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Raymond Swanson, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurology
Address1700 Owens Street
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-575-0403
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Raymond A. Swanson graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School and completed Neurology residency training at UCSF. He subsequently completed post-doctoral research fellowships at UCSF and Stanford University. He is currently chief of the Neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and heads a research lab located on the UCSF Mission Bay campus.

    His research focus is on bioenergetics and oxidative signaling in neurological disease. Studies in the area of stroke aim to identify ways to mitigate the dendritic and axonal ischemic injury caused by neuronal NADPH oxidase and formation of cofilin rods. Work pertaining to Parkinson's disease aims to identify interactions between neuronal redox state and alpha-synuclein aggregation. This effort also involves pre-clinical and clinical studies of thiol repletion agents as a disease-modifying therapeutic approach.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Thiol repletion therapy for Parkinson's disease
    VA I01BX003249Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulatory Control of Glutamate - Induced Superoxide Production
    NIH/NINDS R01NS081149Sep 1, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Three-day scientific conference to be held April 18-20, 2012
    NIH/NINDS R13NS077646Sep 30, 2011 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of PARP-1 gene deletion in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    NIH/NIA R21AG029483Aug 1, 2007 - Apr 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIIth International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism
    NIH/NINDS R13NS056861Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hypoglycemic neuronal death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS051855Sep 30, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of PARP and PARG mediated cell death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS041421Apr 1, 2001 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NINDS R01NS031914May 20, 1994 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Injury and Edema Research Center
    NIH/NINDS P50NS014543Jul 1, 1978 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Haefeli J, Ferguson AR, Bingham D, Orr A, Won SJ, Lam TI, Shi J, Hawley S, Liu J, Swanson R, Massa SM. A data-driven approach for evaluating multi-modal therapy in traumatic brain injury. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16; 7:42474. PMID: 28205533.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ko HR, Kwon IS, Hwang I, Jin EJ, Shin JH, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Cho SW, Lee KH, Ahn JY. Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. Elife. 2016 Dec 12; 5. PMID: 27938661.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Xu J, Wang H, Won SJ, Basu J, Kapfhamer D, Swanson RA. Microglial activation induced by the alarmin S100B is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Glia. 2016 Nov; 64(11):1869-78. PMID: 27444121.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson RA. Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):217-25. PMID: 26572666.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson RA. Erratum to: Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):239. PMID: 26659493.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Vuong B, Hogan-Cann AD, Alano CC, Stevenson M, Chan WY, Anderson CM, Swanson RA, Kauppinen TM. NF-?B transcriptional activation by TNFa requires phospholipase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neuroinflammation. 2015; 12:229. PMID: 26637332; PMCID: PMC4670503.
    7. Sheth SA, Iavarone AT, Liebeskind DS, Won SJ, Swanson RA. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129735. PMID: 26076478; PMCID: PMC4468135.
    8. Gulati T, Won SJ, Ramanathan DS, Wong CC, Bodepudi A, Swanson RA, Ganguly K. Robust neuroprosthetic control from the stroke perilesional cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 3; 35(22):8653-61. PMID: 26041930.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Won SJ, Kim JE, Cittolin-Santos GF, Swanson RA. Assessment at the single-cell level identifies neuronal glutathione depletion as both a cause and effect of ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress. J Neurosci. 2015 May 6; 35(18):7143-52. PMID: 25948264; PMCID: PMC4420782.
    10. Katz M, Won SJ, Park Y, Orr A, Jones DP, Swanson RA, Glass GA. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of N-acetylcysteine after oral administration in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 May; 21(5):500-3. PMID: 25765302.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Chen Y, Brennan-Minnella AM, Sheth S, El-Benna J, Swanson RA. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 May; 35(5):739-42. PMID: 25669908; PMCID: PMC4420863 [Available on 05/01/16].
    12. Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Swanson RA. NADPH oxidase-2: linking glucose, acidosis, and excitotoxicity in stroke. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Jan 10; 22(2):161-74. PMID: 24628477; PMCID: PMC4281853 [Available on 01/10/16].
    13. Knox R, Brennan-Minnella AM, Lu F, Yang D, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Swanson RA, Ferriero DM, Jiang X. NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472 contributes to brain injury in a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Stroke. 2014 Oct; 45(10):3040-7. PMID: 25158771; PMCID: PMC4175024.
    14. Cleaver JE, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson RA, Fong KW, Chen J, Chou KM, Chen YW, Revet I, Bezrookove V. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 16; 111(37):13487-92. PMID: 25136123; PMCID: PMC4169934.
