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Katerina Akassoglou, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurology
Address1650 Owens St
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-734-2512
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    NINDS2016Research Program Award R35
    Conrand N. Hilton Foundation2015Marilyn Hilton Award for Innovation in MS Research
    ASPET2015Secretary/Treasurer Molecular Pharmacology
    ASPET2013Molecular Pharmacology Executive Committee Member
    F10002011F1000 Neuronal and Glial Cell Biology Section member
    NINDS2010EUREKA (Exceptional Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration)
    The Vilcek Foundation 2009Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise Finalist Award
    Dana Foundation2007Dana Award in Brain and Immunoimaging
    ASPET & Eli Lilly2007The John J Abel Award in Pharmacology
    The White House2006Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Akassoglou has pioneered studies in the investigation of vascular and immune mechanisms in neurologic diseases, and in particular the role of the blood clotting factors in CNS autoimmunity, trauma, and neurodegeneration. Her aim is to understand the mechanisms that control the communication between the brain, immune and vascular systems with the ultimate goal to design novel therapies for neurologic diseases—and in particular, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Dr. Akassoglou identified blood clotting factors as major mediators of neurologic disease. She made the unanticipated discovery that the blood clotting factor fibrinogen is a major activator of innate immune responses in the CNS. She developed novel imaging tools to study the neurovascular interface and therapeutic strategies to protect from neuroimmune diseases by blocking the damaging effects of blood factors in the brain without affecting their beneficial effects in blood clotting. Dr. Akassoglou takes a multifaceted approach to her research, incorporating animal modeling, in vivo two-photon microscopy, drug discovery, preclinical translational research, and biomarker studies. Her laboratory is a fertile training ground for junior faculty, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students. Dr. Akassoglou has published over 70 papers in peer-reviewed journals and she is active in several national and international organizations, editorial boards, and funding agencies.

    Dr. Akassoglou earned a BSc degree in biology and a PhD in neurobiology at the University of Athens, Greece. She was trained in neuropathology at the University of Vienna before performing her postdoctoral work at the Rockefeller University, and New York University. She started her laboratory as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Pharmacology at the University of California, San Diego where she was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure. She is now a Senior Investigator at the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, and a Professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco. She is also the founder and Director of the Gladstone Center for In Vivo Imaging Research, Associate Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology at the University of California, San Diego, and Secretary/Treasurer of the Molecular Pharmacology Division of ASPET.


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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Akassoglou K, Merlini M, Rafalski VA, Real R, Liang L, Jin Y, Dougherty SE, De Paola V, Linden DJ, Misgeld T, Zheng B. In Vivo Imaging of CNS Injury and Disease. J Neurosci. 2017 Nov 08; 37(45):10808-10816. PMID: 29118209.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Petersen MA, Ryu JK, Chang KJ, Etxeberria A, Bardehle S, Mendiola AS, Kamau-Devers W, Fancy SPJ, Thor A, Bushong EA, Baeza-Raja B, Syme CA, Wu MD, Rios Coronado PE, Meyer-Franke A, Yahn S, Pous L, Lee JK, Schachtrup C, Lassmann H, Huang EJ, Han MH, Absinta M, Reich DS, Ellisman MH, Rowitch DH, Chan JR, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen Activates BMP Signaling in Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and Inhibits Remyelination after Vascular Damage. Neuron. 2017 Oct 19. PMID: 29103804.