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Dean Chou, MD

Address400 Parnassus Ave, UC Clinics
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-353-2348
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.1995 Medicine
    The Johns Hopkins HospitalIntern1996General Surgery
    The Johns Hopkins HospitalResident1997Neurosurgery
    The Johns Hopkins HospitalChief Resident2002Neurosurgery
    Barrow Neurologic InstituteSpine Fellow2003Complex Spinal Surgery
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Best Doctors2009  - 2016Best Doctors in America (8 consecutive years)
    Neurosurgery2014  - 2015Associate Editor
    SPINE2012  - 2015Member, Advisory Board Member
    The Global Spine Journal2015  - 2015Editorial Board
    Journal of Neurosurgery2015  - 2015Cover Article, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
    Journal of Neurosurgery2014  - 2014Cover Article, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
    Journal of Neurosurgery2010  - 2010Cover Article, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
    Journal of Neurosurgery2009  - 2009Cover Article, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
    Journal of Neurosurgery2004  - 2004Cover Article, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
    University of California San Francisco2015  - 2015Harold Rosegay Resident Teaching Award
    University of California San Francisco2007  - 2007Harold Rosegay Resident Teaching Award
    Becker’s Spine Review2014  - 2014Spine Surgeon to Know
    Becker's Spine Review2013  - 2013Spine Surgeon Leader to Know
    Becker's Orthopedics & Pain Management2012  - 2012208 Spine Surgeons & Specialists to Know
    Who's Who2007  - 2007Who's Who in American Teachers and Educators
    Who's Who2007  - 2007Who's Who in Science and Engineering
    American Association of Neurological Surgeons2000  - 2002AANS Neurosurgery Research and Education Foundation (NREF) Grant
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute1994  - 1995Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Training Fellowship

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Dean Chou specializes in the treatment of complex and difficult spinal disorders. He treats such disorders as adult scoliosis, spinal deformities, flat back syndrome, kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis, spinal tumors, primary bony tumors of the spinal column, and metastatic disease to the spine. He is an expert in minimally invasive applications to such complex spinal disorders, and he has had multiple peer-reviewed papers published, describing his techniques. Moreover, he is an expert in traditional, open surgery for such complex procedures as en bloc spondylectomy and sacral resections for tumors, and osteotomies for adult scoliosis and adult deformity. His research goal is to try to accomplish the same goals of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques, which hopefully can lead to less morbidity and better outcomes for patients.

    After medical school at UCSF, Dr. Chou completed his residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and then undertook a fellowship in complex spinal surgery at The Barrow Neurological Institute. He is board certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery and has been elected by his peers for the past 8 consecutive years to the organization, “Best Doctors in America.”

    In addition to having published as either first or senior author in SPINE, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, and Neurosurgery, his publications have been featured 5 times as the cover article of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine.

    Dr. Chou is on the Advisory Board of the journal, SPINE, the Editorial Board of The Global Spine Journal, and on the Editorial Board for the journal, Neurosurgery. He has served for many years on the Scientific Program Committee for the AANS/CNS Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, as an abstract reviewer for such society meetings as the North American Spine Society (NASS) and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, and as faculty member for The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, The North American Spine Society, The Lumbar Spine Research Society, and the AANS/CNS Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves.


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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Chou D, Bilsky MH, Luzzati A, Fisher CG, Gokaslan ZL, Rhines LD, Dekutoski MB, Fehlings MG, Ghag R, Varga P, Boriani S, Germscheid NM, Reynolds JJ. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the spine: results of surgical management from a multicenter study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Nov 11; 1-8. PMID: 27834629.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Keefe MK, Zygourakis CC, Theologis AA, Canepa E, Shaw JD, Goldman LH, Burch S, Berven S, Chou D, Tay B, Mummaneni P, Deviren V, Ames CP. Sexual function after cervical spine surgery: Independent predictors of functional impairment. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Nov 4. PMID: 27825608.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Zuckerman SL, Laufer I, Sahgal A, Yamada YJ, Schmidt MH, Chou D, Shin JH, Kumar N, Sciubba DM. When Less Is More: The indications for MIS Techniques and Separation Surgery in Metastatic Spine Disease. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Oct 15; 41 Suppl 20:S246-S253. PMID: 27753784.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Batista N, Tee J, Sciubba D, Sahgal A, Laufer I, Weber M, Gokaslan Z, Rhines L, Fehlings M, Patel S, Raja Rampersaud Y, Reynolds J, Chou D, Bettegowda C, Clarke M, Fisher C. Emerging and established clinical, histopathological and molecular parametric prognostic factors for metastatic spine disease secondary to lung cancer: Helping surgeons make decisions. