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    Katerina Akassoglou, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurology
    Address1650 Owens St
    San Francisco CA 94107
    Phone415-734-2512
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      NINDS2016Research Program Award R35
      Conrand N. Hilton Foundation2015Marilyn Hilton Award for Innovation in MS Research
      ASPET2015Secretary/Treasurer Molecular Pharmacology
      ASPET2013Molecular Pharmacology Executive Committee Member
      F10002011F1000 Neuronal and Glial Cell Biology Section member
      NINDS2010EUREKA (Exceptional Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration)
      The Vilcek Foundation 2009Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise Finalist Award
      Dana Foundation2007Dana Award in Brain and Immunoimaging
      ASPET & Eli Lilly2007The John J Abel Award in Pharmacology
      The White House2006Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Areas of Investigation: Our lab studies mechanisms of neurovascular regulation of inflammation and tissue repair. Our current research focuses on identifying the molecular and cellular interface that blood proteins utilize to interact with nervous system cells and change their functions. Our ultimate goal is to target these interactions for therapeutic intervention in neurologic diseases.


      Significance: Rupture of the vasculature allows the entry of blood proteins into the brain with subsequent edema formation and neuronal damage in a variety of neurologic diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and spinal cord injury. Our studies aim to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the CNS response to neurovascular changes with the ultimate goal to develop novel therapeutic strategies for neurologic diseases.

      Approaches: We integrate animal modeling, histopathology, tissue culture and biochemistry techniques, as a multifaceted experimental approach to address the biological complexity of disease and repair mechanisms. We have developed in vivo imaging tools of the mouse brain and spinal cord that enable us to monitor disease processes in real time in the living animal.

      Contributions: Our work showed that blood proteins are not merely markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, but play a causative role in CNS disease by exerting both pro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative effects. Our studies identified fibrinogen as a potential novel target for therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammatory diseases and led to the design of inhibitory peptides that specifically inhibit the damaging proinflammatory effects of fibrinogen in the CNS without affecting its effects in blood coagulation. Our work also showed that removal of fibrin from the CNS via proteolytic degradation is regulated by the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR via a novel signaling pathway whereby p75NTR directly binds the phosphodieserase isoform PDE4A to compartmentalize cAMP signaling in cells. We also showed novel biological functions for p75NTR as a regulator of cell differentiation that is critical for the progression of fibrosis and tissue repair. Overall, our studies have suggested that bi-directional molecular mechanisms of communication between the blood and the brain determine the degree of damage and the regenerative potential of tissues within and outside of the nervous system.

      Some questions addressed in ongoing studies

      - What is the functional role of BBB disruption in inflammation and neurodegeneration in neurologic diseases?
      - How does fibrinogen affect neuronal and glial functions?
      - Can the beneficial effect of fibrinogen inhibition be exploited therapeutically?
      - What are the biological functions of p75NTR?


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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Akassoglou K, Agalliu D, Chang CJ, Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Hillman EM, Khakh BS, Kleinfeld D, McGavern DB, Nelson SJ, Zlokovic BV. Neurovascular and Immuno-Imaging: From Mechanisms to Therapies. Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium. Front Neurosci. 2016; 10:46. PMID: 26941593.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Baeza-Raja B, Sachs BD, Li P, Christian F, Vagena E, Davalos D, Le Moan N, Ryu JK, Sikorski SL, Chan JP, Scadeng M, Taylor SS, Houslay MD, Baillie GS, Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM, Akassoglou K. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Regulates Energy Balance in Obesity. Cell Rep. 2016 Jan 12; 14(2):255-68. PMID: 26748707.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Bardehle S, Rafalski VA, Akassoglou K. Breaking boundaries-coagulation and fibrinolysis at the neurovascular interface. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9:354. PMID: 26441525; PMCID: PMC4584986.
      4. Ryu JK, Petersen MA, Murray SG, Baeten KM, Meyer-Franke A, Chan JP, Vagena E, Bedard C, Machado MR, Coronado PE, Prod'homme T, Charo IF, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Zamvil SS, Akassoglou K. Blood coagulation protein fibrinogen promotes autoimmunity and demyelination via chemokine release and antigen presentation. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8164. PMID: 26353940; PMCID: PMC4579523.
