Rajalingam Raja, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1100 Van Ness Ave., #805
San Francisco CA
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-8821-7877 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Royal College of Pathologists, UKFRCPath2018Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics
    American Board of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ABHI), USAD(ABHI)2008Histocompatibility Testing
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAPost-Doctoral Research2002Immunogenetics
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaPh.D.1996Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics
    University of Madras, Chennai, IndiaM.Phil.1989Endocrinology
    Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, IndiaM.Sc.1988Zoology
    University of Madras, Chennai, IndiaB.Sc.1984Zoology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Indian Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ISHI)2016Prof. NK Mehra Oration Award 2016
    New York State Department of Health2012Certificate of Qualification, Histocompatibility Laboratory Director
    Department of Public Health, State of California2009Histocompatibility Laboratory Director
    Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)1996Shakuntala Amir Chand prize for the best Ph.D. thesis in Biomedical Sciences in India
    FIMSA & IUIS1996Clinical Immunology Training Award
    Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, India1988University First Rank in post-graduation (M.Sc.: Zoology, Biochemicstry, Molecular Biology)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Raja has over 30 years of experience in studying the basic and clinical aspects of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. During the Ph.D. program in the Department of Transplantation Immunology and Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Dr. Raja developed DNA-based HLA typing method and studied the diversity of HLA in Asian Indians, and the association between HLA alleles and infectious diseases. During 6 years of postdoctoral training in the Parham laboratory, Stanford University, Dr. Raja defined the KIR genomic diversity in several non-human species. In 2002, Dr. Raja joined as Associate Director of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Immunogenetics Center, which provides clinical histocompatibility testing. After 11 years of UCLA experience, Dr. Raja became the program director of the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Immunogenetics and Transplantation Laboratory (ITL), which facilitates over 800 solid organ and bone marrow transplantations per year. As the CLIA-approved Laboratory Director, Clinical Consultant and Technical Supervisor, Dr. Raja provides leadership to all areas of clinical Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics testing including stem cell transplantation, various solid organ transplantations (kidney, pancreas, liver, heart, lung), testing for HLA-associated diseases, and testing for transfusion services. Dr. Raja's current research is focused on understanding the KIR-HLA genomic differences in human populations and their relevance in therapeutic transplantations and disease association. Dr. Raja involves in teaching and training in histocompatibility, immunogenetics and transplant immunology, and mentors post-doctoral research fellows, residents, and visiting scholars.
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. A Scan of Pleiotropic Immune Mediated Disease Genes Identifies Novel Determinants of Baseline FVIII Inhibitor Status in Hemophilia-A. Res Sq. 2023 Oct 18. Howard T, Almieda M, Diego V, Viel K, Luu B, Haack K, Raja R, Ameri A, Chitlur M, Rydz N, Lillicrap D, Watts R, Kessler C, Ramsey C, Dinh L, Kim B, Powell J, Peralta J, Bouls R, Abraham S, Shen YM, Murillo C, Mead H, Lehmann P, Fine E, Escobar M, Kumar S, Williams-Blangero S, Kasper C, Almasy L, Cole S, Blangero J, Konkle B. PMID: 37886476; PMCID: PMC10602130.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. COVID-19 infection and vaccination rarely impact HLA antibody profile in waitlisted renal transplant candidates- a multicenter cohort. Hum Immunol. 2023 Apr; 84(4):278-285. Roll GR, Bray RA, Cooper M, Eagar TN, Gebel HM, Vranic GM, Hitchman KMK, Houp J, Kamoun M, Killian J, Kim J, Kumar V, Levine M, Lovasik BP, Lunow-Luke T, Parsons RF, Pattanayak V, Ranch D, Shah A, Stock PG, Timofeeva OA, Trofe-Clark J, Wongjirad C, Yeh H, Yi S, Rajalingam R. PMID: 36868898; PMCID: PMC9946887.