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Dec; 34:15-22. PMID: 27634496.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lau D, Winkler EA, Than KD, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. 169 Laminoplasty vs Laminectomy With Posterior Spinal Fusion for Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Matched Cohorts of Regional Sagittal Balance. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:167-8. PMID: 27399448.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Burke JF, Ohya J, Vogel TD, Virk M, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. 170 The Accuracy of Multimodality Intraoperative Neuromonitoring to Predict Postoperative Neurological Deficits Following Cervical Laminoplasty. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:168. PMID: 27399449.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Lau D, Chou D. 350 Mini-open Transpedicular Corpectomy and Percutaneous Instrumentation Without Fusion: Reoperation Rates for Implant Failure and Pseudarthrosis. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:203. PMID: 27399548.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Than KD, Nguyen S, Park P, Chou D, La Marca F, Uribe JS, Vogel TD, Nunley PD, Eastlack R, Anand N, Kanter AS, Mummaneni PV, Mundis GM. 165 What Is the Effect of Open vs Percutaneous Screws on Complications Among Patients Undergoing Lateral Interbody Fusion for Adult Spinal Deformity? Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:166. PMID: 27399444.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Nunley PD, Fessler RG, Park P, Zavatsky JM, Mundis GM, Uribe JS, Eastlack R, Nguyen S, Chou D, Wang MY, Anand N, Kanter AS, Shaffrey CI, Mummaneni PV. 371 How Do Case Type, Length of Stay, and Comorbidities Affect Medicare Diagnosis-Related Group Reimbursement for Minimally Invasive Surgery for Deformity? Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:210. PMID: 27399568.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Safaee MM, Lyon R, Barbaro NM, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Weinstein PR, Chin CT, Tihan T, Ames CP, et al. Neurological outcomes and surgical complications in 221 spinal nerve sheath tumors. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Jul 29; 1-9. PMID: 27472744.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lau D, Chan AK, Theologis AA, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Burch S, Berven S, Deviren V, Ames C. Costs and readmission rates for the resection of primary and metastatic spinal tumors: a comparative analysis of 181 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Apr 29; 1-13. PMID: 27129043.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Niu T, Lu DS, Yew A, Lau D, Hoffman H, McArthur D, Chou D, Lu DC. Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Rates with Subfascial Epidural Drain Placement after Intentional Durotomy in Spine Surgery. Global Spine J. 2016 Dec; 6(8):780-785. PMID: 27853662.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Theologis AA, Lansdown D, McClellan RT, Chou D, Pekmezci M. Multi-level Corpectomy with Anterior Column Reconstruction and Plating for Subaxial Cervical Osteomyelitis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Mar 10. PMID: 26974830.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Dekutoski MB, Clarke MJ, Rose P, Luzzati A, Rhines LD, Varga PP, Fisher CG, Chou D, Fehlings MG, Reynolds JJ, Williams R, Quraishi NA, Germscheid NM, Sciubba DM, Gokaslan ZL, Boriani S. Osteosarcoma of the spine: prognostic variables for local recurrence and overall survival, a multicenter ambispective study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Jul; 25(1):59-68. PMID: 26943248.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Than KD, Park P, Fu KM, Nguyen S, Wang MY, Chou D, Nunley PD, Anand N, Fessler RG, Shaffrey CI, Bess S, Akbarnia BA, Deviren V, Uribe JS, La Marca F, Kanter AS, Okonkwo DO, Mundis GM, Mummaneni PV. Clinical and radiographic parameters associated with best versus worst clinical outcomes in minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Jul; 25(1):21-5. PMID: 26943254.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Fehlings MG, Nater A, Zamorano JJ, Tetreault LA, Varga PP, Gokaslan ZL, Boriani S, Fisher CG, Rhines L, Bettegowda C, Kawahara N, Chou D. Risk Factors for Recurrence of Surgically Treated Conventional Spinal Schwannomas: Analysis of 169 Patients From a Multicenter International Database. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Mar; 41(5):390-8. PMID: 26555828.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Theologis AA, Miller L, Callahan M, Lau D, Zygourakis C, Scheer JK, Burch S, Pekmezci M, Chou D, Tay B, Mummaneni P, Berven S, Deviren V, Ames CP. The Economic Impact of Revision Surgery for Proximal Junctional Failure after Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Cost Analysis of 57 Operations in A 10-Year Experience at a Major Deformity Center. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Feb 18. PMID: 26909838.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Safaee M, Oh T, Barbaro NM, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Weinstein PR, Tihan T, Ames CP. Results of Spinal Fusion After Spinal Nerve Sheath Tumor Resection. World Neurosurg. 2016 Jun; 90:6-13. PMID: 26802866.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Park P, Wang MY, Nguyen S, Mundis GM, La Marca F, Uribe JS, Anand N, Okonkwo DO, Kanter AS, Fessler R, Eastlack RK, Chou D, Deviren V, Nunley PD, Shaffrey CI, Mummaneni PV. Comparison of Complications and Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes Between Nonobese and Obese Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity Undergoing Minimally Invasive Surgery. World Neurosurg. 2016 Mar; 87:55-60. PMID: 26724613.