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Xu T, Stewart KM, Wang X, Liu K, Xie M, Kyu Ryu J, Li K, Ma T, Wang H, Ni L, Zhu S, Cao N, Zhu D, Zhang Y, Akassoglou K, Dong C, Driggers EM, Ding S. Metabolic control of TH17 and induced Treg cell balance by an epigenetic mechanism. Nature. 2017 08 10; 548(7666):228-233. PMID: 28783731.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Merlini M, Akassoglou K. Alzheimer disease makes new blood contacts. Blood. 2017 May 04; 129(18):2462-2463. PMID: 28473412.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Krabbe G, Minami SS, Etchegaray JI, Taneja P, Djukic B, Davalos D, Le D, Lo I, Zhan L, Reichert MC, Sayed F, Merlini M, Ward ME, Perry DC, Lee SE, Sias A, Parkhurst CN, Gan WB, Akassoglou K, Miller BL, Farese RV, Gan L. Microglial NF?B-TNFa hyperactivation induces obsessive-compulsive behavior in mouse models of progranulin-deficient frontotemporal dementia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 09; 114(19):5029-5034. PMID: 28438992.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Czirr E, Castello NA, Mosher KI, Castellano JM, Hinkson IV, Lucin KM, Baeza-Raja B, Ryu JK, Li L, Farina SN, Belichenko NP, Longo FM, Akassoglou K, Britschgi M, Cirrito JR, Wyss-Coray T. Microglial complement receptor 3 regulates brain Aß levels through secreted proteolytic activity. J Exp Med. 2017 Apr 03; 214(4):1081-1092. PMID: 28298456.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shaw MA, Gao Z, McElhinney KE, Thornton S, Flick MJ, Lane A, Degen JL, Ryu JK, Akassoglou K, Mullins ES. Plasminogen Deficiency Delays the Onset and Protects from Demyelination and Paralysis in Autoimmune Neuroinflammatory Disease. J Neurosci. 2017 Apr 05; 37(14):3776-3788. PMID: 28275164.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Mendiola AS, Garza R, Cardona SM, Mythen SA, Lira SA, Akassoglou K, Cardona AE. Fractalkine Signaling Attenuates Perivascular Clustering of Microglia and Fibrinogen Leakage during Systemic Inflammation in Mouse Models of Diabetic Retinopathy. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016; 10:303. PMID: 28119571.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bardehle S, Rafalski V, Akassoglou K. Finding the 'ubiquitous' threads in infection and autoimmune neuroinflammation. Nat Immunol. 2016 12 16; 18(1):7-8. PMID: 27984564.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Zhang MD, Barde S, Yang T, Lei B, Eriksson LI, Mathew JP, Andreska T, Akassoglou K, Harkany T, Hökfelt TG, Terrando N. Orthopedic surgery modulates neuropeptides and BDNF expression at the spinal and hippocampal levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Oct 25; 113(43):E6686-E6695. PMID: 27791037.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Akassoglou K, Agalliu D, Chang CJ, Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Hillman EM, Khakh BS, Kleinfeld D, McGavern DB, Nelson SJ, Zlokovic BV. Neurovascular and Immuno-Imaging: From Mechanisms to Therapies. Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium. Front Neurosci. 2016; 10:46. PMID: 26941593; PMCID: PMC4761864.
    12. Baeza-Raja B, Sachs BD, Li P, Christian F, Vagena E, Davalos D, Le Moan N, Ryu JK, Sikorski SL, Chan JP, Scadeng M, Taylor SS, Houslay MD, Baillie GS, Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM, Akassoglou K. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Regulates Energy Balance in Obesity. Cell Rep. 2016 Jan 12; 14(2):255-68. PMID: 26748707; PMCID: PMC4831919.
    13. Bardehle S, Rafalski VA, Akassoglou K. Breaking boundaries-coagulation and fibrinolysis at the neurovascular interface. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9:354. PMID: 26441525; PMCID: PMC4584986.
    14. Ryu JK, Petersen MA, Murray SG, Baeten KM, Meyer-Franke A, Chan JP, Vagena E, Bedard C, Machado MR, Coronado PE, Prod'homme T, Charo IF, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Zamvil SS, Akassoglou K. Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation. Nat Commun. 2015 Sep 10; 6:8164. PMID: 26353940; PMCID: PMC4579523.
    15. Schachtrup C, Ryu JK, Mammadzada K, Khan AS, Carlton PM, Perez A, Christian F, Le Moan N, Vagena E, Baeza-Raja B, Rafalski V, Chan JP, Nitschke R, Houslay MD, Ellisman MH, Wyss-Coray T, Palop JJ, Akassoglou K. Nuclear pore complex remodeling by p75(NTR) cleavage controls TGF-ß signaling and astrocyte functions. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Aug; 18(8):1077-80. PMID: 26120963; PMCID: PMC4878404.