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    3. Experimental and clinical data analysis for identification of COVID-19 resistant ACE2 mutations. Sci Rep. 2023 02 09; 13(1):2351. Raghav PK, Raghav A, Lathwal A, Saxena A, Mann Z, Sengar M, Rajalingam R. PMID: 36759535; PMCID: PMC9910265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    4. Human Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Atlas: Maturation and Survival Pathways Unraveled by Single Cell Analyses. bioRxiv. 2023 Jan 20. Duan M, Nguyen DC, Joyner CJ, Saney CL, Tipton CM, Andrews J, Lonial S, Kim C, Hentenaar I, Kosters A, Ghosn E, Jackson A, Knechtle S, Maruthamuthu S, Chandran S, Martin T, Rajalingam R, Vincenti F, Breeden C, Sanz I, Gibson G, Eun-Hyung Lee F. PMID: 36711623; PMCID: PMC9882341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. CD16+ natural killer cells in bronchoalveolar lavage are associated with antibody-mediated rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Am J Transplant. 2023 01; 23(1):37-44. Calabrese DR, Chong T, Singer JP, Rajalingam R, Hays SR, Kukreja J, Leard L, Golden JA, Lanier LL, Greenland JR. PMID: 36695619; PMCID: PMC10018437.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Protection of cell therapeutics from antibody-mediated killing by CD64 overexpression. Nat Biotechnol. 2023 05; 41(5):717-727. Gravina A, Tediashvili G, Rajalingam R, Quandt Z, Deisenroth C, Schrepfer S, Deuse T. PMID: 36593395; PMCID: PMC10188358.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. KIR-HLA gene diversities and susceptibility to lung cancer. Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 14; 12(1):17237. Hematian Larki M, Ashouri E, Barani S, Ghayumi SMA, Ghaderi A, Rajalingam R. PMID: 36241658; PMCID: PMC9568660.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Individualized Constellation of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Cognate HLA Class I Ligands that Controls Natural Killer Cell Antiviral Immunity Predisposes COVID-19. Front Genet. 2022; 13:845474. Maruthamuthu S, Rajalingam K, Kaur N, Morvan MG, Soto J, Lee N, Kong D, Hu Z, Reyes K, Ng D, Butte AJ, Chiu C, Rajalingam R. PMID: 35273641; PMCID: PMC8902362.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9  
    9. Concurrent use of two independent methods prevents erroneous HLA typing of deceased organ donors - An important strategy for patient safety and accurate virtual crossmatching for broader sharing. Hum Immunol. 2022 May; 83(5):458-466. Cruz TD, Dames C, Pagaduan L, Cho Y, Kong D, Rajalingam R. PMID: 35193787.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Solid-Phase C1q/C3d Fixing Readouts Correlate with High Median Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies and C4d⁺ Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients. Ann Transplant. 2021 Dec 01; 26:e934175. Tatapudi VS, Kopchaliiska D, da Gente GJ, Buenaventura OF, Singh M, Laszik Z, Adey DB, Rajalingam R. PMID: 34848674; PMCID: PMC8647455.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Individualized genetic makeup that controls natural killer cell function influences the efficacy of isatuximab immunotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma. J Immunother Cancer. 2021 07; 9(7). Sun H, Martin TG, Marra J, Kong D, Keats J, Macé S, Chiron M, Wolf JL, Venstrom JM, Rajalingam R. PMID: 34272304; PMCID: PMC8287616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. Concurrent typing of over 4000 samples by long-range PCR amplicon-based NGS and rSSO revealed the need to verify NGS typing for HLA allelic dropouts. Hum Immunol. 2021 Aug; 82(8):581-587. Kong D, Lee N, Dela Cruz ID, Dames C, Maruthamuthu S, Golden T, Rajalingam R. PMID: 33980471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. COVID-19 does not impact HLA antibody profile in a series of waitlisted renal transplant candidates. Hum Immunol. 2021 Aug; 82(8):568-573. Roll GR, Lunow-Luke T, Braun HJ, Buenaventura O, Mallari M, Stock PG, Rajalingam R. PMID: 33910707; PMCID: PMC8052475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Coexistence of inhibitory and activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors to the same cognate HLA-C2 and Bw4 ligands confer breast cancer risk. Sci Rep. 2021 04 12; 11(1):7932. Ashouri E, Rajalingam K, Barani S, Farjadian S, Ghaderi A, Rajalingam R. PMID: 33846431; PMCID: PMC8041876.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. A Virtual Crossmatch-based Strategy Facilitates Sharing of Deceased Donor Kidneys for Highly Sensitized Recipients. Transplantation. 2020 06; 104(6):1239-1245. Roll GR, Webber AB, Gae DH, Laszik Z, Tavakol M, Mayen L, Cunniffe K, Syed S, Hirose R, Freise C, Feng S, Roberts JP, Ascher NL, Stock PG, Rajalingam R. PMID: 31449187.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Allele-level HLA matching reduces early rejection in lung transplant recipients. Ann Transl Med. 2020 Mar; 8(6):275. Rajalingam R. PMID: 32355719; PMCID: PMC7186615.