    15. Swanson RA. Brain glycogen--vestigial no more. Foreword. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb; 30(1):251-3. PMID: 25060966.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Robbins NM, Swanson RA. Opposing effects of glucose on stroke and reperfusion injury: acidosis, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Stroke. 2014 Jun; 45(6):1881-6. PMID: 24743441; PMCID: PMC4102697.
    17. Jain M, Ngoy S, Sheth SA, Swanson RA, Rhee EP, Liao R, Clish CB, Mootha VK, Nilsson R. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15; 306(8):E854-68. PMID: 24518676; PMCID: PMC3989739.
    18. Swanson RA. Glucose, acid, and aspartate: Friends and foes of the axon. Ann Neurol. 2014 Apr; 75(4):490-1. PMID: 24272667; PMCID: PMC4074545.
    19. Chen Y, Won SJ, Xu Y, Swanson RA. Targeting microglial activation in stroke therapy: pharmacological tools and gender effects. Curr Med Chem. 2014; 21(19):2146-55. PMID: 24372213; PMCID: PMC4076056.
    20. Lam TI, Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Shen Y, Hefner C, Shi Y, Sun D, Swanson RA. Intracellular pH reduction prevents excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal death by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12; 110(46):E4362-8. PMID: 24163350; PMCID: PMC3832003.
    21. Min SW, Sohn PD, Cho SH, Swanson RA, Gan L. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013; 5:53. PMID: 24093018; PMCID: PMC3782645.
    22. Baxter P, Chen Y, Xu Y, Swanson RA. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: a treatable cause of cell death in stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Feb; 5(1):136-44. PMID: 24323707; PMCID: PMC4034530.
    23. Swanson R, Schouboe A, McKenna MC. 10th International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism. Preface. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Aug; 91(8):1005-6. PMID: 23798354.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Lam TI, Bingham D, Chang TJ, Lee CC, Shi J, Wang D, Massa S, Swanson RA, Liu J. Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Nov-Dec; 27(9):889-99. PMID: 23778701.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Kauppinen TM, Gan L, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-induced NAD(+) depletion promotes nuclear factor-?B transcriptional activity by preventing p65 de-acetylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug; 1833(8):1985-91. PMID: 23597856; PMCID: PMC4041949.
    26. Brennan-Minnella AM, Shen Y, El-Benna J, Swanson RA. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase couples NMDA receptors to superoxide release in excitotoxic neuronal death. Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e580. PMID: 23559014; PMCID: PMC3641334.
    27. Reyes RC, Brennan AM, Shen Y, Baldwin Y, Swanson RA. Activation of neuronal NMDA receptors induces superoxide-mediated oxidative stress in neighboring neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 12; 32(37):12973-8. PMID: 22973021; PMCID: PMC3478885.
    28. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Kauppinen TM, Choi BY, Kim JH, Jang BG, Lee MW, Sohn M, Liu J, Swanson RA, Suh SW. Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2012; 9:182. PMID: 22830525; PMCID: PMC3458941.
    29. Won SJ, Choi BY, Yoo BH, Sohn M, Ying W, Swanson RA, Suh SW. Prevention of traumatic brain injury-induced neuron death by intranasal delivery of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Neurotrauma. 2012 May 1; 29(7):1401-9. PMID: 22352983.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Swanson RA. One cell's poison is another cell's cure. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Apr; 15(4):505-6. PMID: 22449958.
      View in: PubMed
    31. d'Avila JC, Lam TI, Bingham D, Shi J, Won SJ, Kauppinen TM, Massa S, Liu J, Swanson RA. Microglial activation induced by brain trauma is suppressed by post-injury treatment with a PARP inhibitor. J Neuroinflammation. 2012; 9:31. PMID: 22335939; PMCID: PMC3298794.
    32. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Higashi Y, Berman AE, Escartin C, Won SJ, Wang C, Cho SH, Gan L, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid ß. J Neuroinflammation. 2011; 8:152. PMID: 22051244; PMCID: PMC3247192.
    33. Won SJ, Tang XN, Suh SW, Yenari MA, Swanson RA. Hyperglycemia promotes tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhage by Increasing superoxide production. Ann Neurol. 2011 Oct; 70(4):583-90. PMID: 22002675; PMCID: PMC4554391.
    34. Escartin C, Won SJ, Malgorn C, Auregan G, Berman AE, Chen PC, Déglon N, Johnson JA, Suh SW, Swanson RA. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression. J Neurosci. 2011 May 18; 31(20):7392-401. PMID: 21593323; PMCID: PMC3339848.