    16. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates ROR?t and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 Jun 01; 212(6):973. PMID: 25987725; PMCID: PMC4451124.
    17. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates ROR?t and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 May 04; 212(5):607-17. PMID: 25918343; PMCID: PMC4419343.
    18. Terrando N, Yang T, Ryu JK, Newton PT, Monaco C, Feldmann M, Ma D, Akassoglou K, Maze M. Stimulation of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protects against neuroinflammation after tibia fracture and endotoxemia in mice. Mol Med. 2015 Mar 17; 20:667-75. PMID: 25365546; PMCID: PMC4398668.
    19. Le Moan N, Baeten KM, Rafalski VA, Ryu JK, Rios Coronado PE, Bedard C, Syme C, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a in Astrocytes and/or Myeloid Cells Is Not Required for the Development of Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease,. eNeuro. 2015 Mar-Apr; 2(2). PMID: 26213713.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Akassoglou K. Coagulation takes center stage in inflammation. Blood. 2015 Jan 15; 125(3):419-20. PMID: 25593329; PMCID: PMC4296004.
    21. Gyoneva S, Davalos D, Biswas D, Swanger SA, Garnier-Amblard E, Loth F, Akassoglou K, Traynelis SF. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo. Glia. 2014 Aug; 62(8):1345-60. PMID: 24807189; PMCID: PMC4408916.
    22. Davalos D, Baeten KM, Whitney MA, Mullins ES, Friedman B, Olson ES, Ryu JK, Smirnoff DS, Petersen MA, Bedard C, Degen JL, Tsien RY, Akassoglou K. Early detection of thrombin activity in neuroinflammatory disease. Ann Neurol. 2014 Feb; 75(2):303-8. PMID: 24740641; PMCID: PMC4049631.
    23. Baeza-Raja B, Eckel-Mahan K, Zhang L, Vagena E, Tsigelny IF, Sassone-Corsi P, Ptácek LJ, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor is a clock gene that regulates oscillatory components of circadian and metabolic networks. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 19; 33(25):10221-34. PMID: 23785138; PMCID: PMC3685830.
    24. Chen W, Guo Y, Walker EJ, Shen F, Jun K, Oh SP, Degos V, Lawton MT, Tihan T, Davalos D, Akassoglou K, Nelson J, Pile-Spellman J, Su H, Young WL. Reduced mural cell coverage and impaired vessel integrity after angiogenic stimulation in the Alk1-deficient brain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Feb; 33(2):305-10. PMID: 23241407; PMCID: PMC3569037.
    25. Shimazu T, Hirschey MD, Newman J, He W, Shirakawa K, Le Moan N, Grueter CA, Lim H, Saunders LR, Stevens RD, Newgard CB, Farese RV, de Cabo R, Ulrich S, Akassoglou K, Verdin E. Suppression of oxidative stress by ß-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor. Science. 2013 Jan 11; 339(6116):211-4. PMID: 23223453; PMCID: PMC3735349.
    26. Gut P, Baeza-Raja B, Andersson O, Hasenkamp L, Hsiao J, Hesselson D, Akassoglou K, Verdin E, Hirschey MD, Stainier DY. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Feb; 9(2):97-104. PMID: 23201900; PMCID: PMC3552031.
    27. Merlini M, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. In vivo imaging of the neurovascular unit in CNS disease. Intravital. 2012 Dec 01; 1(2):87-94. PMID: 25197615.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Kwan W, Träger U, Davalos D, Chou A, Bouchard J, Andre R, Miller A, Weiss A, Giorgini F, Cheah C, Möller T, Stella N, Akassoglou K, Tabrizi SJ, Muchowski PJ. Mutant huntingtin impairs immune cell migration in Huntington disease. J Clin Invest. 2012 Dec; 122(12):4737-47. PMID: 23160193; PMCID: PMC3533551.
    29. Baeza-Raja B, Akassoglou K. Glucose homeostasis and p75NTR: the sweet side of neurotrophin receptor signaling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Sep 01; 11(17):3151-2. PMID: 22894898; PMCID: PMC3466508.