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Gokaslan ZL, Zadnik PL, Sciubba DM, Germscheid N, Goodwin CR, Wolinsky JP, Bettegowda C, Groves ML, Luzzati A, Rhines LD, Fisher CG, Varga PP, Dekutoski MB, Clarke MJ, Fehlings MG, Quraishi NA, Chou D, Reynolds JJ, Williams RP, Kawahara N, Boriani S. Mobile spine chordoma: results of 166 patients from the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor database. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Apr; 24(4):644-51. PMID: 26682601.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Sciubba DM, Goodwin CR, Yurter A, Ju D, Gokaslan ZL, Fisher C, Rhines LD, Fehlings MG, Fourney DR, Mendel E, Laufer I, Bettegowda C, Patel SR, Rampersaud YR, Sahgal A, Reynolds J, Chou D, Weber MH, Clarke MJ. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer. Global Spine J. 2016 Aug; 6(5):482-96. PMID: 27433433.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Park P, Okonkwo DO, Nguyen S, Mundis GM, Than KD, Deviren V, La Marca F, Fu KM, Wang MY, Uribe JS, Anand N, Fessler R, Nunley PD, Chou D, Kanter AS, Shaffrey CI, Akbarnia BA, Passias PG, Eastlack RK, Mummaneni PV. Can a Minimal Clinically Important Difference Be Achieved in Elderly Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity Who Undergo Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery? World Neurosurg. 2016 Feb; 86:168-72. PMID: 26431736.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Park P, Mummaneni PV, La Marca F, Fu KM, Nguyen S, Wang MY, Uribe JS, Anand N, Mundis G, Deviren V, Kanter AS, Fessler RG, Shaffrey CI, Akbarnia BA, Passias PG, Nunley PD, Chou D, Eastlack R, Okonkwo DO. 167 What Is the Impact of Obesity in MIS vs OPEN Surgery for Adult Spinal Deformity? Neurosurgery. 2015 Aug; 62 Suppl 1:221. PMID: 26182013.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Mundis G, Uribe JS, Mummaneni PV, Anand N, Park P, Okonkwo DO, Kanter AS, Fessler RG, Nguyen S, Akbarnia BA, Bess S, Wang MY, La Marca F, Than KD, Deviren V, Chou D, Lafage V, Schwab F, Shaffrey CI. 172 A Critical Analysis of Sagittal Plane Deformity Correction With Minimally Invasive Surgery: A 2-Year Follow-up Study of Deformity Patients Categorized by the SRS-Schwab Classification. Neurosurgery. 2015 Aug; 62 Suppl 1:222-3. PMID: 26182018.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Safaee M, Parsa AT, Barbaro NM, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Weinstein PR, Tihan T, Ames CP. Association of tumor location, extent of resection, and ncurofibromatosis status with clinical outcomes for 221 spinal nerve sheath tumors. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Aug; 39(2):E5. PMID: 26235022.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Raygor KP, Than KD, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Comparison of minimally invasive transspinous and open approaches for thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal tumors. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Aug; 39(2):E12. PMID: 26235010.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Chou D. Considerations When Contemplating Minimally Invasive Versus Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion. World Neurosurg. 2015 Nov; 84(5):1205-6. PMID: 26141746.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Lau D, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Two-level corpectomy versus three-level discectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a comparison of perioperative, radiographic, and clinical outcomes. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Sep; 23(3):280-9. PMID: 26091438.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Lau D, Chou D. Posterior thoracic corpectomy with cage reconstruction for metastatic spinal tumors: comparing the mini-open approach to the open approach. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Aug; 23(2):217-27. PMID: 25932599.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Goldstein CL, Varga PP, Gokaslan ZL, Boriani S, Luzzati A, Rhines L, Fisher CG, Chou D, Williams RP, Dekutoski MB, Quraishi NA, Bettegowda C, Kawahara N, Fehlings MG. Spinal hemangiomas: results of surgical management for local recurrence and mortality in a multicenter study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 May 1; 40(9):656-64. PMID: 26030216.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Sciubba DM, Macki M, Bydon M, Germscheid NM, Wolinsky JP, Boriani S, Bettegowda C, Chou D, Luzzati A, Reynolds JJ, Szövérfi Z, Zadnik P, Rhines LD, Gokaslan ZL, Fisher CG, Varga PP. Long-term outcomes in primary spinal osteochondroma: a multicenter study of 27 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Jun; 22(6):582-8. PMID: 25793467.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Jahangiri A, Chin AT, Wagner JR, Kunwar S, Ames C, Chou D, Barani I, Parsa AT, McDermott MW, Benet A, El-Sayed IH, Aghi MK. Factors predicting recurrence after resection of clival chordoma using variable surgical approaches and radiation modalities. Neurosurgery. 2015 Feb; 76(2):179-85; discussion 185-6. PMID: 25594191.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Varga PP, Szövérfi Z, Fisher CG, Boriani S, Gokaslan ZL, Dekutoski MB, Chou D, Quraishi NA, Reynolds JJ, Luzzati A, Williams R, Fehlings MG, Germscheid NM, Lazary A, Rhines LD. Surgical treatment of sacral chordoma: prognostic variables for local recurrence and overall survival. Eur Spine J. 2015 May; 24(5):1092-101. PMID: 25533857.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Schairer WW, Carrer A, Sing DC, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Hu SS, Berven SH, Burch S, Tay B, Deviren V, Ames C. Hospital readmission rates after surgical treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Oct 1; 39(21):1801-8. PMID: 25029220.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Siemionow K, Chou D. To the occiput or not? C1-c2 ligamentous laxity in children with down syndrome. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2014 Oct; 5(2):112-8. PMID: 25364324; PMCID: PMC4212581.