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    17. Quantitative HLA-class-II/factor VIII (FVIII) peptidomic variation in dendritic cells correlates with the immunogenic potential of therapeutic FVIII proteins in hemophilia A. J Thromb Haemost. 2020 01; 18(1):201-216. Diego VP, Luu BW, Hofmann M, Dinh LV, Almeida M, Powell JS, Rajalingam R, Peralta JM, Kumar S, Curran JE, Sauna ZE, Kellerman R, Park Y, Key NS, Escobar MA, Huynh H, Verhagen AM, Williams-Blangero S, Lehmann PV, Maraskovsky E, Blangero J, Howard TE. PMID: 31556206.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. De novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA of iPSCs produce immunogenic neoepitopes in mice and humans. Nat Biotechnol. 2019 10; 37(10):1137-1144. Deuse T, Hu X, Agbor-Enoh S, Koch M, Spitzer MH, Gravina A, Alawi M, Marishta A, Peters B, Kosaloglu-Yalcin Z, Yang Y, Rajalingam R, Wang D, Nashan B, Kiefmann R, Reichenspurner H, Valantine H, Weissman IL, Schrepfer S. PMID: 31427818.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Long-Term Safety, Immunologic Response, and Imaging Outcomes following Neural Stem Cell Transplantation for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease. Stem Cell Reports. 2019 08 13; 13(2):254-261. Gupta N, Henry RG, Kang SM, Strober J, Lim DA, Ryan T, Perry R, Farrell J, Ulman M, Rajalingam R, Gage A, Huhn SL, Barkovich AJ, Rowitch DH. PMID: 31378671; PMCID: PMC6700500.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. Selection of unrelated donors and cord blood units for hematopoietic cell transplantation: guidelines from the NMDP/CIBMTR. Blood. 2019 09 19; 134(12):924-934. Dehn J, Spellman S, Hurley CK, Shaw BE, Barker JN, Burns LJ, Confer DL, Eapen M, Fernandez-Vina M, Hartzman R, Maiers M, Marino SR, Mueller C, Perales MA, Rajalingam R, Pidala J. PMID: 31292117; PMCID: PMC6753623.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Gene signatures common to allograft rejection are associated with lymphocytic bronchitis. Clin Transplant. 2019 05; 33(5):e13515. Greenland JR, Wang P, Brotman JJ, Ahuja R, Chong TA, Kleinhenz ME, Leard LE, Golden JA, Hays SR, Kukreja J, Singer JP, Rajalingam R, Jones K, Laszik ZG, Trivedi NN, Greenland NY, Blanc PD. PMID: 30849195; PMCID: PMC6545574.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. Association of HLA Antigen Mismatch With Risk of Developing Skin Cancer After Solid-Organ Transplant. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 03 01; 155(3):307-314. Gao Y, Twigg AR, Hirose R, Roll GR, Nowacki AS, Maytin EV, Vidimos AT, Rajalingam R, Arron ST. PMID: 30673077; PMCID: PMC6439929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors and Disease. Clin Lab Med. 2018 12; 38(4):637-653. Rajalingam R. PMID: 30420058.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Inhibitory natural killer cell receptor KIR3DL1 with its ligand Bw4 constraints HIV-1 disease among South Indians. AIDS. 2018 11 28; 32(18):2679-2688. Maruthamuthu S, Rajalingam R, Pandian K, Madasamy S, Manoharan M, Pitchai L, Murugesan A, Mariakuttikan J. PMID: 30289808.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    25. Genotypes associated with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics impact clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients. Clin Transplant. 2018 08; 32(8):e13332. Calabrese DR, Florez R, Dewey K, Hui C, Torgerson D, Chong T, Faust H, Rajalingam R, Hays SR, Golden JA, Kukreja J, Singer JP, Greenland JR. PMID: 29920787; PMCID: PMC8103920.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Novel and shared neoantigen derived from histone 3 variant H3.3K27M mutation for glioma T cell therapy. J Exp Med. 2018 01 02; 215(1):141-157. Chheda ZS, Kohanbash G, Okada K, Jahan N, Sidney J, Pecoraro M, Yang X, Carrera DA, Downey KM, Shrivastav S, Liu S, Lin Y, Lagisetti C, Chuntova P, Watchmaker PB, Mueller S, Pollack IF, Rajalingam R, Carcaboso AM, Mann M, Sette A, Garcia KC, Hou Y, Okada H. PMID: 29203539; PMCID: PMC5748856.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 127     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. KIR3DL1/HLA-B Subtypes Govern Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2017 07 10; 35(20):2268-2278. Boudreau JE, Giglio F, Gooley TA, Stevenson PA, Le Luduec JB, Shaffer BC, Rajalingam R, Hou L, Hurley CK, Noreen H, Reed EF, Yu N, Vierra-Green C, Haagenson M, Malkki M, Petersdorf EW, Spellman S, Hsu KC. PMID: 28520526; PMCID: PMC5501362.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. HLA Mismatching Favoring Host-Versus-Graft NK Cell Activity Via KIR3DL1 Is Associated With Improved Outcomes Following Lung Transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2017 Aug; 17(8):2192-2199. Greenland JR, Sun H, Calabrese D, Chong T, Singer JP, Kukreja J, Hays SR, Golden JA, Caughey GH, Venstrom JM, Rajalingam R. PMID: 28375571; PMCID: PMC5519429.