 01; 280(1):111-21. Kawahira H, Scheel DW, Smith SB, German MS, Hebrok M. PMID: 15766752.
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    71. PAX4 gene variations predispose to ketosis-prone diabetes. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Dec 15; 13(24):3151-9. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Smith SB, Le May C, Leal SM, Gautier JF, Molokhia M, Riveline JP, Rajan AS, Kevorkian JP, Zhang S, Vexiau P, German MS, Vaisse C. PMID: 15509590; PMCID: PMC6145178.
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    72. Proendocrine genes coordinate the pancreatic islet differentiation program in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 07; 101(36):13245-50. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Leachman N, Otten M, Barnes M, Wang J, Chakrabarti S, Mirmira R, German M. PMID: 15340143; PMCID: PMC516555.
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    73. MAP kinases and their roles in pancreatic beta-cells. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004; 40(3 Suppl):191-200. Khoo S, Gibson TB, Arnette D, Lawrence M, January B, McGlynn K, Vanderbilt CA, Griffen SC, German MS, Cobb MH. PMID: 15289654.
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    74. Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 2003 Dec; 130(25):6221-31. Liu R, Cai J, Hu X, Tan M, Qi Y, German M, Rubenstein J, Sander M, Qiu M. PMID: 14602683.
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    75. Neurogenin3 activates the islet differentiation program while repressing its own expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Jan; 18(1):142-9. Smith SB, Watada H, German MS. PMID: 14576336.
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    76. Hnf6 and Tcf2 (MODY5) are linked in a gene network operating in a precursor cell domain of the embryonic pancreas. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Dec 15; 12(24):3307-14. Maestro MA, Boj SF, Luco RF, Pierreux CE, Cabedo J, Servitja JM, German MS, Rousseau GG, Lemaigre FP, Ferrer J. PMID: 14570708.
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    77. Hes6 promotes cortical neurogenesis and inhibits Hes1 transcription repression activity by multiple mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Oct; 23(19):6922-35. Gratton MO, Torban E, Jasmin SB, Theriault FM, German MS, Stifani S. PMID: 12972610; PMCID: PMC193938.
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    78. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003 Aug 15; 260(2):426-37. Hald J, Hjorth JP, German MS, Madsen OD, Serup P, Jensen J. PMID: 12921743.
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    79. The Gene Pill and its therapeutic applications. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2003 Aug; 5(4):420-7. Sheu E, Rothman S, German M, Wang X, Finer M, McMahon BM. PMID: 14513686.
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    80. Pdx1 expression in Irs2-deficient mouse beta-cells is regulated in a strain-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31; 278(44):43691-8. Suzuki R, Tobe K, Terauchi Y, Komeda K, Kubota N, Eto K, Yamauchi T, Azuma K, Kaneto H, Taguchi T, Koga T, German MS, Watada H, Kawamori R, Wright CV, Kajimoto Y, Kimura S, Nagai R, Kadowaki T. PMID: 12869553.
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    81. Neurogenin3 and hepatic nuclear factor 1 cooperate in activating pancreatic expression of Pax4. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 03; 278(40):38254-9. Smith SB, Gasa R, Watada H, Wang J, Griffen SC, German MS. PMID: 12837760.
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    82. Regulation of insulin gene transcription by ERK1 and ERK2 in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 29; 278(35):32969-77. Khoo S, Griffen SC, Xia Y, Baer RJ, German MS, Cobb MH. PMID: 12810726.
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    83. p38 MAPK is involved in activin A- and hepatocyte growth factor-mediated expression of pro-endocrine gene neurogenin 3 in AR42J-B13 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13; 278(24):21693-700. Ogihara T, Watada H, Kanno R, Ikeda F, Nomiyama T, Tanaka Y, Nakao A, German MS, Kojima I, Kawamori R. PMID: 12670941.
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    84. Distinct gene expression programs function in progenitor and mature islet cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 09; 278(19):17130-40. Watada H, Scheel DW, Leung J, German MS. PMID: 12604598.