    30. Baeza-Raja B, Li P, Le Moan N, Sachs BD, Schachtrup C, Davalos D, Vagena E, Bridges D, Kim C, Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15):5838-43. PMID: 22460790; PMCID: PMC3326459.
    31. Le Moan N, Baeza-Raja B, Akassoglou K. p75 (NTR) and hypoxia: a breath of fresh air in neurotrophin receptor signaling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Mar 01; 11(5):829-30. PMID: 22333586.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Pearn ML, Hu Y, Niesman IR, Patel HH, Drummond JC, Roth DM, Akassoglou K, Patel PM, Head BP. Propofol neurotoxicity is mediated by p75 neurotrophin receptor activation. Anesthesiology. 2012 Feb; 116(2):352-61. PMID: 22198221; PMCID: PMC3275822.
    33. Davalos D, Akassoglou K. In vivo imaging of the mouse spinal cord using two-photon microscopy. J Vis Exp. 2012 Jan 05; (59):e2760. PMID: 22258623; PMCID: PMC3369767.
    34. Davalos D, Ryu JK, Merlini M, Baeten KM, Le Moan N, Petersen MA, Deerinck TJ, Smirnoff DS, Bedard C, Hakozaki H, Gonias Murray S, Ling JB, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Ellisman MH, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen-induced perivascular microglial clustering is required for the development of axonal damage in neuroinflammation. Nat Commun. 2012; 3:1227. PMID: 23187627; PMCID: PMC3514498.
    35. Terrando N, Eriksson LI, Ryu JK, Yang T, Monaco C, Feldmann M, Jonsson Fagerlund M, Charo IF, Akassoglou K, Maze M. Resolving postoperative neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. 2011 Dec; 70(6):986-995. PMID: 22190370; PMCID: PMC4556354.
    36. Le Moan N, Houslay DM, Christian F, Houslay MD, Akassoglou K. Oxygen-dependent cleavage of the p75 neurotrophin receptor triggers stabilization of HIF-1a. Mol Cell. 2011 Nov 04; 44(3):476-90. PMID: 22055192; PMCID: PMC3212815.
    37. Baeten KM, Akassoglou K. Extracellular matrix and matrix receptors in blood-brain barrier formation and stroke. Dev Neurobiol. 2011 Nov; 71(11):1018-39. PMID: 21780303; PMCID: PMC3482610.
    38. Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen as a key regulator of inflammation in disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2012 Jan; 34(1):43-62. PMID: 22037947.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Schachtrup C, Le Moan N, Passino MA, Akassoglou K. Hepatic stellate cells and astrocytes: Stars of scar formation and tissue repair. Cell Cycle. 2011 Jun 01; 10(11):1764-71. PMID: 21555919; PMCID: PMC3142460.
    40. Drew PJ, Shih AY, Driscoll JD, Knutsen PM, Blinder P, Davalos D, Akassoglou K, Tsai PS, Kleinfeld D. Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull. Nat Methods. 2010 Dec; 7(12):981-4. PMID: 20966916; PMCID: PMC3204312.
    41. Schachtrup C, Ryu JK, Helmrick MJ, Vagena E, Galanakis DK, Degen JL, Margolis RU, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 28; 30(17):5843-54. PMID: 20427645; PMCID: PMC2871011.
    42. Ryu JK, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen signal transduction in the nervous system. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jul; 7 Suppl 1:151-4. PMID: 19630789; PMCID: PMC2888044.
    43. Friedman B, Schachtrup C, Tsai PS, Shih AY, Akassoglou K, Kleinfeld D, Lyden PD. Acute vascular disruption and aquaporin 4 loss after stroke. Stroke. 2009 Jun; 40(6):2182-90. PMID: 19372455; PMCID: PMC2753985.
    44. Gaultier A, Wu X, Le Moan N, Takimoto S, Mukandala G, Akassoglou K, Campana WM, Gonias SL. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is an essential receptor for myelin phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2009 Apr 15; 122(Pt 8):1155-62. PMID: 19299462; PMCID: PMC2714439.
    45. Xu M, Remillard CV, Sachs BD, Makino A, Platoshyn O, Yao W, Dillmann WH, Akassoglou K, Yuan JX. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Oct; 295(4):H1529-38. PMID: 18689502; PMCID: PMC2593496.
