Loading...

Michael German, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentDiabetes Center
Address35 Medical Center Way
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-9262
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoEndocrinology Fellowship1989 School of Medicine
    University of ArizonaInternal Medicine Residency 1986School of Medicine
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolM.D.1983School of Medicine
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    European Association for the Study of Diabetes2016Albert Renold Prize
    University of California Los Angeles2016Josiah Brown Professorship
    Vanderbilt University2016Albert Weinstein Lectureship
    Rachmiel Levine-Arthur Riggs Diabetes Research Symposium2016Arthur Riggs Award
    Western Regional Islet Study Group2013Gerold Grodsky Award
    University of Chicago2011Donald F. Steiner Award for Outstanding Achievement in Diabetes Research
    University of Minnesota Medical School2010Arnold Lazarow Memorial Lecture
    Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard University Medical School2009Alexander Marble Lectureship
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston2009Pfizer Visiting Professorship
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2008David Rumbough Award for Scientific Excellence
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation2007Scholars Award
    UCSF2006Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators Excellence in Teaching Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. German is a Professor in the Department of Medicine, Clinical Director of the UCSF Diabetes Center, Director of the UCSF NIH Diabetes Research Center (DRC), Hillblom Islet Genesis Network and UCSF Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Fellowship Training Program, and Principle Investigator in the Hormone Research Institute and the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research. He cares for patients in the Diabetes Clinic and hospital wards, teaches medical students and housestaff, and lectures at the Diabetes Center’s patient self-management courses. His group studies the formation and function of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas, how these processes break down in diabetes, hypoglycemia and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and the translation of this knowledge into novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    "Expanding beta-cell mass"
    NIH/NIDDK U01DK089541Sep 15, 2010 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Role of microRNA in Pancreas Development
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK077874Apr 1, 2007 - Mar 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Diabetes Research Center
    NIH/NIDDK P30DK063720Sep 1, 2002 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Control of Pancreatic Islet Development
    NIH/NIDDK U19DK061245Sep 30, 2001 - Jul 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PATTERNING OF THE DEVELOPING ENDROCRINE PANCREAS
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK055340Sep 30, 1998 - Aug 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    METABOLIC REGULATION OF BETA-CELL GENE EXPRESSION
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK048281Sep 1, 1996 - Aug 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    METABOLIC REGULATION OF BETA CELL GENE EXPRESSION
    NIH/NIDDK R55DK048281Sep 30, 1995 - Aug 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    INSULIN GENE EXPRESSION IN CULTURED ISLET CELLS
    NIH/NIDDK F32DK008359Sep 1, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE PANCREATIC ISLET CELLS
    NIH P01DK041822Aug 1, 1989 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism Training Grant
    NIH/NIDDK T32DK007418Jul 1, 1981 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Differentiation in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas
    NIH/NIDDK R56DK021344Dec 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Differentiation in the Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK021344Sep 15, 1977 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Chamberlain CE, German MS, Yang K, Wang J, VanBrocklin H, Regan M, Shokat KM, Ducker GS, Kim GE, Hann B, Donner DB, Warren RS, Venook AP, Bergsland EK, Lee D, Wang Y, Nakakura EK. A Patient-derived Xenograft Model of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Identifies Sapanisertib as a Possible New Treatment for Everolimus-Resistant Tumors. Mol Cancer Ther. 2018 Sep 25. PMID: 30254185.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lee J, Pappalardo Z, Chopra DG, Hennings TG, Vaughn I, Lan C, Choe JJ, Ang K, Chen S, Arkin M, McManus MT, German MS, Ku GM. A genetic interaction map of insulin production identifies Mfi as an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission. Endocrinology. 