    36. Fisher CG, Goldschlager T, Boriani S, Varga PP, Rhines LD, Fehlings MG, Luzzati A, Dekutoski MB, Reynolds JJ, Chou D, Berven SH, Williams RP, Quraishi NA, Bettegowda C, Gokaslan ZL. An evidence-based medicine model for rare and often neglected neoplastic conditions. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Nov; 21(5):704-10. PMID: 25192373.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Wadhwa R, Mummaneni PV, Lau D, Le H, Chou D, Dhall SS. Perioperative morbidity and mortality comparison in circumferential cervical fusion for osteomyelitis versus cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Aug; 37(2):E7. PMID: 25081967.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Tabaraee E, Mummaneni P, Abdul-Jabbar A, Shearer D, Roy E, Amin B, Ames C, Burch S, Deviren V, Berven S, Hu S, Chou D, Tay BK. A Comparison of Implants Used in Open-Door Laminoplasty: Structural Rib Allografts Versus Metallic Mini-Plates. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2014 Jul 29. PMID: 25075986.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Boriani S, Lo SF, Puvanesarajah V, Fisher CG, Varga PP, Rhines LD, Germscheid NM, Luzzati A, Chou D, Reynolds JJ, Williams RP, Zadnik P, Groves M, Sciubba DM, Bettegowda C, Gokaslan ZL. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine: treatment options and considerations. J Neurooncol. 2014 Oct; 120(1):171-8. PMID: 25059450.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Lau D, Chou D, Ziewacz JE, Mummaneni PV. The effects of smoking on perioperative outcomes and pseudarthrosis following anterior cervical corpectomy: Clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Oct; 21(4):547-58. PMID: 25014499.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Molina CA, Ames CP, Chou D, Rhines LD, Hsieh PC, Zadnik PL, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Sciubba DM. Outcomes following attempted en bloc resection of cervical chordomas in the C-1 and C-2 region versus the subaxial region: a multiinstitutional experience. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Sep; 21(3):348-56. PMID: 24926926.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Saigal R, Lau D, Wadhwa R, Le H, Khashan M, Berven S, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Unilateral versus bilateral iliac screws for spinopelvic fixation: are two screws better than one? Neurosurg Focus. 2014 May; 36(5):E10. PMID: 24785475.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Saigal R, Wadhwa R, Mummaneni PV, Chou D. Minimally invasive extracavitary transpedicular corpectomy for the management of spinal tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014 Apr; 25(2):305-15. PMID: 24703448.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Tran M, Wadhwa R, Ziewacz J, Mummaneni P, Chou D. Comparison between C1-2 Fixation with and without Supplemental Posterior Wiring. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2014 Apr; 5(1):12-5. PMID: 24715868; PMCID: PMC3969422.
    45. Saigal R, Lu DC, Deng DY, Chou D. Conversion of high sacral to midsacral amputation via S-2 nerve preservation during partial S-2 sacrectomy for chordoma. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Apr; 20(4):421-9. PMID: 24527829.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Safaee M, Oh MC, Mummaneni PV, Weinstein PR, Ames CP, Chou D, Berger MS, Parsa AT, Gupta N. Surgical outcomes in spinal cord ependymomas and the importance of extent of resection in children and young adults. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Apr; 13(4):393-9. PMID: 24506340.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Maa J, Waterford S, Jahan T, Larson DA, Chou D. A novel use of foley catheters to prevent injury to the pelvic viscera during stereotactic radiosurgery for undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the sacrum. Perm J. 2014; 18(3):e146-9. PMID: 25102522; PMCID: PMC4116273.