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Short lung transplant donor telomere length is associated with decreased CLAD-free survival. Thorax. 2017 11; 72(11):1052-1054. Faust HE, Golden JA, Rajalingam R, Wang AS, Green G, Hays SR, Kukreja J, Singer JP, Wolters PJ, Greenland JR. PMID: 28446663; PMCID: PMC6550329.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. The Impact of HLA Class I-Specific Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Organ Allograft Rejection. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:585. Rajalingam R. PMID: 28066408; PMCID: PMC5165035.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    
    31. Donor-Reactive Regulatory T Cell Frequency Increases During Acute Cellular Rejection of Lung Allografts. Transplantation. 2016 10; 100(10):2090-8. Greenland JR, Wong CM, Ahuja R, Wang AS, Uchida C, Golden JA, Hays SR, Leard LE, Rajalingam R, Singer JP, Kukreja J, Wolters PJ, Caughey GH, Tang Q. PMID: 27077597; PMCID: PMC5030122.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. Defining KIR and HLA Class I Genotypes at Highest Resolution via High-Throughput Sequencing. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Aug 04; 99(2):375-91. Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Marin WM, Norberg SJ, Ashouri E, Jayaraman J, Wroblewski EE, Trowsdale J, Rajalingam R, Oksenberg JR, Chiaroni J, Guethlein LA, Traherne JA, Ronaghi M, Parham P. PMID: 27486779; PMCID: PMC4974113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. KIR and HLA Genotypes Implicated in Reduced Killer Lymphocytes Immunity Are Associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0160392. Levinson RD, Yung M, Meguro A, Ashouri E, Yu F, Mizuki N, Ohno S, Rajalingam R. PMID: 27490240; PMCID: PMC4973954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    34. Donor-Recipient Matching for KIR Genotypes Reduces Chronic GVHD and Missing Inhibitory KIR Ligands Protect against Relapse after Myeloablative, HLA Matched Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0158242. Faridi RM, Kemp TJ, Dharmani-Khan P, Lewis V, Tripathi G, Rajalingam R, Daly A, Berka N, Storek J, Masood Khan F. PMID: 27341514; PMCID: PMC4920429.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    35. CRM1 Inhibition Promotes Cytotoxicity in Ewing Sarcoma Cells by Repressing EWS-FLI1-Dependent IGF-1 Signaling. Cancer Res. 2016 05 01; 76(9):2687-97. Sun H, Lin DC, Cao Q, Guo X, Marijon H, Zhao Z, Gery S, Xu L, Yang H, Pang B, Lee VK, Lim HJ, Doan N, Said JW, Chu P, Mayakonda A, Thomas T, Forscher C, Baloglu E, Shacham S, Rajalingam R, Koeffler HP. PMID: 26956669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. HLA Markers DQ8 and DR53 Are Associated With Lymphocytic Hypophysitis and May Aid in Differential Diagnosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov; 100(11):4092-7. Heaney AP, Sumerel B, Rajalingam R, Bergsneider M, Yong WH, Liau LM. PMID: 26317559.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Human NK cells licensed by killer Ig receptor genes have an altered cytokine program that modifies CD4+ T cell function. J Immunol. 2014 Jul 15; 193(2):940-9. Lin L, Ma C, Wei B, Aziz N, Rajalingam R, Yusung S, Erlich HA, Trachtenberg EA, Targan SR, McGovern DP, Heath JR, Braun J. PMID: 24935928; PMCID: PMC4096688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Characterization of human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) among healthy Saudis. Hum Immunol. 2014 Jun; 75(6):536-40. Osman AE, Mubasher M, ElSheikh NE, AlHarthi H, Al Yami AS, Rajalingam R, Al-Dehaimi A, Middleton D, ElGhazali G. PMID: 24613458.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Gene-specific PCR typing of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1034:239-55. Rajalingam R, Ashouri E. PMID: 23775740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Allele-level haplotype frequencies and pairwise linkage disequilibrium for 14 KIR loci in 506 European-American individuals. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e47491. Vierra-Green C, Roe D, Hou L, Hurley CK, Rajalingam R, Reed E, Lebedeva T, Yu N, Stewart M, Noreen H, Hollenbach JA, Guethlein LA, Wang T, Spellman S, Maiers M. PMID: 23139747; PMCID: PMC3489906.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Observations regarding the immunogenicity of BDD-rFVIII derived from a mechanistic personalized medicine perspective. J Thromb Haemost. 2012 Sep; 10(9):1961-5. Sauna ZE, Ameri A, Kim B, Yanover C, Viel KR, Rajalingam R, Cole SA, Howard TE. PMID: 22734827.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. Overview of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor system. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 882:391-414. Rajalingam R. PMID: 22665247.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    43. Human diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and disease. Korean J Hematol. 2011 Dec; 46(4):216-28. Rajalingam R. PMID: 22259627; PMCID: PMC3259513.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29  