2018 Jul 27. PMID: 30059978.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Baeyens L, Lemper M, Staels W, De Groef S, De Leu N, Heremans Y, German MS, Heimberg H. (Re)generating Human Beta Cells: Status, Pitfalls, and Perspectives. Physiol Rev. 2018 Jul 01; 98(3):1143-1167. PMID: 29717931.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kim H, Kim H, Kim K, German MS, Kim H. Ectopic serotonin production in ß-cell specific transgenic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 01 08; 495(2):1986-1991. PMID: 29223399.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Yang YY, Long RK, Ferrara CT, Gitelman SE, German MS, Yang SB. A new familial form of a late-onset, persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy caused by a novel mutation in KCNJ11. Channels (Austin). 2017 Nov 02; 11(6):636-647. PMID: 29087246.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Tixi-Verdugo W, Contreras-Ramos J, Sicilia-Argumedo G, German MS, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effects of Biotin Supplementation During the First Week Postweaning Increases Pancreatic Islet Area, Beta-Cell Proportion, Islets Number, and Beta-Cell Proliferation. J Med Food. 2018 Mar; 21(3):274-281. PMID: 29068758.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Tang SC, Baeyens L, Shen CN, Peng SJ, Chien HJ, Scheel DW, Chamberlain CE, German MS. Human pancreatic neuro-insular network in health and fatty infiltration. Diabetologia. 2018 Jan; 61(1):168-181. PMID: 28852792.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy ML, Larrieta E, Tixi-Verdugo W, Ramírez-Mondragón R, Hernández-Araiza I, German MS, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on glucagon production, secretion, and action. Nutrition. 2017 Nov - Dec; 43-44:47-53. PMID: 28935144.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Krentz NAJ, van Hoof D, Li Z, Watanabe A, Tang M, Nian C, German MS, Lynn FC. Phosphorylation of NEUROG3 Links Endocrine Differentiation to the Cell Cycle in Pancreatic Progenitors. Dev Cell. 2017 04 24; 41(2):129-142.e6. PMID: 28441528.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Pappalardo Z, Gambhir Chopra D, Hennings TG, Richards H, Choe J, Yang K, Baeyens L, Ang K, Chen S, Arkin M, German MS, McManus MT, Ku GM. A Whole-Genome RNA Interference Screen Reveals a Role for Spry2 in Insulin Transcription and the Unfolded Protein Response. Diabetes. 2017 06; 66(6):1703-1712. PMID: 28246293.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Baeyens L, Hindi S, Sorenson RL, German MS. ß-Cell adaptation in pregnancy. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 Sep; 18 Suppl 1:63-70. PMID: 27615133.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Stock PG, German MS. A Path to Insulin Independence: "The End of the Beginning". Cell Stem Cell. 2016 Apr 07; 18(4):431-3. PMID: 27058933.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Ejarque M, Mir-Coll J, Gomis R, German MS, Lynn FC, Gasa R. Generation of a Conditional Allele of the Transcription Factor Atonal Homolog 8 (Atoh8). PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146273. PMID: 26752640; PMCID: PMC4708992.
    14. Sasaki S, Miyatsuka T, Matsuoka TA, Takahara M, Yamamoto Y, Yasuda T, Kaneto H, Fujitani Y, German MS, Akiyama H, Watada H, Shimomura I. Activation of GLP-1 and gastrin signalling induces in vivo reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into beta cells in mice. Diabetologia. 2015 Nov; 58(11):2582-91. PMID: 26290048.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Faire M, Skillern A, Arora R, Nguyen DH, Wang J, Chamberlain C, German MS, Fung JC, Laird DJ. Follicle dynamics and global organization in the intact mouse ovary. Dev Biol. 2015 Jul 01; 403(1):69-79. PMID: 25889274; PMCID: PMC4469539.
    16. Berger M, Scheel DW, Macias H, Miyatsuka T, Kim H, Hoang P, Ku GM, Honig G, Liou A, Tang Y, Regard JB, Sharifnia P, Yu L, Wang J, Coughlin SR, Conklin BR, Deneris ES, Tecott LH, German MS. Gai/o-coupled receptor signaling restricts pancreatic ß-cell expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 03; 112(9):2888-93. PMID: 25695968; PMCID: PMC4352814.
    17. Kim K, Oh CM, Ohara-Imaizumi M, Park S, Namkung J, Yadav VK, Tamarina NA, Roe MW, Philipson LH, Karsenty G, Nagamatsu S, German MS, Kim H. Functional role of serotonin in insulin secretion in a diet-induced insulin-resistant state. Endocrinology. 2015 Feb; 156(2):444-52. PMID: 25426873; PMCID: PMC4298319.
    18. Chamberlain CE, Scheel DW, McGlynn K, Kim H, Miyatsuka T, Wang J, Nguyen V, Zhao S, Mavropoulos A, Abraham AG, O'Neill E, Ku GM, Cobb MH, Martin GR, German MS. Menin determines K-RAS proliferative outputs in endocrine cells. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep; 124(9):4093-101. PMID: 25133424; PMCID: PMC4153699.