    48. Maruo K, Ha Y, Inoue S, Samuel S, Okada E, Hu SS, Deviren V, Burch S, William S, Ames CP, Mummaneni PV, Chou D, Berven SH. Predictive factors for proximal junctional kyphosis in long fusions to the sacrum in adult spinal deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Nov 1; 38(23):E1469-76. PMID: 23921319.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Chou D, Lau D, Roy E. Feasibility of the mini-open vertebral column resection for severe thoracic kyphosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2014 May; 21(5):841-5. PMID: 24326255.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Abdul-Jabbar A, Berven SH, Hu SS, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Takemoto S, Ames C, Deviren V, Tay B, Weinstein P, Burch S, Liu C. Surgical site infections in spine surgery: identification of microbiologic and surgical characteristics in 239 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Oct 15; 38(22):E1425-31. PMID: 23873240.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lau D, Maa J, Mummaneni PV, Chou D. Holospinal epidural abscess. J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Mar; 21(3):517-20. PMID: 24128769.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Fisher CG, Goldschlager T, Boriani S, Varga PP, Fehlings MG, Bilsky MH, Dekutoski MB, Luzzati A, Williams RP, Berven S, Chou D, Reynolds JJ, Quraishi NA, Rhines LD, Bettegowda C, Gokaslan ZL. A novel scientific model for rare and often neglected neoplastic conditions. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2013 Oct; 4(2):160-2. PMID: 24436717; PMCID: PMC3836955.
    53. Schairer WW, Carrer A, Deviren V, Hu SS, Takemoto S, Mummaneni P, Chou D, Ames C, Burch S, Tay B, Sawyer A, Berven SH. Hospital readmission after spine fusion for adult spinal deformity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Sep 1; 38(19):1681-9. PMID: 23698572.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Lau D, Yarlagadda J, Jahan T, Jablons D, Chou D. Desmoplastic fibroma of the spine causing severe mediastinal compression and brachial plexus encasement: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Oct; 19(4):515-20. PMID: 23952324.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Tarapore PE, Modera P, Naujokas A, Oh MC, Amin B, Tihan T, Parsa AT, Ames CP, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Weinstein PR. Pathology of spinal ependymomas: an institutional experience over 25 years in 134 patients. Neurosurgery. 2013 Aug; 73(2):247-55; discussion 255. PMID: 23670032.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Cheng JS, Park P, Le H, Reisner L, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Short-term and long-term outcomes of minimally invasive and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions: is there a difference? Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Aug; 35(2):E6. PMID: 23905957.
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    57. Ha Y, Maruo K, Racine L, Schairer WW, Hu SS, Deviren V, Burch S, Tay B, Chou D, Mummaneni PV, Ames CP, Berven SH. Proximal junctional kyphosis and clinical outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery with fusion from the thoracic spine to the sacrum: a comparison of proximal and distal upper instrumented vertebrae. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Sep; 19(3):360-9. PMID: 23848349.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Clark AJ, Ziewacz JE, Safaee M, Lau D, Lyon R, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Ames CP, Clark JP, Mummaneni PV. Intraoperative neuromonitoring with MEPs and prediction of postoperative neurological deficits in patients undergoing surgery for cervical and cervicothoracic myelopathy. Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Jul; 35(1):E7. PMID: 23815252.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Fujimori T, Le H, Ziewacz JE, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Is there a difference in range of motion, neck pain, and outcomes in patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament versus those with cervical spondylosis, treated with plated laminoplasty? Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Jul; 35(1):E9. PMID: 23815254.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Amin BY, Tu TH, Schairer WW, Na L, Takemoto S, Berven S, Deviren V, Ames C, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. Pitfalls of calculating hospital readmission rates based on nonvalidated administrative data sets: : presented at the 2012 Joint Spine Section Meeting: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Feb; 18(2):134-8. PMID: 23186376.
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    61. Lu DC, Tumialán LM, Chou D. Multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with and without rhBMP-2: a comparison of dysphagia rates and outcomes in 150 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Jan; 18(1):43-9. PMID: 23157278.
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    62. Chou D, Dekutoski M, Hermsmeyer J, Norvell DC. The treatment of lumbar adjacent segment pathology after a previous lumbar surgery: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Oct 15; 37(22 Suppl):S180-8. PMID: 22885830.
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    63. Anderson PA, Andersson GB, Arnold PM, Brodke DS, Brodt ED, Chapman JR, Chou D, Dekutoski M, Dettori JR, DeVine JG, Ely CG, Fehlings MG, Fischer DJ, Fourney DR, Hansen MA, Harrod CC, Hashimoto R, Hermsmeyer JT, Hilibrand AS, Kasliwal MK, Kelly MP, Kim HJ, Kraemer P, Lawrence BD, Lee MJ, Lenke LG, Norvell DC, Raich A, Riew KD, Shaffrey CI, Skelly AC, Smith JS, Standaert CJ, Van Alstyne EM, Wang JC. Terminology. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Oct 15; 37(22 Suppl):S8-9. PMID: 22878707.
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    64. Abdul-Jabbar A, Takemoto S, Weber MH, Hu SS, Mummaneni PV, Deviren V, Ames CP, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Burch S, Berven SH. Surgical site infection in spinal surgery: description of surgical and patient-based risk factors for postoperative infection using administrative claims data. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jul 1; 37(15):1340-5. PMID: 22210012.