    44. The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans. Science. 2011 Oct 07; 334(6052):89-94. Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, McWhinnie A, Dalva K, Gragert L, Babrzadeh F, Gharizadeh B, Luo M, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Carrington M, Middleton D, Rajalingam R, Beksac M, Marsh SG, Maiers M, Guethlein LA, Tavoularis S, Little AM, Green RE, Norman PJ, Parham P. PMID: 21868630; PMCID: PMC3677943.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 189     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Comparison of KIR gene content profiles revealed a difference between northern and southern Persians in the distribution of KIR2DS5 and its linked loci. Hum Immunol. 2011 Nov; 72(11):1079-83. Solgi G, Ghafari H, Ashouri E, Alimoghdam K, Rajalingam R, Amirzargar A. PMID: 21867738.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. KIR-HLA mismatching in human renal allograft transplantation: emergence of a new concept. Am J Transplant. 2011 Sep; 11(9):1771-2. Rajalingam R, Gebel HM. PMID: 21714847.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Immunogenetics as a tool in anthropological studies. Immunology. 2011 Jun; 133(2):143-64. Sanchez-Mazas A, Fernandez-Viña M, Middleton D, Hollenbach JA, Buhler S, Di D, Rajalingam R, Dugoujon JM, Mack SJ, Thorsby E. PMID: 21480890; PMCID: PMC3088978.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. HLA-DRB1*0102 is associated with TINU syndrome and bilateral, sudden-onset anterior uveitis but not with interstitial nephritis alone. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 Jul; 95(7):971-5. Mackensen F, David F, Schwenger V, Smith LK, Rajalingam R, Levinson RD, Austin CR, Houghton D, Martin TM, Rosenbaum JT. PMID: 21059595.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Human-specific evolution and adaptation led to major qualitative differences in the variable receptors of human and chimpanzee natural killer cells. PLoS Genet. 2010 Nov 04; 6(11):e1001192. Abi-Rached L, Moesta AK, Rajalingam R, Guethlein LA, Parham P. PMID: 21079681; PMCID: PMC2973822.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene-cluster 3DS1-2DL5-2DS1-2DS5 predisposes susceptibility to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in Japanese individuals. Hum Immunol. 2010 Feb; 71(2):192-4. Levinson RD, Okada AA, Ashouri E, Keino H, Rajalingam R. PMID: 19897003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Activating killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors 3DS1 and 2DS1 protect against developing the severe form of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Hum Immunol. 2010 Feb; 71(2):212-9. Bonagura VR, Du Z, Ashouri E, Luo L, Hatam LJ, DeVoti JA, Rosenthal DW, Steinberg BM, Abramson AL, Gjertson DW, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 19861144; PMCID: PMC2815039.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    52. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors in HLA-B27-associated acute anterior uveitis, with and without axial spondyloarthropathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Mar; 51(3):1505-10. Levinson RD, Martin TM, Luo L, Ashouri E, Rosenbaum JT, Smith JR, Austin CR, Lutt JR, Rajalingam R. PMID: 19850842; PMCID: PMC2868435.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. KIR gene content diversity in four Iranian populations. Immunogenetics. 2009 Jul; 61(7):483-92. Ashouri E, Farjadian S, Reed EF, Ghaderi A, Rajalingam R. PMID: 19521696; PMCID: PMC2706385.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. A novel duplex SSP-PCR typing method for KIR gene profiling. Tissue Antigens. 2009 Jul; 74(1):62-7. Ashouri E, Ghaderi A, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 19392793.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. A novel real-time PCR method for KIR genotyping. Tissue Antigens. 2009 Feb; 73(2):188-91. Alves LG, Rajalingam R, Canavez F. PMID: 19140829.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Combination of KIR 2DL2 and HLA-C1 (Asn 80) confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Latvians. Int J Immunogenet. 2008 Dec; 35(6):439-46. Shastry A, Sedimbi SK, Rajalingam R, Nikitina-Zake L, Rumba I, Wigzell H, Sanjeevi CB. PMID: 19046302.