    19. Ghosh R, Wang L, Wang ES, Perera BG, Igbaria A, Morita S, Prado K, Thamsen M, Caswell D, Macias H, Weiberth KF, Gliedt MJ, Alavi MV, Hari SB, Mitra AK, Bhhatarai B, Schürer SC, Snapp EL, Gould DB, German MS, Backes BJ, Maly DJ, Oakes SA, Papa FR. Allosteric inhibition of the IRE1a RNase preserves cell viability and function during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell. 2014 Jul 31; 158(3):534-48. PMID: 25018104; PMCID: PMC4244221.
    20. Miyatsuka T, Matsuoka TA, Sasaki S, Kubo F, Shimomura I, Watada H, German MS, Hara M. Chronological analysis with fluorescent timer reveals unique features of newly generated ß-cells. Diabetes. 2014 Oct; 63(10):3388-93. PMID: 24834978; PMCID: PMC4392905.
    21. Baeyens L, Lemper M, Leuckx G, De Groef S, Bonfanti P, Stangé G, Shemer R, Nord C, Scheel DW, Pan FC, Ahlgren U, Gu G, Stoffers DA, Dor Y, Ferrer J, Gradwohl G, Wright CV, Van de Casteele M, German MS, Bouwens L, Heimberg H. Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice. Nat Biotechnol. 2014 Jan; 32(1):76-83. PMID: 24240391.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Ohara-Imaizumi M, Kim H, Yoshida M, Fujiwara T, Aoyagi K, Toyofuku Y, Nakamichi Y, Nishiwaki C, Okamura T, Uchida T, Fujitani Y, Akagawa K, Kakei M, Watada H, German MS, Nagamatsu S. Serotonin regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ß cells during pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 26; 110(48):19420-5. PMID: 24218571; PMCID: PMC3845121.
    23. German MS. Anonymous sources: where do adult ß cells come from? J Clin Invest. 2013 May; 123(5):1936-8. PMID: 23619356; PMCID: PMC3635747.
    24. Ku GM, Kim H, Vaughn IW, Hangauer MJ, Myung Oh C, German MS, McManus MT. Research resource: RNA-Seq reveals unique features of the pancreatic ß-cell transcriptome. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Oct; 26(10):1783-92. PMID: 22915829; PMCID: PMC3458219.
    25. Andersson O, Adams BA, Yoo D, Ellis GC, Gut P, Anderson RM, German MS, Stainier DY. Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic ß cells in vivo. Cell Metab. 2012 Jun 06; 15(6):885-94. PMID: 22608007; PMCID: PMC3372708.
    26. Ku GM, Pappalardo Z, Luo CC, German MS, McManus MT. An siRNA screen in pancreatic beta cells reveals a role for Gpr27 in insulin production. PLoS Genet. 2012 Jan; 8(1):e1002449. PMID: 22253604; PMCID: PMC3257298.
    27. Ohta Y, Kosaka Y, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Smith SB, Honig G, Kim H, Gasa RM, Neubauer N, Liou A, Tecott LH, Deneris ES, German MS. Convergence of the insulin and serotonin programs in the pancreatic ß-cell. Diabetes. 2011 Dec; 60(12):3208-16. PMID: 22013016; PMCID: PMC3219954.
    28. Yao LJ, McCormick JA, Wang J, Yang KY, Kidwai A, Colussi GL, Boini KM, Birnbaum MJ, Lang F, German MS, Pearce D. Novel role for SGK3 in glucose homeostasis revealed in SGK3/Akt2 double-null mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Dec; 25(12):2106-18. PMID: 21980074; PMCID: PMC3231839.
    29. Kwak SH, Park BL, Kim H, German MS, Go MJ, Jung HS, Koo BK, Cho YM, Choi SH, Cho YS, Shin HD, Jang HC, Park KS. Association of variations in TPH1 and HTR2B with gestational weight gain and measures of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jan; 20(1):233-8. PMID: 21836641.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Macarthur CC, Xue H, Van Hoof D, Lieu PT, Dudas M, Fontes A, Swistowski A, Touboul T, Seerke R, Laurent LC, Loring JF, German MS, Zeng X, Rao MS, Lakshmipathy U, Chesnut JD, Liu Y. Chromatin insulator elements block transgene silencing in engineered human embryonic stem cell lines at a defined chromosome 13 locus. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Jan 20; 21(2):191-205. PMID: 21699412; PMCID: PMC3258440.