      5. Schachtrup C, Ryu JK, Mammadzada K, Khan AS, Carlton PM, Perez A, Christian F, Le Moan N, Vagena E, Baeza-Raja B, Rafalski V, Chan JP, Nitschke R, Houslay MD, Ellisman MH, Wyss-Coray T, Palop JJ, Akassoglou K. Nuclear pore complex remodeling by p75(NTR) cleavage controls TGF-ß signaling and astrocyte functions. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Aug; 18(8):1077-80. PMID: 26120963.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates ROR?t and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 Jun 1; 212(6):973. PMID: 25987725; PMCID: PMC4451124.
      7. Lim HW, Kang SG, Ryu JK, Schilling B, Fei M, Lee IS, Kehasse A, Shirakawa K, Yokoyama M, Schnölzer M, Kasler HG, Kwon HS, Gibson BW, Sato H, Akassoglou K, Xiao C, Littman DR, Ott M, Verdin E. SIRT1 deacetylates ROR?t and enhances Th17 cell generation. J Exp Med. 2015 May 4; 212(5):607-17. PMID: 25918343; PMCID: PMC4419343.
      8. Terrando N, Yang T, Ryu JK, Newton PT, Monaco C, Feldmann M, Ma D, Akassoglou K, Maze M. Stimulation of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protects against neuroinflammation after tibia fracture and endotoxemia in mice. Mol Med. 2014; 20:667-75. PMID: 25365546; PMCID: PMC4398668.
      9. Le Moan N, Baeten KM, Rafalski VA, Ryu JK, Rios Coronado PE, Bedard C, Syme C, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a in Astrocytes and/or Myeloid Cells Is Not Required for the Development of Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease(,.) Eneuro. 2015 Mar-Apr; 2(2). PMID: 26213713.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Akassoglou K. Coagulation takes center stage in inflammation. Blood. 2015 Jan 15; 125(3):419-20. PMID: 25593329; PMCID: PMC4296004.
      11. Gyoneva S, Davalos D, Biswas D, Swanger SA, Garnier-Amblard E, Loth F, Akassoglou K, Traynelis SF. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo. Glia. 2014 Aug; 62(8):1345-60. PMID: 24807189; PMCID: PMC4408916.
      12. Davalos D, Baeten KM, Whitney MA, Mullins ES, Friedman B, Olson ES, Ryu JK, Smirnoff DS, Petersen MA, Bedard C, Degen JL, Tsien RY, Akassoglou K. Early detection of thrombin activity in neuroinflammatory disease. Ann Neurol. 2014 Feb; 75(2):303-8. PMID: 24740641; PMCID: PMC4049631.
      13. Baeza-Raja B, Eckel-Mahan K, Zhang L, Vagena E, Tsigelny IF, Sassone-Corsi P, Ptácek LJ, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor is a clock gene that regulates oscillatory components of circadian and metabolic networks. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 19; 33(25):10221-34. PMID: 23785138; PMCID: PMC3685830.
      14. Chen W, Guo Y, Walker EJ, Shen F, Jun K, Oh SP, Degos V, Lawton MT, Tihan T, Davalos D, Akassoglou K, Nelson J, Pile-Spellman J, Su H, Young WL. Reduced mural cell coverage and impaired vessel integrity after angiogenic stimulation in the Alk1-deficient brain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Feb; 33(2):305-10. PMID: 23241407; PMCID: PMC3569037.
      15. Shimazu T, Hirschey MD, Newman J, He W, Shirakawa K, Le Moan N, Grueter CA, Lim H, Saunders LR, Stevens RD, Newgard CB, Farese RV, de Cabo R, Ulrich S, Akassoglou K, Verdin E. Suppression of oxidative stress by ß-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor. Science. 2013 Jan 11; 339(6116):211-4. PMID: 23223453; PMCID: PMC3735349.
      16. Gut P, Baeza-Raja B, Andersson O, Hasenkamp L, Hsiao J, Hesselson D, Akassoglou K, Verdin E, Hirschey MD, Stainier DY. Whole-organism screening for gluconeogenesis identifies activators of fasting metabolism. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Feb; 9(2):97-104. PMID: 23201900; PMCID: PMC3552031.
      17. Merlini M, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. In vivo imaging of the neurovascular unit in CNS disease. Intravital. 2012 Dec 1; 1(2):87-94. PMID: 25197615.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Kwan W, Träger U, Davalos D, Chou A, Bouchard J, Andre R, Miller A, Weiss A, Giorgini F, Cheah C, Möller T, Stella N, Akassoglou K, Tabrizi SJ, Muchowski PJ. Mutant huntingtin impairs immune cell migration in Huntington disease. J Clin Invest. 2012 Dec; 122(12):4737-47. PMID: 23160193; PMCID: PMC3533551.