    35. Berman AE, Chan WY, Brennan AM, Reyes RC, Adler BL, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Edling Y, Swanson RA. N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse. Ann Neurol. 2011 Mar; 69(3):509-20. PMID: 21446024; PMCID: PMC4096233.
    36. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Brennan AM, Shin BS, Kauppinen TM, Berman AE, Swanson RA, Suh SW. EAAC1 gene deletion alters zinc homeostasis and exacerbates neuronal injury after transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 17; 30(46):15409-18. PMID: 21084597.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Yenari MA, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Microglial activation in stroke: therapeutic targets. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Oct; 7(4):378-91. PMID: 20880502.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Tang XN, Berman AE, Swanson RA, Yenari MA. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jul 15; 190(2):240-3. PMID: 20452374; PMCID: PMC2898728.
    39. Tang KS, Suh SW, Alano CC, Shao Z, Hunt WT, Swanson RA, Anderson CM. Astrocytic poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation leads to bioenergetic depletion and inhibition of glutamate uptake capacity. Glia. 2010 Mar; 58(4):446-57. PMID: 19795500.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Alano CC, Garnier P, Ying W, Higashi Y, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. NAD+ depletion is necessary and sufficient for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2010 Feb 24; 30(8):2967-78. PMID: 20181594; PMCID: PMC2864043.
    41. Wang Q, van Hoecke M, Tang XN, Lee H, Zheng Z, Swanson RA, Yenari MA. Pyruvate protects against experimental stroke via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):223-31. PMID: 19635562; PMCID: PMC2742567.
    42. Brennan AM, Suh SW, Won SJ, Narasimhan P, Kauppinen TM, Lee H, Edling Y, Chan PH, Swanson RA. NADPH oxidase is the primary source of superoxide induced by NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jul; 12(7):857-63. PMID: 19503084; PMCID: PMC2746760.
    43. Nagasawa K, Escartin C, Swanson RA. Astrocyte cultures exhibit P2X7 receptor channel opening in the absence of exogenous ligands. Glia. 2009 Apr 15; 57(6):622-33. PMID: 18942742.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Burns DM, Ying W, Kauppinen TM, Zhu K, Swanson RA. Selective down-regulation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4896. PMID: 19319190; PMCID: PMC2655720.
    45. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Berman AE, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):820-9. PMID: 19190653.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Suh SW, Shin BS, Ma H, Van Hoecke M, Brennan AM, Yenari MA, Swanson RA. Glucose and NADPH oxidase drive neuronal superoxide formation in stroke. Ann Neurol. 2008 Dec; 64(6):654-63. PMID: 19107988; PMCID: PMC4304737.
    47. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Gum ET, Shin BS, Won SJ, Sheline CT, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Sequential release of nitric oxide, zinc, and superoxide in hypoglycemic neuronal death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Oct; 28(10):1697-706. PMID: 18545258.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Kauppinen TM, Higashi Y, Suh SW, Escartin C, Nagasawa K, Swanson RA. Zinc triggers microglial activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5827-35. PMID: 18509044; PMCID: PMC2680357.
    49. Alano CC, Tran A, Tao R, Ying W, Karliner JS, Swanson RA. Differences among cell types in NAD(+) compartmentalization: a comparison of neurons, astrocytes, and cardiac myocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15; 85(15):3378-85. PMID: 17853438.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Hypoglycemia, brain energetics, and hypoglycemic neuronal death. Glia. 2007 Sep; 55(12):1280-6. PMID: 17659530.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Voloboueva LA, Suh SW, Swanson RA, Giffard RG. Inhibition of mitochondrial function in astrocytes: implications for neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2007 Aug; 102(4):1383-94. PMID: 17488276; PMCID: PMC3175820.
    52. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Alano CC, Anderson CM, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Zinc inhibits astrocyte glutamate uptake by activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Mol Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(7-8):344-9. PMID: 17728843; PMCID: PMC1952665.
    53. Suh SW, Gum ET, Hamby AM, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr; 117(4):910-8. PMID: 17404617; PMCID: PMC1838937.