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    65. Chou D, Samartzis D, Bellabarba C, Patel A, Luk KD, Kisser JM, Skelly AC. Degenerative magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Oct 1; 36(21 Suppl):S43-53. PMID: 21952189.
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    66. Chou D, Lau D, Skelly A, Ecker E. Dynamic stabilization versus fusion for treatment of degenerative spine conditions. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2011 Aug; 2(3):33-42. PMID: 23526895; PMCID: PMC3604751.
    67. Fourney DR, Frangou EM, Ryken TC, Dipaola CP, Shaffrey CI, Berven SH, Bilsky MH, Harrop JS, Fehlings MG, Boriani S, Chou D, Schmidt MH, Polly DW, Biagini R, Burch S, Dekutoski MB, Ganju A, Gerszten PC, Gokaslan ZL, Groff MW, Liebsch NJ, Mendel E, Okuno SH, Patel S, Rhines LD, Rose PS, Sciubba DM, Sundaresan N, Tomita K, Varga PP, Vialle LR, Vrionis FD, Yamada Y, Fisher CG. Spinal instability neoplastic score: an analysis of reliability and validity from the spine oncology study group. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 1; 29(22):3072-7. PMID: 21709187.
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    68. Acosta FL, Sanai N, Cloyd J, Deviren V, Chou D, Ames CP. Treatment of Enneking stage 3 aggressive vertebral hemangiomas with intralesional spondylectomy: report of 10 cases and review of the literature. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Jun; 24(4):268-75. PMID: 20844447.
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    69. Han SJ, Lau D, Lu DC, Theodore P, Chou D. Anterior thoracolumbar corpectomies: approach morbidity with and without an access surgeon. Neurosurgery. 2011 May; 68(5):1220-5; discussion 1225-6. PMID: 21307792.
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    70. Lu DC, Chou D, Mummaneni PV. A comparison of mini-open and open approaches for resection of thoracolumbar intradural spinal tumors. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Jun; 14(6):758-64. PMID: 21395392.
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    71. Waldron JS, Oh MC, Chou D. Lumbar subdural hematoma from intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage presenting with bilateral foot drop: case report. Neurosurgery. 2011 Mar; 68(3):E835-9; discussion E839. PMID: 21311278.
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    72. Lau D, Lee JG, Han SJ, Lu DC, Chou D. Complications and perioperative factors associated with learning the technique of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). J Clin Neurosci. 2011 May; 18(5):624-7. PMID: 21349719.
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    73. Chou D, Lau D, Hermsmeyer J, Norvell D. Efficacy of interspinous device versus surgical decompression in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: a modified network analysis. Evid Based Spine Care J. 2011 Feb; 2(1):45-56. PMID: 22956936; PMCID: PMC3427972.
    74. Hofstetter CP, Chou D, Newman CB, Aryan HE, Girardi FP, Härtl R. Posterior approach for thoracolumbar corpectomies with expandable cage placement and circumferential arthrodesis: a multicenter case series of 67 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Mar; 14(3):388-97. PMID: 21235298.
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    75. Chou D, Lu DC. Mini-open transpedicular corpectomies with expandable cage reconstruction. Technical note. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Jan; 14(1):71-7. PMID: 21166488.
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    76. Wang VY, Chou D, Chin C. Spine and spinal cord emergencies: vascular and infectious causes. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2010 Nov; 20(4):639-50. PMID: 20974380.
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    77. Fisher CG, DiPaola CP, Ryken TC, Bilsky MH, Shaffrey CI, Berven SH, Harrop JS, Fehlings MG, Boriani S, Chou D, Schmidt MH, Polly DW, Biagini R, Burch S, Dekutoski MB, Ganju A, Gerszten PC, Gokaslan ZL, Groff MW, Liebsch NJ, Mendel E, Okuno SH, Patel S, Rhines LD, Rose PS, Sciubba DM, Sundaresan N, Tomita K, Varga PP, Vialle LR, Vrionis FD, Yamada Y, Fourney DR. A novel classification system for spinal instability in neoplastic disease: an evidence-based approach and expert consensus from the Spine Oncology Study Group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Oct 15; 35(22):E1221-9. PMID: 20562730.
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    78. Lau D, Han SJ, Lee JG, Lu DC, Chou D. Minimally invasive compared to open microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan; 18(1):81-4. PMID: 20851604.
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    79. Clark AJ, Lu DC, Richardson RM, Tihan T, Parsa AT, Chou D, Barbaro NM, Kunwar S, Weinstein PR, Lawton MT, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Surgical technique of temporary arterial occlusion in the operative management of spinal hemangioblastomas. World Neurosurg. 2010 Jul; 74(1):200-5. PMID: 21300014.
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    80. Lu DC, Lau D, Lee JG, Chou D. The transpedicular approach compared with the anterior approach: an analysis of 80 thoracolumbar corpectomies. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Jun; 12(6):583-91. PMID: 20515342.