      19. Baeza-Raja B, Akassoglou K. Glucose homeostasis and p75NTR: the sweet side of neurotrophin receptor signaling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Sep 1; 11(17):3151-2. PMID: 22894898; PMCID: PMC3466508.
      20. Baeza-Raja B, Li P, Le Moan N, Sachs BD, Schachtrup C, Davalos D, Vagena E, Bridges D, Kim C, Saltiel AR, Olefsky JM, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15):5838-43. PMID: 22460790; PMCID: PMC3326459.
      21. Le Moan N, Baeza-Raja B, Akassoglou K. p75 (NTR) and hypoxia: a breath of fresh air in neurotrophin receptor signaling. Cell Cycle. 2012 Mar 1; 11(5):829-30. PMID: 22333586.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Pearn ML, Hu Y, Niesman IR, Patel HH, Drummond JC, Roth DM, Akassoglou K, Patel PM, Head BP. Propofol neurotoxicity is mediated by p75 neurotrophin receptor activation. Anesthesiology. 2012 Feb; 116(2):352-61. PMID: 22198221; PMCID: PMC3275822.
      23. Davalos D, Akassoglou K. In vivo imaging of the mouse spinal cord using two-photon microscopy. J Vis Exp. 2012; (59):e2760. PMID: 22258623; PMCID: PMC3369767.
      24. Davalos D, Ryu JK, Merlini M, Baeten KM, Le Moan N, Petersen MA, Deerinck TJ, Smirnoff DS, Bedard C, Hakozaki H, Gonias Murray S, Ling JB, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Ellisman MH, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen-induced perivascular microglial clustering is required for the development of axonal damage in neuroinflammation. Nat Commun. 2012; 3:1227. PMID: 23187627; PMCID: PMC3514498.
      25. Terrando N, Eriksson LI, Ryu JK, Yang T, Monaco C, Feldmann M, Jonsson Fagerlund M, Charo IF, Akassoglou K, Maze M. Resolving postoperative neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. 2011 Dec; 70(6):986-95. PMID: 22190370; PMCID: PMC4556354.
      26. Le Moan N, Houslay DM, Christian F, Houslay MD, Akassoglou K. Oxygen-dependent cleavage of the p75 neurotrophin receptor triggers stabilization of HIF-1a. Mol Cell. 2011 Nov 4; 44(3):476-90. PMID: 22055192; PMCID: PMC3212815.
      27. Baeten KM, Akassoglou K. Extracellular matrix and matrix receptors in blood-brain barrier formation and stroke. Dev Neurobiol. 2011 Nov; 71(11):1018-39. PMID: 21780303; PMCID: PMC3482610.
      28. Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen as a key regulator of inflammation in disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2012 Jan; 34(1):43-62. PMID: 22037947.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Schachtrup C, Le Moan N, Passino MA, Akassoglou K. Hepatic stellate cells and astrocytes: Stars of scar formation and tissue repair. Cell Cycle. 2011 Jun 1; 10(11):1764-71. PMID: 21555919; PMCID: PMC3142460.
      30. Drew PJ, Shih AY, Driscoll JD, Knutsen PM, Blinder P, Davalos D, Akassoglou K, Tsai PS, Kleinfeld D. Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull. Nat Methods. 2010 Dec; 7(12):981-4. PMID: 20966916; PMCID: PMC3204312.
      31. Schachtrup C, Ryu JK, Helmrick MJ, Vagena E, Galanakis DK, Degen JL, Margolis RU, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 28; 30(17):5843-54. PMID: 20427645; PMCID: PMC2871011.
      32. Ryu JK, Davalos D, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen signal transduction in the nervous system. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jul; 7 Suppl 1:151-4. PMID: 19630789; PMCID: PMC2888044.
      33. Friedman B, Schachtrup C, Tsai PS, Shih AY, Akassoglou K, Kleinfeld D, Lyden PD. Acute vascular disruption and aquaporin 4 loss after stroke. Stroke. 2009 Jun; 40(6):2182-90. PMID: 19372455; PMCID: PMC2753985.
      34. Gaultier A, Wu X, Le Moan N, Takimoto S, Mukandala G, Akassoglou K, Campana WM, Gonias SL. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is an essential receptor for myelin phagocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2009 Apr 15; 122(Pt 8):1155-62. PMID: 19299462; PMCID: PMC2714439.
      35. Xu M, Remillard CV, Sachs BD, Makino A, Platoshyn O, Yao W, Dillmann WH, Akassoglou K, Yuan JX. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Oct; 295(4):H1529-38. PMID: 18689502; PMCID: PMC2593496.