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Different KIRs confer susceptibility and protection to adults with latent autoimmune diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian populations. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Dec; 1150:133-8. Shastry A, Sedimbi SK, Rajalingam R, Rumba I, Kanungo A, Sanjeevi CB. PMID: 19120281.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Variable interactions of recipient killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors with self and allogenic human leukocyte antigen class I ligands may influence the outcome of solid organ transplants. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008 Aug; 13(4):430-7. Rajalingam R. PMID: 18685341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    59. KIR2DL5 alleles mark certain combination of activating KIR genes. Genes Immun. 2008 Jul; 9(5):470-80. Du Z, Sharma SK, Spellman S, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 18509341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    60. KIR and HLA gene combinations in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Hum Immunol. 2008 Jun; 69(6):349-53. Levinson RD, Du Z, Luo L, Holland GN, Rao NA, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 18571006.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    61. Distinct diversity of KIR genes in three southern Indian populations: comparison with world populations revealed a link between KIR gene content and pre-historic human migrations. Immunogenetics. 2008 May; 60(5):207-17. Rajalingam R, Du Z, Meenagh A, Luo L, Kavitha VJ, Pavithra-Arulvani R, Vidhyalakshmi A, Sharma SK, Balazs I, Reed EF, Pitchappan RM, Middleton D. PMID: 18369612.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Comparison of the rapidly evolving KIR locus in Parsis and natives of India. Immunogenetics. 2008 Apr; 60(3-4):121-9. Kulkarni S, Single RM, Martin MP, Rajalingam R, Badwe R, Joshi N, Carrington M. PMID: 18351333.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    63. Combination of KIR and HLA gene variants augments the risk of developing birdshot chorioretinopathy in HLA-A*29-positive individuals. Genes Immun. 2008 Apr; 9(3):249-58. Levinson RD, Du Z, Luo L, Monnet D, Tabary T, Brezin AP, Zhao L, Gjertson DW, Holland GN, Reed EF, Cohen JH, Rajalingam R. PMID: 18340360.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    64. Chain-terminating natural mutations affect the function of activating KIR receptors 3DS1 and 2DS3. Immunogenetics. 2007 Oct; 59(10):779-92. Luo L, Du Z, Sharma SK, Cullen R, Spellman S, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 17646980.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    65. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors influence the innate and adaptive immune responses. Iran J Immunol. 2007 Jun; 4(2):61-78. Rajalingam R. PMID: 17652846.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    66. Receptor-ligand analyses define minimal killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) in humans. Immunogenetics. 2007 Jan; 59(1):1-15. Du Z, Gjertson DW, Reed EF, Rajalingam R. PMID: 17103212.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    67. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles in mestizo patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease in Southern California. Hum Immunol. 2004 Dec; 65(12):1477-82. Levinson RD, See RF, Rajalingam R, Reed EF, Park MS, Rao NA, Holland GN. PMID: 15603876.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. Human leukocyte antigen A29 subtypes associated with birdshot retinochoroidopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Oct; 138(4):631-4. Levinson RD, Rajalingam R, Park MS, Reed EF, Gjertson DW, Kappel PJ, See RF, Rao NA, Holland GN. PMID: 15488792.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    69. Anti-HLA class I antibody-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression in endothelial cells. Hum Immunol. 2004 Apr; 65(4):291-302. Jin YP, Fishbein MC, Said JW, Jindra PT, Rajalingam R, Rozengurt E, Reed EF. PMID: 15120184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    70. A sequencing-based typing method for HLA-DQA1 alleles. Hum Immunol. 2004 Apr; 65(4):373-9. Rajalingam R, Ge P, Reed EF. PMID: 15120193.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. Domain shuffling has been the main mechanism forming new hominoid killer cell Ig-like receptors. J Immunol. 2004 Jan 01; 172(1):356-69. Rajalingam R, Parham P, Abi-Rached L. PMID: 14688344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    72. Predominance of group A KIR haplotypes in Japanese associated with diverse NK cell repertoires of KIR expression. Immunogenetics. 