    54. Bourguignon LY, Gilad E, Peyrollier K, Brightman A, Swanson RA. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2007 May; 101(4):1002-17. PMID: 17403031.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Hamby AM, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor to suppress inflammation and neuronal death after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Stroke. 2007 Feb; 38(2 Suppl):632-6. PMID: 17261705.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Suh SW, Bergher JP, Anderson CM, Treadway JL, Fosgerau K, Swanson RA. Astrocyte glycogen sustains neuronal activity during hypoglycemia: studies with the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr; 321(1):45-50. PMID: 17251391.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Yenari MA, Swanson RA. INTRODUCTION: Immune mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006 Dec; 6(5):225. PMID: 17464366.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in CNS disease. Neuroscience. 2007 Apr 14; 145(4):1267-72. PMID: 17084037.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Szabo C, Pacher P, Swanson RA. Novel modulators of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec; 27(12):626-30. PMID: 17055069; PMCID: PMC2228253.
    60. Swanson RA. Intracerebral hematoma: beyond the mass lesion. Stroke. 2006 Oct; 37(10):2445. PMID: 16960087.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Alano CC, Kauppinen TM, Valls AV, Swanson RA. Minocycline inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 20; 103(25):9685-90. PMID: 16769901; PMCID: PMC1480467.
    62. Zeng J, Yang GY, Ying W, Kelly M, Hirai K, James TL, Swanson RA, Litt L. Pyruvate improves recovery after PARP-1-associated energy failure induced by oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Feb; 27(2):304-15. PMID: 16736046.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Alano CC, Swanson RA. Players in the PARP-1 cell-death pathway: JNK1 joins the cast. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Jun; 31(6):309-11. PMID: 16679020.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Kauppinen TM, Chan WY, Suh SW, Wiggins AK, Huang EJ, Swanson RA. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 2; 103(18):7136-41. PMID: 16627622; PMCID: PMC1459030.
    65. Zhou HZ, Swanson RA, Simonis U, Ma X, Cecchini G, Gray MO. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 hyperactivation and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I function in reperfused mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug; 291(2):H714-23. PMID: 16582021.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Aoyama K, Suh SW, Hamby AM, Liu J, Chan WY, Chen Y, Swanson RA. Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jan; 9(1):119-26. PMID: 16311588.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Zhu K, Swanson RA, Ying W. NADH can enter into astrocytes and block poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 1; 16(11):1209-12. PMID: 16012350.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Genain CP, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in a primate model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jul 15; 81(2):190-8. PMID: 15931673.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Giffard RG, Swanson RA. Ischemia-induced programmed cell death in astrocytes. Glia. 2005 Jun; 50(4):299-306. PMID: 15846803.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Green AJ, Roberts DR, Swanson RA. Post-traumatic epidermoid cyst presenting with headache. Neurology. 2005 May 10; 64(9):1657. PMID: 15883342.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Matsumori Y, Liu J, Swanson RA. Pyruvate administered after severe hypoglycemia reduces neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Diabetes. 2005 May; 54(5):1452-8. PMID: 15855333.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Aoyama K, Burns DM, Suh SW, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Swanson RA. Acidosis causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-12-mediated astrocyte death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Mar; 25(3):358-70. PMID: 15689959.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2288-96. PMID: 15699164.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Suh SW, Fan Y, Hong SM, Liu Z, Matsumori Y, Weinstein PR, Swanson RA, Liu J. Hypoglycemia induces transient neurogenesis and subsequent progenitor cell loss in the rat hippocampus. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):500-9. PMID: 15677508.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Ying W, Alano CC, Garnier P, Swanson RA. NAD+ as a metabolic link between DNA damage and cell death. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15; 79(1-2):216-23. PMID: 15562437.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Suh SW, Garnier P, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Swanson RA. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. Neurobiol Dis. 2004 Aug; 16(3):538-45. PMID: 15262265.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Zeng J, Hirai K, Yang GY, Ying W, Swanson RA, Kelly M, Mayer M, James TL, Litt L. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 Tesla to investigate PARP-1 associated energy failure and metabolic rescue in cerebrocortical slices. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug; 36(4):415-9. PMID: 15377881.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Garnier P, Prigent-Tessier A, Van Hoecke M, Bertrand N, Demougeot C, Sordet O, Swanson RA, Marie C, Beley A. Hypoxia induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation without neuronal death in gerbil brains. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 20(4):937-46. PMID: 15305862.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Swanson RA, Ying W, Kauppinen TM. Astrocyte influences on ischemic neuronal death. Curr Mol Med. 2004 Mar; 4(2):193-205. PMID: 15032713.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Alano CC, Ying W, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated cell death in astrocytes requires NAD+ depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):18895-902. PMID: 14960594.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Castro-Obregón S, Rao RV, del Rio G, Chen SF, Poksay KS, Rabizadeh S, Vesce S, Zhang XK, Swanson RA, Bredesen DE. Alternative, nonapoptotic programmed cell death: mediation by arrestin 2, ERK2, and Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):17543-53. PMID: 14769794.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Gum ET, Swanson RA, Alano C, Liu J, Hong S, Weinstein PR, Panter SS. Human serum albumin and its N-terminal tetrapeptide (DAHK) block oxidant-induced neuronal death. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):590-5. PMID: 14726550.