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    85. Gene expression cascades in pancreatic development. Mech Dev. 2003 Jan; 120(1):65-80. Wilson ME, Scheel D, German MS. PMID: 12490297.
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    86. Neurogenin3 participates in gliogenesis in the developing vertebrate spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2003 Jan 01; 253(1):84-98. Lee J, Wu Y, Qi Y, Xue H, Liu Y, Scheel D, German M, Qiu M, Guillemot F, Rao M, Gradwohl G. PMID: 12490199.
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    87. Expression pattern of IAPP and prohormone convertase 1/3 reveals a distinctive set of endocrine cells in the embryonic pancreas. Mech Dev. 2002 Jul; 115(1-2):171-6. Wilson ME, Kalamaras JA, German MS. PMID: 12049785.
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    88. Cloning, expression and genomic structure of human LMX1A, and variant screening in Pima Indians. Gene. 2002 May 15; 290(1-2):217-25. Thameem F, Wolford JK, Wang J, German MS, Bogardus C, Prochazka M. PMID: 12062816.
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    89. Regulation of the pancreatic pro-endocrine gene neurogenin3. Diabetes. 2001 May; 50(5):928-36. Lee JC, Smith SB, Watada H, Lin J, Scheel D, Wang J, Mirmira RG, German MS. PMID: 11334435.
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    90. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate increases pancreatic glucokinase activity and gene expression. Endocrinology. 2001 Apr; 142(4):1448-52. Fernandez-Mejia C, Vega-Allende J, Rojas-Ochoa A, Rodriguez-Dorantes M, Romero-Navarro G, Matschinsky FM, Wang J, German MS. PMID: 11250924.
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    91. Mutations in the coding region of the neurogenin 3 gene (NEUROG3) are not a common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese subjects. Diabetes. 2001 Mar; 50(3):694-6. del Bosque-Plata L, Lin J, Horikawa Y, Schwarz PE, Cox NJ, Iwasaki N, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, German MS, Bell GI. PMID: 11246894.
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    92. A genetic defect in beta-cell gene expression segregates independently from the fa locus in the ZDF rat. Diabetes. 2001 Jan; 50(1):63-8. Griffen SC, Wang J, German MS. PMID: 11147796.
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    93. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000 Dec; 127(24):5533-40. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, Schwitzgebel V, Hayes-Jordan A, German M. PMID: 11076772.
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    94. Autoregulation and maturity onset diabetes of the young transcription factors control the human PAX4 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 24; 275(47):36910-9. Smith SB, Watada H, Scheel DW, Mrejen C, German MS. PMID: 10967107.
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    95. Transcriptional and translational regulation of beta-cell differentiation factor Nkx6.1. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 03; 275(44):34224-30. Watada H, Mirmira RG, Leung J, German MS. PMID: 10938085.
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    96. beta-cell transcription factors and diabetes: no evidence for diabetes-associated mutations in the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neurogenic differentiation 4 (NEUROD4) in Japanese patients with MODY. Diabetes. 2000 Nov; 49(11):1955-7. Horikawa Y, Horikawa Y, Cox NJ, Iwasaki N, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, Schwitzgebel V, German MS, Bell GI. PMID: 11078465.
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    97. Ventral neural patterning by Nkx homeobox genes: Nkx6.1 controls somatic motor neuron and ventral interneuron fates. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 01; 14(17):2134-9. Sander M, Paydar S, Ericson J, Briscoe J, Berber E, German M, Jessell TM, Rubenstein JL. PMID: 10970877; PMCID: PMC316892.
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    98. Intramolecular control of transcriptional activity by the NK2-specific domain in NK-2 homeodomain proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 15; 97(17):9443-8. Watada H, Mirmira RG, Kalamaras J, German MS. PMID: 10944215; PMCID: PMC16883.
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    99. Regulation of insulin gene transcription. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2000 Aug; 11(4):227-33. Ohneda K, Ee H, German M. PMID: 10966856.
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    100. Expression of neurogenin3 reveals an islet cell precursor population in the pancreas. Development. 2000 Aug; 127(16):3533-42. Schwitzgebel VM, Scheel DW, Conners JR, Kalamaras J, Lee JE, Anderson DJ, Sussel L, Johnson JD, German MS. PMID: 10903178.