      36. Rius J, Guma M, Schachtrup C, Akassoglou K, Zinkernagel AS, Nizet V, Johnson RS, Haddad GG, Karin M. NF-kappaB links innate immunity to the hypoxic response through transcriptional regulation of HIF-1alpha. Nature. 2008 Jun 5; 453(7196):807-11. PMID: 18432192; PMCID: PMC2669289.
      37. Davalos D, Lee JK, Smith WB, Brinkman B, Ellisman MH, Zheng B, Akassoglou K. Stable in vivo imaging of densely populated glia, axons and blood vessels in the mouse spinal cord using two-photon microscopy. J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Mar 30; 169(1):1-7. PMID: 18192022; PMCID: PMC2647134.
      38. Xu M, Platoshyn O, Makino A, Dillmann WH, Akassoglou K, Remillard CV, Yuan JX. Characterization of agonist-induced vasoconstriction in mouse pulmonary artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jan; 294(1):H220-8. PMID: 17982012.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Sachs BD, Akassoglou K. Regulation of cAMP by the p75 neurotrophin receptor: insight into drug design of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov; 35(Pt 5):1273-7. PMID: 17956328.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Schachtrup C, Lu P, Jones LL, Lee JK, Lu J, Sachs BD, Zheng B, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen inhibits neurite outgrowth via beta 3 integrin-mediated phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11814-9. PMID: 17606926; PMCID: PMC1913857.
      41. Sachs BD, Baillie GS, McCall JR, Passino MA, Schachtrup C, Wallace DA, Dunlop AJ, MacKenzie KF, Klussmann E, Lynch MJ, Sikorski SL, Nuriel T, Tsigelny I, Zhang J, Houslay MD, Chao MV, Akassoglou K. p75 neurotrophin receptor regulates tissue fibrosis through inhibition of plasminogen activation via a PDE4/cAMP/PKA pathway. J Cell Biol. 2007 Jun 18; 177(6):1119-32. PMID: 17576803; PMCID: PMC2064370.
      42. Passino MA, Adams RA, Sikorski SL, Akassoglou K. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell differentiation by the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Science. 2007 Mar 30; 315(5820):1853-6. PMID: 17395831.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Adams RA, Bauer J, Flick MJ, Sikorski SL, Nuriel T, Lassmann H, Degen JL, Akassoglou K. The fibrin-derived gamma377-395 peptide inhibits microglia activation and suppresses relapsing paralysis in central nervous system autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2007 Mar 19; 204(3):571-82. PMID: 17339406; PMCID: PMC2137908.
      44. Adams RA, Schachtrup C, Davalos D, Tsigelny I, Akassoglou K. Fibrinogen signal transduction as a mediator and therapeutic target in inflammation: lessons from multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Chem. 2007; 14(27):2925-36. PMID: 18045138.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 and TrkA receptors interact with Src family kinase for neuronal differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 1; 347(3):678-82. PMID: 16842754.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Arthur DB, Georgi S, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. Inhibition of apoptosis by P2Y2 receptor activation: novel pathways for neuronal survival. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 5; 26(14):3798-804. PMID: 16597733.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19138-43. PMID: 16365320; PMCID: PMC1323158.
      48. Akassoglou K. Nerve growth factor-independent neuronal survival: a role for NO donors. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct; 68(4):952-5. PMID: 16046659.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Adams RA, Passino M, Sachs BD, Nuriel T, Akassoglou K. Fibrin mechanisms and functions in nervous system pathology. Mol Interv. 2004 Jun; 4(3):163-76. PMID: 15210870.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Akassoglou K, Adams RA, Bauer J, Mercado P, Tseveleki V, Lassmann H, Probert L, Strickland S. Fibrin depletion decreases inflammation and delays the onset of demyelination in a tumor necrosis factor transgenic mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27; 101(17):6698-703. PMID: 15096619; PMCID: PMC404108.
      51. Akassoglou K, Malester B, Xu J, Tessarollo L, Rosenbluth J, Chao MV. Brain-specific deletion of neuropathy target esterase/swisscheese results in neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6; 101(14):5075-80. PMID: 15051870; PMCID: PMC387376.
      52. Akassoglou K, Akpinar P, Murray S, Strickland S. Fibrin is a regulator of Schwann cell migration after sciatic nerve injury in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Mar 6; 338(3):185-8. PMID: 12581827.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Akassoglou K, Douni E, Bauer J, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Exclusive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling by the p75TNF receptor triggers inflammatory ischemia in the CNS of transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 21; 100(2):709-14. PMID: 12522266; PMCID: PMC141061.