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    83. Anderson CM, Bergher JP, Swanson RA. ATP-induced ATP release from astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2004 Jan; 88(1):246-56. PMID: 14675168.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Gum E, Liu J, Swanson RA. Hypoglycemic neuronal death and cognitive impairment are prevented by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors administered after hypoglycemia. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19; 23(33):10681-90. PMID: 14627653.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Tsuchiya D, Hong S, Matsumori Y, Kayama T, Swanson RA, Dillman WH, Liu J, Panter SS, Weinstein PR. Overexpression of rat heat shock protein 70 reduces neuronal injury after transient focal ischemia, transient global ischemia, or kainic acid-induced seizures. Neurosurgery. 2003 Nov; 53(5):1179-87; discussion 1187-8. PMID: 14580286.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Sevigny MB, Silva JM, Lan WC, Alano CC, Swanson RA. Expression and activity of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in cultured astrocytes, neurons, and C6 glioma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Oct 7; 117(2):213-20. PMID: 14559156.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Ying W, Garnier P, Swanson RA. NAD+ repletion prevents PARP-1-induced glycolytic blockade and cell death in cultured mouse astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 5; 308(4):809-13. PMID: 12927790.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Garnier P, Ying W, Swanson RA. Ischemic preconditioning by caspase cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neurosci. 2003 Sep 3; 23(22):7967-73. PMID: 12954857.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Rapp JH, Pan XM, Yu B, Swanson RA, Higashida RT, Simpson P, Saloner D. Cerebral ischemia and infarction from atheroemboli <100 microm in Size. Stroke. 2003 Aug; 34(8):1976-80. PMID: 12855822.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Tsuchiya D, Hong S, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Kayama T, Swanson RA, Dillman WH, Liu J, Panter SS, Weinstein PR. Overexpression of rat heat shock protein 70 is associated with reduction of early mitochondrial cytochrome C release and subsequent DNA fragmentation after permanent focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Jun; 23(6):718-27. PMID: 12796720.
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    91. Frizzo ME, Antunes Soares FA, Dall'Onder LP, Lara DR, Swanson RA, Souza DO. Extracellular conversion of guanine-based purines to guanosine specifically enhances astrocyte glutamate uptake. Brain Res. 2003 May 16; 972(1-2):84-9. PMID: 12711081.
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    92. Chen Y, Swanson RA. The glutamate transporters EAAT2 and EAAT3 mediate cysteine uptake in cortical neuron cultures. J Neurochem. 2003 Mar; 84(6):1332-9. PMID: 12614333.
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    93. Duan S, Anderson CM, Keung EC, Chen Y, Chen Y, Swanson RA. P2X7 receptor-mediated release of excitatory amino acids from astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2003 Feb 15; 23(4):1320-8. PMID: 12598620.
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    94. Chen Y, Swanson RA. Astrocytes and brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Feb; 23(2):137-49. PMID: 12571445.
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    95. Sevigny M, Garnier P, Kauppinen T, Swanson R. Heat shock - induced Hsp70 expression in murine astrocytes does not require poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003; 13(5):297-300. PMID: 14586173.
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    96. Anderson CM, Norquist BA, Vesce S, Nicholls DG, Soine WH, Duan S, Swanson RA. Barbiturates induce mitochondrial depolarization and potentiate excitotoxic neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2002 Nov 1; 22(21):9203-9. PMID: 12417645.
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    97. Castro-Obregón S, Del Rio G, Chen SF, Swanson RA, Frankowski H, Rao RV, Stoka V, Vesce S, Nicholls DG, Bredesen DE. A ligand-receptor pair that triggers a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2002 Aug; 9(8):807-17. PMID: 12107824.
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    98. Ying W, Chen Y, Alano CC, Swanson RA. Tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates prevent PARP-mediated death of neurons and astrocytes. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jul; 22(7):774-9. PMID: 12142562.
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    99. Anderson CM, Bridges RJ, Chamberlin AR, Shimamoto K, Yasuda-Kamatani Y, Swanson RA. Differing effects of substrate and non-substrate transport inhibitors on glutamate uptake reversal. J Neurochem. 2001 Dec; 79(6):1207-16. PMID: 11752061.