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    101. Beta-cell differentiation factor Nkx6.1 contains distinct DNA binding interference and transcriptional repression domains. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 12; 275(19):14743-51. Mirmira RG, Watada H, German MS. PMID: 10799563.
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    102. LMX1B transactivation and expression in nail-patella syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2000 Apr 12; 9(7):1067-74. Dreyer SD, Morello R, German MS, Zabel B, Winterpacht A, Lunstrum GP, Horton WA, Oberg KC, Lee B. PMID: 10767331.
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    103. The homeodomain of PDX-1 mediates multiple protein-protein interactions in the formation of a transcriptional activation complex on the insulin promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Feb; 20(3):900-11. Ohneda K, Mirmira RG, Wang J, Johnson JD, German MS. PMID: 10629047; PMCID: PMC85207.
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    104. Paired-homeodomain transcription factor PAX4 acts as a transcriptional repressor in early pancreatic development. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Dec; 19(12):8272-80. Smith SB, Ee HC, Conners JR, German MS. PMID: 10567552; PMCID: PMC84911.
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    105. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999 Oct; 140(10):4595-600. Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, Matschinsky FM, Velazquez A, Wang J, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 10499515.
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    106. Effect of retinoic acid on glucokinase activity and gene expression and on insulin secretion in primary cultures of pancreatic islets. Endocrinology. 1999 Jul; 140(7):3091-6. Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, Matschinsky FM, Wang J, Fernandez-Mejia C. PMID: 10385401.
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    107. A novel glucose-responsive element in the human insulin gene functions uniquely in primary cultured islets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11572-7. Sander M, Griffen SC, Huang J, German MS. PMID: 9751707; PMCID: PMC21682.
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    108. Beta-cell transcription factors and diabetes: mutations in the coding region of the BETA2/NeuroD1 (NEUROD1) and Nkx2.2 (NKX2B) genes are not associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese. Diabetes. 1998 Aug; 47(8):1356-8. Furuta H, Horikawa Y, Iwasaki N, Hara M, Sussel L, Le Beau MM, Davis EM, Ogata M, Iwamoto Y, German MS, Bell GI. PMID: 9703340.
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    109. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998 Jun; 125(12):2213-21. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA, Rubenstein JL, Rubenstein JL, German MS. PMID: 9584121.
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    110. Identification of a human LMX1 (LMX1.1)-related gene, LMX1.2: tissue-specific expression and linkage mapping on chromosome 9. Genomics. 1997 Dec 15; 46(3):520-4. Iannotti CA, Inoue H, Bernal E, Aoki M, Liu L, Donis-Keller H, German MS, Permutt MA. PMID: 9441763.
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    111. The endocrine secretion of human insulin and growth hormone by exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract. Nat Biotechnol. 1997 Dec; 15(13):1378-82. Goldfine ID, German MS, Tseng HC, Wang J, Bolaffi JL, Chen JW, Olson DC, Rothman SS. PMID: 9415890.
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    112. Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Jul; 17(7):3488-96. Johnson JD, Zhang W, Rudnick A, Rutter WJ, German MS. PMID: 9199284; PMCID: PMC232202.
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    113. Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development. Genes Dev. 1997 Jul 01; 11(13):1662-73. Sander M, Neubüser A, Kalamaras J, Ee HC, Martin GR, German MS. PMID: 9224716.
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    114. The beta cell transcription factors and development of the pancreas. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997 May; 75(5):327-40. Sander M, German MS. PMID: 9181474.
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    115. Regulation of insulin preRNA splicing by glucose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 29; 94(9):4360-5. Wang J, Shen L, Najafi H, Kolberg J, Matschinsky FM, Urdea M, German M. PMID: 9113994; PMCID: PMC20727.
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    116. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human Nkx6.1 gene (NKX6A), a new pancreatic islet homeobox gene. Genomics. 1997 Mar 01; 40(2):367-70. Inoue H, Rudnick A, German MS, Veile R, Donis-Keller H, Permutt MA. PMID: 9119408.