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    81. Mummaneni PV, Lu DC, Dhall SS, Mummaneni VP, Chou D. C1 lateral mass fixation: a comparison of constructs. Neurosurgery. 2010 Mar; 66(3 Suppl):153-60. PMID: 20173519.
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    82. Wang VY, Chin CT, Lu DC, Smith JS, Chou D. Free-hand thoracic pedicle screws placed by neurosurgery residents: a CT analysis. Eur Spine J. 2010 May; 19(5):821-7. PMID: 20135332; PMCID: PMC2899961.
    83. Chou D, Wang VY, Storm PB. Pedicle subtraction osteotomies for the correction of post-traumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2010 Jan; 17(1):113-7. PMID: 19910199.
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    84. Polly DW, Chou D, Sembrano JN, Ledonio CG, Tomita K. An analysis of decision making and treatment in thoracolumbar metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Oct 15; 34(22 Suppl):S118-27. PMID: 19829271.
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    85. Cloyd JM, Chou D, Deviren V, Ames CP. En bloc resection of primary tumors of the cervical spine: report of two cases and systematic review of the literature. Spine J. 2009 Nov; 9(11):928-35. PMID: 19716772.
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    86. Chou D, Eltgroth M, Yang I, Lu D, Manley G. Rib head disarticulation for multilevel transpedicular thoracic corpectomies and expandable cage reconstruction. Neurol India. 2009 Jul-Aug; 57(4):469-74. PMID: 19770550.
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    87. Chou D, Wang VY, Gupta N. Transpedicular corpectomy with posterior expandable cage placement for L1 burst fracture. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Aug; 16(8):1069-72. PMID: 19467871.
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    88. Chou D, Acosta F, Cloyd JM, Ames CP. Parasagittal osteotomy for en bloc resection of multilevel cervical chordomas. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 May; 10(5):397-403. PMID: 19442000.
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    89. Chou D, Wang VY, Khan AS. Primary dural repair during minimally invasive microdiscectomy using standard operating room instruments. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):356-8; discussion 358-9. PMID: 19404114.
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    90. Chou D, Wang V. Two-level en bloc spondylectomy for osteosarcoma at the cervicothoracic junction. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 May; 16(5):698-700. PMID: 19261474.
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    91. Hayden MG, Gephart R, Kalanithi P, Chou D. Von Hippel-Lindau disease in pregnancy: a brief review. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 May; 16(5):611-3. PMID: 19261475.
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    92. Wang V, Chou D. Anterior C1-2 osteochondroma presenting with dysphagia and sleep apnea. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 16(4):581-2. PMID: 19195892.
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    93. Chou D, Wang VY. Trap-door rib-head osteotomies for posterior placement of expandable cages after transpedicular corpectomy: an alternative to lateral extracavitary and costotransversectomy approaches. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 Jan; 10(1):40-5. PMID: 19119931.
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    94. Lu DC, Wang V, Chou D. The use of allograft or autograft and expandable titanium cages for the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):122-9; discussion 129-30. PMID: 19145160.
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    95. Sahgal A, Ames C, Chou D, Ma L, Huang K, Xu W, Chin C, Weinberg V, Chuang C, Weinstein P, Larson DA. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is effective salvage therapy for patients with prior radiation of spinal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Jul 1; 74(3):723-31. PMID: 19095374.
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    96. Samdani A, Torre-Healy A, Chou D, Cahill AM, Storm PB. Treatment of osteoblastoma at C7: a multidisciplinary approach. A case report and review of the literature. Eur Spine J. 2009 Jul; 18 Suppl 2:196-200. PMID: 18839223; PMCID: PMC2899567.
    97. Chou D, Lu D, Chi J, Wang V. Rib-head osteotomies for posterior placement of expandable cages in the treatment of metastatic thoracic spine tumors. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Sep; 15(9):1043-7. PMID: 18614369.
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    98. Chou D, Lu DC, Weinstein P, Ames CP. Adjacent-level vertebral body fractures after expandable cage reconstruction. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008 Jun; 8(6):584-8. PMID: 18518682.
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    99. Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Chou D, Ames CP. Long-term biomechanical stability and clinical improvement after extended multilevel corpectomy and circumferential reconstruction of the cervical spine using titanium mesh cages. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2008 May; 21(3):165-74. PMID: 18458585.
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    100. Lu DC, Theodore P, Korn WM, Chou D. Esophageal erosion 9 years after anterior cervical plate implantation. Surg Neurol. 2008 Mar; 69(3):310-2; discussion 312-3. PMID: 18261766.
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    101. Wang VY, Potts M, Chou D. Sarcoma and the spinal column. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan; 19(1):71-80. PMID: 18156050.
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    102. Acosta FL, Sanai N, Chi JH, Dowd CF, Chin C, Tihan T, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Ames CP. Comprehensive management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan; 19(1):17-29. PMID: 18156044.