    46. Rius J, Guma M, Schachtrup C, Akassoglou K, Zinkernagel AS, Nizet V, Johnson RS, Haddad GG, Karin M. NF-kappaB links innate immunity to the hypoxic response through transcriptional regulation of HIF-1alpha. Nature. 2008 Jun 05; 453(7196):807-11. PMID: 18432192; PMCID: PMC2669289.
    47. Davalos D, Lee JK, Smith WB, Brinkman B, Ellisman MH, Zheng B, Akassoglou K. Stable in vivo imaging of densely populated glia, axons and blood vessels in the mouse spinal cord using two-photon microscopy. J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Mar 30; 169(1):1-7. PMID: 18192022; PMCID: PMC2647134.
    48. Xu M, Platoshyn O, Makino A, Dillmann WH, Akassoglou K, Remillard CV, Yuan JX. Characterization of agonist-induced vasoconstriction in mouse pulmonary artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jan; 294(1):H220-8. PMID: 17982012.
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    49. Sachs BD, Akassoglou K. Regulation of cAMP by the p75 neurotrophin receptor: insight into drug design of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov; 35(Pt 5):1273-7. PMID: 17956328.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Schachtrup C, Lu P, Jones LL, Lee JK, Lu J, Sachs BD, Zheng B, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen inhibits neurite outgrowth via beta 3 integrin-mediated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11814-9. PMID: 17606926; PMCID: PMC1913857.
    51. Sachs BD, Baillie GS, McCall JR, Passino MA, Schachtrup C, Wallace DA, Dunlop AJ, MacKenzie KF, Klussmann E, Lynch MJ, Sikorski SL, Nuriel T, Tsigelny I, Zhang J, Houslay MD, Chao MV, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates tissue fibrosis through inhibition of plasminogen activation via a PDE4/cAMP/PKA pathway. J Cell Biol. 2007 Jun 18; 177(6):1119-32. PMID: 17576803; PMCID: PMC2064370.
    52. Passino MA, Adams RA, Sikorski SL, Akassoglou K. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell differentiation by the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Science. 2007 Mar 30; 315(5820):1853-6. PMID: 17395831.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Adams RA, Bauer J, Flick MJ, Sikorski SL, Nuriel T, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Akassoglou K. The fibrin-derived gamma377-395 peptide inhibits microglia activation and suppresses relapsing paralysis in central nervous system autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2007 Mar 19; 204(3):571-82. PMID: 17339406; PMCID: PMC2137908.
    54. Adams RA, Schachtrup C, Davalos D, Tsigelny I, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen signal transduction as a mediator and therapeutic target in inflammation: lessons from multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Chem. 2007; 14(27):2925-36. PMID: 18045138.
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    55. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 and TrkA receptors interact with Src family kinase for neuronal differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 01; 347(3):678-82. PMID: 16842754.
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    56. Arthur DB, Georgi S, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. Inhibition of apoptosis by P2Y2 receptor activation: novel pathways for neuronal survival. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 05; 26(14):3798-804. PMID: 16597733.
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    57. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19138-43. PMID: 16365320; PMCID: PMC1323158.
    58. Akassoglou K. Nerve growth factor-independent neuronal survival: a role for NO donors. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct; 68(4):952-5. PMID: 16046659.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Adams RA, Passino M, Sachs BD, Nuriel T, Akassoglou K. Fibrin mechanisms and functions in nervous system pathology. Mol Interv. 2004 Jun; 4(3):163-76. PMID: 15210870.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Akassoglou K, Adams RA, Bauer J, Mercado P, Tseveleki V, Lassmann H, Probert L, Strickland S. Fibrin depletion decreases inflammation and delays the onset of demyelination in a tumor necrosis factor transgenic mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27; 101(17):6698-703. PMID: 15096619; PMCID: PMC404108.
    61. Akassoglou K, Malester B, Xu J, Tessarollo L, Rosenbluth J, Chao MV. Brain-specific deletion of neuropathy target esterase/swisscheese results in neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 06; 101(14):5075-80. PMID: 15051870; PMCID: PMC387376.