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    117. Function of the human insulin promoter in primary cultured islet cells. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 26; 271(4):1909-15. Odagiri H, Wang J, German MS. PMID: 8567638.
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    118. A strongly inwardly rectifying K+ channel that is sensitive to ATP. J Neurosci. 1996 Jan; 16(1):1-9. Collins A, German MS, Jan YN, Jan LY, Zhao B. PMID: 8613774; PMCID: PMC6578733.
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    119. The insulin gene promoter. A simplified nomenclature. Diabetes. 1995 Aug; 44(8):1002-4. German M, Ashcroft S, Docherty K, Edlund H, Edlund T, Goodison S, Imura H, Kennedy G, Madsen O, Melloul D, et al. PMID: 7621988.
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    120. Cloning of rat KATP-2 channel and decreased expression in pancreatic islets of male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 26; 212(3):894-9. Stoffel M, Tokuyama Y, Trabb JB, German MS, Tsaar ML, Jan LY, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. PMID: 7626127.
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    121. Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding a KATP channel-like protein expressed in insulin-secreting cells, localization of the human gene to chromosome band 21q22.1, and linkage studies with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1995 May; 44(5):592-6. Tsaur ML, Menzel S, Lai FP, Espinosa R, Concannon P, Spielman RS, Hanis CL, Cox NJ, Le Beau MM, German MS, et al. PMID: 7729621.
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    122. The minisatellite in the diabetes susceptibility locus IDDM2 regulates insulin transcription. Nat Genet. 1995 Mar; 9(3):293-8. Kennedy GC, German MS, Rutter WJ. PMID: 7773292.
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    123. Pancreatic beta cells express a diverse set of homeobox genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 06; 91(25):12203-7. Rudnick A, Ling TY, Odagiri H, Rutter WJ, German MS. PMID: 7991607; PMCID: PMC45405.
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    124. Localization of the genes encoding two transcription factors, LMX1 and CDX3, regulating insulin gene expression to human chromosomes 1 and 13. Genomics. 1994 Nov 15; 24(2):403-4. German MS, Wang J, Fernald AA, Espinosa R, Le Beau MM, Bell GI. PMID: 7698771.
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    125. The insulin gene contains multiple transcriptional elements that respond to glucose. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun; 14(6):4067-75. German MS, Wang J. PMID: 8196645; PMCID: PMC358772.
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    126. Glucose sensing in pancreatic islet beta cells: the key role of glucokinase and the glycolytic intermediates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 01; 90(5):1781-5. German MS. PMID: 8446591; PMCID: PMC45963.
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    127. Synergistic activation of the insulin gene by a LIM-homeo domain protein and a basic helix-loop-helix protein: building a functional insulin minienhancer complex. Genes Dev. 1992 Nov; 6(11):2165-76. German MS, Wang J, Chadwick RB, Rutter WJ. PMID: 1358758.
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    128. The insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide genes contain similar cell-specific promoter elements that bind identical beta-cell nuclear complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Apr; 12(4):1777-88. German MS, Moss LG, Wang J, Rutter WJ. PMID: 1549125; PMCID: PMC369621.
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    129. Two related helix-loop-helix proteins participate in separate cell-specific complexes that bind the insulin enhancer. Mol Endocrinol. 1991 Feb; 5(2):292-9. German MS, Blanar MA, Nelson C, Moss LG, Rutter WJ. PMID: 1710033.
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    130. Regulation of insulin gene expression by glucose and calcium in transfected primary islet cultures. J Biol Chem. 1990 Dec 25; 265(36):22063-6. German MS, Moss LG, Rutter WJ. PMID: 1979979.
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    131. Strict metabolic control and progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy. Lancet. 1987 Apr 18; 1(8538):922. German MS, Karam JH. PMID: 2882323.
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    132. Incompatibility between bacteriophage lambda and the sex factor F. Plasmid. 1982 Sep; 8(2):207-10. German M, Syvanen M. PMID: 6217477.
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