2002 Nov; 54(8):543-50. Yawata M, Yawata N, McQueen KL, Cheng NW, Guethlein LA, Rajalingam R, Shilling HG, Parham P. PMID: 12439616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    73. Distinctive KIR and HLA diversity in a panel of north Indian Hindus. Immunogenetics. 2002 Mar; 53(12):1009-19. Rajalingam R, Krausa P, Shilling HG, Stein JB, Balamurugan A, McGinnis MD, Cheng NW, Mehra NK, Parham P. PMID: 11904677.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. Conservation and variation in human and common chimpanzee CD94 and NKG2 genes. J Immunol. 2002 Jan 01; 168(1):240-52. Shum BP, Flodin LR, Muir DG, Rajalingam R, Khakoo SI, Cleland S, Guethlein LA, Uhrberg M, Parham P. PMID: 11751968.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    75. Comparison of chimpanzee and human leukocyte Ig-like receptor genes reveals framework and rapidly evolving genes. J Immunol. 2001 Nov 15; 167(10):5786-94. Canavez F, Young NT, Guethlein LA, Rajalingam R, Khakoo SI, Shum BP, Parham P. PMID: 11698452.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    76. Molecular diversity of HLA-A*02 in Asian Indians: predominance of A*0211. Tissue Antigens. 2001 Jun; 57(6):502-7. Mehra NK, Jaini R, Rajalingam R, Balamurugan A, Kaur G. PMID: 11556980.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    77. Different NK cell surface phenotypes defined by the DX9 antibody are due to KIR3DL1 gene polymorphism. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 01; 166(5):2992-3001. Gardiner CM, Guethlein LA, Shilling HG, Pando M, Carr WH, Rajalingam R, Vilches C, Parham P. PMID: 11207248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 109     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    78. Short KIR haplotypes in pygmy chimpanzee (Bonobo) resemble the conserved framework of diverse human KIR haplotypes. J Exp Med. 2001 Jan 01; 193(1):135-46. Rajalingam R, Hong M, Adams EJ, Shum BP, Guethlein LA, Parham P. PMID: 11136827; PMCID: PMC2195888.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    79. Identification of seventeen novel KIR variants: fourteen of them from two non-Caucasian donors. Tissue Antigens. 2001 Jan; 57(1):22-31. Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Canavez F, Vilches C, Parham P. PMID: 11169255.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    80. Discovery of two novel variants of KIR2DS5 reveals this gene to be a common component of human KIR 'B' haplotypes. Tissue Antigens. 2000 Nov; 56(5):453-6. Vilches C, Pando MJ, Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Parham P. PMID: 11144295.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    81. Cold reactive lymphocytotoxic antibodies in pulmonary tuberculosis: correlation with disease activity and HLA. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Jul; 38(7):643-50. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Jain RC. PMID: 11215305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    82. Polymorphism in heat-shock protein 70-1 (HSP70-1) gene promoter region and susceptibility to tuberculoid leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis in Asian Indians. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Jul; 38(7):658-62. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Singal DP. PMID: 11215307.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    83. Rapid evolution of NK cell receptor systems demonstrated by comparison of chimpanzees and humans. Immunity. 2000 Jun; 12(6):687-98. Khakoo SI, Rajalingam R, Shum BP, Weidenbach K, Flodin L, Muir DG, Canavez F, Cooper SL, Valiante NM, Lanier LL, Parham P. PMID: 10894168.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 93     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    84. KIR2DL5, a novel killer-cell receptor with a D0-D2 configuration of Ig-like domains. J Immunol. 2000 Jun 01; 164(11):5797-804. Vilches C, Rajalingam R, Uhrberg M, Gardiner CM, Young NT, Parham P. PMID: 10820258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    85. A divergent non-classical class I gene conserved in salmonids. Immunogenetics. 1999 Jun; 49(6):479-90. Shum BP, Rajalingam R, Magor KE, Azumi K, Carr WH, Dixon B, Stet RJ, Adkison MA, Hedrick RP, Parham P. PMID: 10380691.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Polymorphic MHC molecules dictate cytokine profile and clinical disease in mycobacterial diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 1997 Dec; 12(Suppl 1):100. Mehra NK, Mitra DK, Rajalingam R. PMID: 23100914; PMCID: PMC3454303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    87. HLA class I profile in Asian Indian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Oct; 35(10):1055-9. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Mehra RD, Neolia S, Jain RC, Pande JN. PMID: 9475039.