    62. Akassoglou K, Akpinar P, Murray S, Strickland S. Fibrin is a regulator of Schwann cell migration after sciatic nerve injury in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Mar 06; 338(3):185-8. PMID: 12581827.
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    63. Akassoglou K, Douni E, Bauer J, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Exclusive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling by the p75TNF receptor triggers inflammatory ischemia in the CNS of transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 21; 100(2):709-14. PMID: 12522266; PMCID: PMC141061.
    64. Akassoglou K, Yu WM, Akpinar P, Strickland S. Fibrin inhibits peripheral nerve remyelination by regulating Schwann cell differentiation. Neuron. 2002 Mar 14; 33(6):861-75. PMID: 11906694.
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    65. Akassoglou K, Strickland S. Nervous system pathology: the fibrin perspective. Biol Chem. 2002 Jan; 383(1):37-45. PMID: 11928820.
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    66. Probert L, Akassoglou K. Glial expression of tumor necrosis factor in transgenic animals: how do these models reflect the "normal situation"? Glia. 2001 Nov; 36(2):212-9. PMID: 11596129.
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    67. Brodsky S, Chen J, Lee A, Akassoglou K, Norman J, Goligorsky MS. Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Oct; 281(4):H1784-92. PMID: 11557572.
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    68. Probert L, Eugster HP, Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Frei K, Lassmann H, Fontana A. TNFR1 signalling is critical for the development of demyelination and the limitation of T-cell responses during immune-mediated CNS disease. Brain. 2000 Oct; 123 ( Pt 10):2005-19. PMID: 11004118.
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    69. Akassoglou K, Kombrinck KW, Degen JL, Strickland S. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury. J Cell Biol. 2000 May 29; 149(5):1157-66. PMID: 10831618; PMCID: PMC2174825.
    70. Aloe L, Properzi F, Probert L, Akassoglou K, Kassiotis G, Micera A, Fiore M. Learning abilities, NGF and BDNF brain levels in two lines of TNF-alpha transgenic mice, one characterized by neurological disorders, the other phenotypically normal. Brain Res. 1999 Sep 04; 840(1-2):125-37. PMID: 10517960.
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    71. Kassiotis G, Bauer J, Akassoglou K, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. A tumor necrosis factor-induced model of human primary demyelinating diseases develops in immunodeficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1999 Mar; 29(3):912-7. PMID: 10092095.
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    72. Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Kassiotis G, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Transgenic models of TNF induced demyelination. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 468:245-59. PMID: 10635034.
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    73. Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Kassiotis G, Pasparakis M, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis and primary demyelination induced by local TNF/p55TNF receptor signaling in the central nervous system of transgenic mice: models for multiple sclerosis with primary oligodendrogliopathy. Am J Pathol. 1998 Sep; 153(3):801-13. PMID: 9736029; PMCID: PMC1853008.
    74. Probert L, Akassoglou K, Kassiotis G, Pasparakis M, Alexopoulou L, Kollias G. TNF-alpha transgenic and knockout models of CNS inflammation and degeneration. J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Feb; 72(2):137-41. PMID: 9042105.
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    75. Akassoglou K, Probert L, Kontogeorgos G, Kollias G. Astrocyte-specific but not neuron-specific transmembrane TNF triggers inflammation and degeneration in the central nervous system of transgenic mice. J Immunol. 1997 Jan 01; 158(1):438-45. PMID: 8977220.
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    76. Fiore M, Probert L, Kollias G, Akassoglou K, Alleva E, Aloe L. Neurobehavioral alterations in developing transgenic mice expressing TNF-alpha in the brain. Brain Behav Immun. 1996 Jun; 10(2):126-38. PMID: 8811936.
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    77. Probert L, Akassoglou K, Alexopoulou L, Douni E, Haralambous S, Hill S, Kassiotis G, Kontoyiannis D, Pasparakis M, Plows D, Kollias G. Dissection of the pathologies induced by transmembrane and wild-type tumor necrosis factor in transgenic mice. J Leukoc Biol. 1996 Apr; 59(4):518-25. PMID: 8613699.
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