    31. Larrieta E, Vega-Monroy ML, Vital P, Aguilera A, German MS, Hafidi ME, Fernandez-Mejia C. Effects of biotin deficiency on pancreatic islet morphology, insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr; 23(4):392-9. PMID: 21596550.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Van Hoof D, Mendelsohn AD, Seerke R, Desai TA, German MS. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into pancreatic endoderm in patterned size-controlled clusters. Stem Cell Res. 2011 May; 6(3):276-85. PMID: 21513906.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German MS. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 04; 108(1):185-90. PMID: 21173230; PMCID: PMC3017196.
    34. Shimajiri Y, Kosaka Y, Scheel DW, Lynn FC, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Zhao S, German MS. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes. Dis Model Mech. 2011 Mar; 4(2):268-76. PMID: 21135059; PMCID: PMC3046103.
    35. Honig G, Liou A, Berger M, German MS, Tecott LH. Precise pattern of recombination in serotonergic and hypothalamic neurons in a Pdx1-cre transgenic mouse line. J Biomed Sci. 2010 Oct 17; 17:82. PMID: 20950489; PMCID: PMC2966455.
    36. Kalousova A, Mavropoulos A, Adams BA, Nekrep N, Li Z, Krauss S, Stainier DY, German MS. Dachshund homologues play a conserved role in islet cell development. Dev Biol. 2010 Dec 15; 348(2):143-52. PMID: 20869363; PMCID: PMC2997432.
    37. Kim H, Toyofuku Y, Lynn FC, Chak E, Uchida T, Mizukami H, Fujitani Y, Kawamori R, Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Yang K, Honig G, van der Hart M, Kishimoto N, Wang J, Yagihashi S, Tecott LH, Watada H, German MS. Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy. Nat Med. 2010 Jul; 16(7):804-8. PMID: 20581837; PMCID: PMC2921604.
    38. Wang YC, Zuraek MB, Kosaka Y, Ota Y, German MS, Deneris ES, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. The ETS oncogene family transcription factor FEV identifies serotonin-producing cells in normal and neoplastic small intestine. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Mar; 17(1):283-91. PMID: 20048018.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Smith SB, Qu HQ, Taleb N, Kishimoto NY, Scheel DW, Lu Y, Patch AM, Grabs R, Wang J, Lynn FC, Miyatsuka T, Mitchell J, Seerke R, Désir J, Vanden Eijnden S, Abramowicz M, Kacet N, Weill J, Renard ME, Gentile M, Hansen I, Dewar K, Hattersley AT, Wang R, Wilson ME, Johnson JD, Polychronakos C, German MS. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010 Feb 11; 463(7282):775-80. PMID: 20148032; PMCID: PMC2896718.
    40. Halban PA, German MS, Kahn SE, Weir GC. Current status of islet cell replacement and regeneration therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar; 95(3):1034-43. PMID: 20061422; PMCID: PMC2841538.
    41. Van Hoof D, D'Amour KA, German MS. Derivation of insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2009 Sep-Nov; 3(2-3):73-87. PMID: 19766074.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Miyatsuka T, Li Z, German MS. Chronology of islet differentiation revealed by temporal cell labeling. Diabetes. 2009 Aug; 58(8):1863-8. PMID: 19478145; PMCID: PMC2712795.
    43. Baeyens L, Bonné S, Bos T, Rooman I, Peleman C, Lahoutte T, German M, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. Notch signaling as gatekeeper of rat acinar-to-beta-cell conversion in vitro. Gastroenterology. 2009 May; 136(5):1750-60.e13. PMID: 19208356.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Cai J, Donaldson A, Yang M, German MS, Enikolopov G, Iacovitti L. The role of Lmx1a in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and after transplantation into a Parkinson's disease model. Stem Cells. 2009 Jan; 27(1):220-9. PMID: 18832589.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Wang YC, Gallego-Arteche E, Iezza G, Yuan X, Matli MR, Choo SP, Zuraek MB, Gogia R, Lynn FC, German MS, Bergsland EK, Donner DB, Warren RS, Nakakura EK. Homeodomain transcription factor NKX2.2 functions in immature cells to control enteroendocrine differentiation and is expressed in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Mar; 16(1):267-79. PMID: 18987169.