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    88. HLA association and occurrence of autoantibodies in Asian-Indian patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997 May; 92(5):772-6. Habeeb MA, Rajalingam R, Dhar A, Kumar A, Sharma MP, Mehra NK. PMID: 9149183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    89. Transporter associated with antigen-processing (TAP) genes and susceptibility to tuberculoid leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis. Tissue Antigens. 1997 Feb; 49(2):168-72. Rajalingam R, Singal DP, Mehra NK. PMID: 9062973.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    90. HLA-DR polymorphism modulates the cytokine profile of Mycobacterium leprae HSP-reactive CD4+ T cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1997 Jan; 82(1):60-7. Mitra DK, Rajalingam R, Taneja V, Bhattacharyya BC, Mehra NK. PMID: 9000043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    91. Anti-IgG autoantibodies and possible immune regulatory mechanisms in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis. 1996 Dec; 77(6):502-9. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Chopra GS, Puri MM, Jain RC. PMID: 9039442.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    92. Direct role of HLA-B5 in influencing susceptibility to Takayasu aortoarteritis. Int J Cardiol. 1996 Aug; 54 Suppl:S71-9. Mehra NK, Rajalingam R, Sagar S, Jain S, Sharma BK. PMID: 9119529.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    93. Correlation of serum interleukin-2 receptor-alpha levels with clinical manifestations in pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis. 1996 Aug; 77(4):374-9. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Pande JN, Jain RC, Singla R. PMID: 8796256.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    94. Polymerase chain reaction--based sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridization analysis of HLA class II antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis: relevance to chemotherapy and disease severity. J Infect Dis. 1996 Mar; 173(3):669-76. Rajalingam R, Mehra NK, Jain RC, Myneedu VP, Pande JN. PMID: 8627031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    95. Generation of DR51-associated DQA1, DQB1 haplotypes in Asian Indians. Tissue Antigens. 1996 Jan; 47(1):85-9. Mehra NK, Rajalingam R, Giphart MJ. PMID: 8929717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    96. CD4+ T-cell responses to recombinant hsp65 and hsp18 of M. leprae and their trypsin-digested fragments in leprosy: diversity in HLA-DR restriction. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1995 Dec; 63(4):518-28. Mitra DK, Mehra NK, Maiti TK, Banerjee A, Taneja V, Rajalingam R, Ahuja RK, Bhattacharya BC. PMID: 8642214.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    97. Variants of HLA-DR2/DR51 group haplotypes and susceptibility to tuberculoid leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis in Asian Indians. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1995 Jun; 63(2):241-8. Mehra NK, Rajalingam R, Mitra DK, Taneja V, Giphart MJ. PMID: 7602219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    98. Dorsolateral prostatic phosphomonoesterases and adenosine triphosphatases in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1994 Sep; 32(9):616-8. Sidharthan V, Rose PJ, Rajalingam R, Udhayakumar RC, Aruldhas MM, Govindarajulu P. PMID: 7814039.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    99. Asian Indian HLA-DR2-, DR4-, and DR52-related DR-DQ genotypes analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based nonradioactive oligonucleotide typing. Unique haplotypes and a novel DR4 subtype. Hum Immunol. 1994 Mar; 39(3):202-10. Mehra NK, Bouwens AG, Naipal A, Rajalingam R, Grubic Z, Taneja V, Tilanus MG, Giphart MJ. PMID: 8026988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    100. Effects of alloxan induced diabetes on lipid profiles in renal cortex and medulla of mature albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993 Jun; 31(6):577-9. Rajalingam R, Srinivasan N, Govindarajulu P. PMID: 8406610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    101. Ventral prostatic phosphomonoesterases and adenosine triphosphatases in hypo- and hyperthyroid albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993 May; 31(5):414-6. Sidharthan V, Rajalingam R, Aruldhas MM, Govindarajulu P. PMID: 8395467.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    102. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in respiratory allergy. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1992 Dec; 10(2):151-8. Mehra NK, Rajalingam R, Bovornkitti S. PMID: 1305817.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
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