      54. Akassoglou K, Yu WM, Akpinar P, Strickland S. Fibrin inhibits peripheral nerve remyelination by regulating Schwann cell differentiation. Neuron. 2002 Mar 14; 33(6):861-75. PMID: 11906694.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Akassoglou K, Strickland S. Nervous system pathology: the fibrin perspective. Biol Chem. 2002 Jan; 383(1):37-45. PMID: 11928820.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Probert L, Akassoglou K. Glial expression of tumor necrosis factor in transgenic animals: how do these models reflect the "normal situation"? Glia. 2001 Nov; 36(2):212-9. PMID: 11596129.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Brodsky S, Chen J, Lee A, Akassoglou K, Norman J, Goligorsky MS. Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Oct; 281(4):H1784-92. PMID: 11557572.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Probert L, Eugster HP, Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Frei K, Lassmann H, Fontana A. TNFR1 signalling is critical for the development of demyelination and the limitation of T-cell responses during immune-mediated CNS disease. Brain. 2000 Oct; 123 ( Pt 10):2005-19. PMID: 11004118.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Akassoglou K, Kombrinck KW, Degen JL, Strickland S. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury. J Cell Biol. 2000 May 29; 149(5):1157-66. PMID: 10831618; PMCID: PMC2174825.
      60. Aloe L, Properzi F, Probert L, Akassoglou K, Kassiotis G, Micera A, Fiore M. Learning abilities, NGF and BDNF brain levels in two lines of TNF-alpha transgenic mice, one characterized by neurological disorders, the other phenotypically normal. Brain Res. 1999 Sep 4; 840(1-2):125-37. PMID: 10517960.
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      61. Kassiotis G, Bauer J, Akassoglou K, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. A tumor necrosis factor-induced model of human primary demyelinating diseases develops in immunodeficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1999 Mar; 29(3):912-7. PMID: 10092095.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Kassiotis G, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Transgenic models of TNF induced demyelination. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 468:245-59. PMID: 10635034.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Akassoglou K, Bauer J, Kassiotis G, Pasparakis M, Lassmann H, Kollias G, Probert L. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis and primary demyelination induced by local TNF/p55TNF receptor signaling in the central nervous system of transgenic mice: models for multiple sclerosis with primary oligodendrogliopathy. Am J Pathol. 1998 Sep; 153(3):801-13. PMID: 9736029; PMCID: PMC1853008.
      64. Probert L, Akassoglou K, Kassiotis G, Pasparakis M, Alexopoulou L, Kollias G. TNF-alpha transgenic and knockout models of CNS inflammation and degeneration. J Neuroimmunol. 1997 Feb; 72(2):137-41. PMID: 9042105.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Akassoglou K, Probert L, Kontogeorgos G, Kollias G. Astrocyte-specific but not neuron-specific transmembrane TNF triggers inflammation and degeneration in the central nervous system of transgenic mice. J Immunol. 1997 Jan 1; 158(1):438-45. PMID: 8977220.
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      66. Fiore M, Probert L, Kollias G, Akassoglou K, Alleva E, Aloe L. Neurobehavioral alterations in developing transgenic mice expressing TNF-alpha in the brain. Brain Behav Immun. 1996 Jun; 10(2):126-38. PMID: 8811936.
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      67. Probert L, Akassoglou K, Alexopoulou L, Douni E, Haralambous S, Hill S, Kassiotis G, Kontoyiannis D, Pasparakis M, Plows D, Kollias G. Dissection of the pathologies induced by transmembrane and wild-type tumor necrosis factor in transgenic mice. J Leukoc Biol. 1996 Apr; 59(4):518-25. PMID: 8613699.
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      68. Probert L, Akassoglou K, Pasparakis M, Kontogeorgos G, Kollias G. Spontaneous inflammatory demyelinating disease in transgenic mice showing central nervous system-specific expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 21; 92(24):11294-8. PMID: 7479982; PMCID: PMC40618.
      69. Douni E, Akassoglou K, Alexopoulou L, Georgopoulos S, Haralambous S, Hill S, Kassiotis G, Kontoyiannis D, Pasparakis M, Plows D, Probert L, Kollias G. Transgenic and knockout analyses of the role of TNF in immune regulation and disease pathogenesis. J Inflamm. 1995-1996; 47(1-2):27-38. PMID: 8913927.
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