      View in: PubMed
    46. German MS. New beta-cells from old acini. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 26(10):1092-3. PMID: 18846076.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Reid JG, Nagaraja AK, Lynn FC, Drabek RB, Muzny DM, Shaw CA, Weiss MK, Naghavi AO, Khan M, Zhu H, Tennakoon J, Gunaratne GH, Corry DB, Miller J, McManus MT, German MS, Gibbs RA, Matzuk MM, Gunaratne PH. Mouse let-7 miRNA populations exhibit RNA editing that is constrained in the 5'-seed/ cleavage/anchor regions and stabilize predicted mmu-let-7a:mRNA duplexes. Genome Res. 2008 Oct; 18(10):1571-81. PMID: 18614752; PMCID: PMC2556275.
    48. Lynn FC, Sanchez L, Gomis R, German MS, Gasa R. Identification of the bHLH factor Math6 as a novel component of the embryonic pancreas transcriptional network. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 18; 3(6):e2430. PMID: 18560595; PMCID: PMC2413403.
    49. Nekrep N, Wang J, Miyatsuka T, German MS. Signals from the neural crest regulate beta-cell mass in the pancreas. Development. 2008 Jun; 135(12):2151-60. PMID: 18506029.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Cano DA, Rulifson IC, Heiser PW, Swigart LB, Pelengaris S, German M, Evan GI, Bluestone JA, Hebrok M. Regulated beta-cell regeneration in the adult mouse pancreas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr; 57(4):958-66. PMID: 18083786.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Sanchez L, Yang KY, Lin CH, Gomis R, German MS. Induction of pancreatic islet cell differentiation by the neurogenin-neuroD cascade. Differentiation. 2008 Apr; 76(4):381-91. PMID: 17924961.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Lynn FC, Skewes-Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus MT, Harfe BD, German MS. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007 Dec; 56(12):2938-45. PMID: 17804764.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Hughes SA, Ozgur BM, German M, Taylor WR. Prolonged Jackson-Pratt drainage in the management of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Surg Neurol. 2006 Apr; 65(4):410-4, discussion 414-5. PMID: 16531215.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Kanno R, Ogihara T, Igarashi Y, Tanaka Y, Smith SB, Kojima I, German MS, Kawamori R, Watada H. Activin A-induced expression of PAX4 in AR42J-B13 cells involves the increase in transactivation of E47/E12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jan-Feb; 1759(1-2):44-50. PMID: 16546275.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Wilson ME, Yang KY, Kalousova A, Lau J, Kosaka Y, Lynn FC, Wang J, Mrejen C, Episkopou V, Clevers HC, German MS. The HMG box transcription factor Sox4 contributes to the development of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 2005 Dec; 54(12):3402-9. PMID: 16306355.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Schisler JC, Jensen PB, Taylor DG, Becker TC, Knop FK, Takekawa S, German M, Weir GC, Lu D, Mirmira RG, Newgard CB. The Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor suppresses glucagon expression and regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islet beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 17; 102(20):7297-302. PMID: 15883383; PMCID: PMC1091752.
    57. Kawahira H, Scheel DW, Smith SB, German MS, Hebrok M. Hedgehog signaling regulates expansion of pancreatic epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2005 Apr 01; 280(1):111-21. PMID: 15766752.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Smith SB, Le May C, Leal SM, Gautier JF, Molokhia M, Riveline JP, Rajan AS, Kevorkian JP, Zhang S, Vexiau P, German MS, Vaisse C. PAX4 gene variations predispose to ketosis-prone diabetes. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Dec 15; 13(24):3151-9. PMID: 15509590.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Leachman N, Otten M, Barnes M, Wang J, Chakrabarti S, Mirmira R, German M. Proendocrine genes coordinate the pancreatic islet differentiation program in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 07; 101(36):13245-50. PMID: 15340143; PMCID: PMC516555.