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    103. Sahgal A, Chou D, Ames C, Ma L, Lamborn K, Huang K, Chuang C, Aiken A, Petti P, Weinstein P, Larson D. Image-guided robotic stereotactic body radiotherapy for benign spinal tumors: theUniversity of California San Francisco preliminary experience. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Dec; 6(6):595-604. PMID: 17994789.
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    104. Chi JH, Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Chou D, Ames CP. Partial spondylectomy: modification for lateralized malignant spinal column tumors of the cervical or lumbosacral spine. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Jan; 15(1):43-8. PMID: 18037295.
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    105. Wang VY, Chou D. The cervicothoracic junction. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Apr; 18(2):365-71. PMID: 17556139.
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    106. Acosta FL, Ames CP, Chou D. Operative management of adult high-grade lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Apr; 18(2):249-54. PMID: 17556125.
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    107. Lu DC, Chou D. Flatback syndrome. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Apr; 18(2):289-94. PMID: 17556130.
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    108. Chou D, Smith JS, Chin CT. Spontaneous regression of a discal cyst. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Jan; 6(1):81-4. PMID: 17233298.
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    109. Härtl R, Chamberlain RH, Fifield MS, Chou D, Sonntag VK, Crawford NR. Biomechanical comparison of two new atlantoaxial fixation techniques with C1-2 transarticular screw-graft fixation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Oct; 5(4):336-42. PMID: 17048771.
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    110. Josephson SA, Pillai DR, Phillips JJ, Chou D. Neurolisteriosis presenting as cervical myelitis in an immunocompetent patient. Neurology. 2006 Apr 11; 66(7):1122-3. PMID: 16606936.
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    111. Chou D, Hartl R, Sonntag VK. Conus medullaris syndrome without lower-extremity involvement in L-1 burst fractures: report of four cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):265-9. PMID: 16572629.
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    112. Chou D, Larios AE, Chamberlain RH, Fifield MS, Hartl R, Dickman CA, Sonntag VK, Crawford NR. A biomechanical comparison of three anterior thoracolumbar implants after corpectomy: are two screws better than one? J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):213-8. PMID: 16572620.
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    113. Chi JH, Manley GT, Chou D. Pregnancy-related vertebral hemangioma. Case report, review of the literature, and management algorithm. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Sep 15; 19(3):E7. PMID: 16190606.
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    114. Acosta FL, Chin CT, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Ames CP, Weinstein PR, Chou D. Diagnosis and management of adult pyogenic osteomyelitis of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Dec 15; 17(6):E2. PMID: 15636572.
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    115. Chou D, Storm PB, Campbell JN. Vulnerability of the subcostal nerve to injury during bone graft harvesting from the iliac crest. J Neurosurg Spine. 2004 Jul; 1(1):87-9. PMID: 15291026.
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    116. Storm PB, Chou D, Tamargo RJ. Surgical management of cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies: indications and outcomes. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2002 Aug; 13(3):735-59. PMID: 12380556.
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    117. Storm PB, Chou D, Tamargo RJ. Lumbar spinal stenosis, cauda equina syndrome, and multiple lumbosacral radiculopathies. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2002 Aug; 13(3):713-33, ix. PMID: 12380555.
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    118. Conway JE, Chou D, Clatterbuck RE, Brem H, Long DM, Rigamonti D. Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and sporadic disease. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jan; 48(1):55-62; discussion 62-3. PMID: 11152361.
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    119. Chou D, Sampath P, Brem H. Hemorrhagic vestibular schwannoma: an unusual clinical entity. Case report. Neurosurg Focus. 1998 Sep 15; 5(3):e9. PMID: 17112224.
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    120. Chou D, Miyashita T, Mohrenweiser HW, Ueki K, Kastury K, Druck T, von Deimling A, Huebner K, Reed JC, Louis DN. The BAX gene maps to the glioma candidate region at 19q13.3, but is not altered in human gliomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1996 Jun; 88(2):136-40. PMID: 8640722.
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    121. Yong WH, Ueki K, Chou D, Reeves SA, von Deimling A, Gusella JF, Mohrenweiser HW, Buckler AJ, Louis DN. Cloning of a highly conserved human protein serine-threonine phosphatase gene from the glioma candidate region on chromosome 19q13.3. Genomics. 1995 Sep 20; 29(2):533-6. PMID: 8666404.
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    122. Yong WH, Chou D, Ueki K, Harsh GR, von Deimling A, Gusella JF, Mohrenweiser HW, Louis DN. Chromosome 19q deletions in human gliomas overlap telomeric to D19S219 and may target a 425 kb region centromeric to D19S112. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1995 Sep; 54(5):622-6. PMID: 7666049.
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    123. Fike JR, Gobbel GT, Chou D, Wijnhoven BP, Bellinzona M, Nakagawa M, Seilhan TM. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995 Jul 15; 32(4):1035-45. PMID: 7607924.
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