    60. Khoo S, Gibson TB, Arnette D, Lawrence M, January B, McGlynn K, Vanderbilt CA, Griffen SC, German MS, Cobb MH. MAP kinases and their roles in pancreatic beta-cells. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004; 40(3 Suppl):191-200. PMID: 15289654.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Liu R, Cai J, Hu X, Tan M, Qi Y, German M, Rubenstein J, Sander M, Qiu M. Region-specific and stage-dependent regulation of Olig gene expression and oligodendrogenesis by Nkx6.1 homeodomain transcription factor. Development. 2003 Dec; 130(25):6221-31. PMID: 14602683.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Smith SB, Watada H, German MS. Neurogenin3 activates the islet differentiation program while repressing its own expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Jan; 18(1):142-9. PMID: 14576336.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Maestro MA, Boj SF, Luco RF, Pierreux CE, Cabedo J, Servitja JM, German MS, Rousseau GG, Lemaigre FP, Ferrer J. Hnf6 and Tcf2 (MODY5) are linked in a gene network operating in a precursor cell domain of the embryonic pancreas. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Dec 15; 12(24):3307-14. PMID: 14570708.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Gratton MO, Torban E, Jasmin SB, Theriault FM, German MS, Stifani S. Hes6 promotes cortical neurogenesis and inhibits Hes1 transcription repression activity by multiple mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Oct; 23(19):6922-35. PMID: 12972610; PMCID: PMC193938.
    65. Hald J, Hjorth JP, German MS, Madsen OD, Serup P, Jensen J. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003 Aug 15; 260(2):426-37. PMID: 12921743.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Sheu E, Rothman S, German M, Wang X, Finer M, McMahon BM. The Gene Pill and its therapeutic applications. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2003 Aug; 5(4):420-7. PMID: 14513686.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Suzuki R, Tobe K, Terauchi Y, Komeda K, Kubota N, Eto K, Yamauchi T, Azuma K, Kaneto H, Taguchi T, Koga T, German MS, Watada H, Kawamori R, Wright CV, Kajimoto Y, Kimura S, Nagai R, Kadowaki T. Pdx1 expression in Irs2-deficient mouse beta-cells is regulated in a strain-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31; 278(44):43691-8. PMID: 12869553.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Smith SB, Gasa R, Watada H, Wang J, Griffen SC, German MS. Neurogenin3 and hepatic nuclear factor 1 cooperate in activating pancreatic expression of Pax4. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 03; 278(40):38254-9. PMID: 12837760.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Khoo S, Griffen SC, Xia Y, Baer RJ, German MS, Cobb MH. Regulation of insulin gene transcription by ERK1 and ERK2 in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 29; 278(35):32969-77. PMID: 12810726.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Ogihara T, Watada H, Kanno R, Ikeda F, Nomiyama T, Tanaka Y, Nakao A, German MS, Kojima I, Kawamori R. p38 MAPK is involved in activin A- and hepatocyte growth factor-mediated expression of pro-endocrine gene neurogenin 3 in AR42J-B13 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13; 278(24):21693-700. PMID: 12670941.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Watada H, Scheel DW, Leung J, German MS. Distinct gene expression programs function in progenitor and mature islet cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 09; 278(19):17130-40. PMID: 12604598.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Lee J, Wu Y, Qi Y, Xue H, Liu Y, Scheel D, German M, Qiu M, Guillemot F, Rao M, Gradwohl G. Neurogenin3 participates in gliogenesis in the developing vertebrate spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2003 Jan 01; 253(1):84-98. PMID: 12490199.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Wilson ME, Scheel D, German MS. Gene expression cascades in pancreatic development. Mech Dev. 2003 Jan; 120(1):65-80. PMID: 12490297.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Wilson ME, Kalamaras JA, German MS. Expression pattern of IAPP and prohormone convertase 1/3 reveals a distinctive set of endocrine cells in the embryonic pancreas. Mech Dev. 2002 Jul; 115(1-2):171-6. PMID: 12049785.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Thameem F, Wolford JK, Wang J, German MS, Bogardus C, Prochazka M. Cloning, expression and genomic structure of human LMX1A, and variant screening in Pima Indians. Gene. 2002 May 15; 290(1-2):217-25. PMID: 12062816.
      View in: PubMed
    76. German MS, Karam JH. Strict metabolic control and progression of incipient diabetic nephropathy. Lancet. 1987 Apr 18; 1(8538):922. PMID: 2882323.
      View in: PubMed
    77. German M, Syvanen M. Incompatibility between bacteriophage lambda and the sex factor F. Plasmid. 1982 Sep; 8(2):207-10. PMID: 6217477.
      View in: PubMed