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    100. Ying W, Sevigny MB, Chen Y, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase mediates oxidative and excitotoxic neuronal death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 9; 98(21):12227-32. PMID: 11593040; PMCID: PMC59796.
    101. Chen Y, Vartiainen NE, Ying W, Chan PH, Koistinaho J, Swanson RA. Astrocytes protect neurons from nitric oxide toxicity by a glutathione-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2001 Jun; 77(6):1601-10. PMID: 11413243.
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    102. Peng L, Swanson RA, Hertz L. Effects of L-glutamate, D-aspartate, and monensin on glycolytic and oxidative glucose metabolism in mouse astrocyte cultures: further evidence that glutamate uptake is metabolically driven by oxidative metabolism. Neurochem Int. 2001 Apr; 38(5):437-43. PMID: 11222924.
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    103. Frizzo ME, Lara DR, Dahm KC, Prokopiuk AS, Swanson RA, Souza DO. Activation of glutamate uptake by guanosine in primary astrocyte cultures. Neuroreport. 2001 Mar 26; 12(4):879-81. PMID: 11277601.
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    104. Chen Y, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Astrocytes overexpressing Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase have increased resistance to oxidative injury. Glia. 2001 Mar 15; 33(4):343-7. PMID: 11246233.
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    105. Anderson CM, Swanson RA. Astrocyte glutamate transport: review of properties, regulation, and physiological functions. Glia. 2000 Oct; 32(1):1-14. PMID: 10975906.
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    106. Wender R, Brown AM, Fern R, Swanson RA, Farrell K, Ransom BR. Astrocytic glycogen influences axon function and survival during glucose deprivation in central white matter. J Neurosci. 2000 Sep 15; 20(18):6804-10. PMID: 10995824.
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    107. Chen Y, Ying W, Simma V, Copin JC, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Overexpression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase attenuates oxidative inhibition of astrocyte glutamate uptake. J Neurochem. 2000 Sep; 75(3):939-45. PMID: 10936174.
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    108. Liu J, Ying W, Massa S, Duriez PJ, Swanson RA, Poirier GG, Sharp FR. Effects of transient global ischemia and kainate on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) gene expression and proteolytic cleavage in gerbil and rat brains. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000 Aug 14; 80(1):7-16. PMID: 11039724.
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    109. Ying W, Swanson RA. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor gallotannin blocks oxidative astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2000 May 15; 11(7):1385-8. PMID: 10841343.
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    110. Ying W, Anderson CM, Chen Y, Stein BA, Fahlman CS, Copin JC, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Differing effects of copper,zinc superoxide dismutase overexpression on neurotoxicity elicited by nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and excitotoxins. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000 Feb; 20(2):359-68. PMID: 10698074.
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    111. Duan S, Anderson CM, Stein BA, Swanson RA. Glutamate induces rapid upregulation of astrocyte glutamate transport and cell-surface expression of GLAST. J Neurosci. 1999 Dec 1; 19(23):10193-200. PMID: 10575016.
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    112. Ying W, Han SK, Miller JW, Swanson RA. Acidosis potentiates oxidative neuronal death by multiple mechanisms. J Neurochem. 1999 Oct; 73(4):1549-56. PMID: 10501200.
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    113. Swanson RA. Intravenous heparin for acute stroke: what can we learn from the megatrials? Neurology. 1999 Jun 10; 52(9):1746-50. PMID: 10371518.
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    114. Sharp FR, Massa SM, Swanson RA. Heat-shock protein protection. Trends Neurosci. 1999 Mar; 22(3):97-9. PMID: 10199631.
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    115. Longuemare MC, Rose CR, Farrell K, Ransom BR, Waxman SG, Swanson RA. K(+)-induced reversal of astrocyte glutamate uptake is limited by compensatory changes in intracellular Na+. Neuroscience. 1999; 93(1):285-92. PMID: 10430492.
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    116. Swanson RA, Seid LL. Barbiturates impair astrocyte glutamate uptake. Glia. 1998 Dec; 24(4):365-71. PMID: 9814816.
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    117. Hertz L, Swanson RA, Newman GC, Marrif H, Juurlink BH, Peng L. Can experimental conditions explain the discrepancy over glutamate stimulation of aerobic glycolysis? Dev Neurosci. 1998; 20(4-5):339-47. PMID: 9778570.
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    118. Swanson RA, Farrell K, Stein BA. Astrocyte energetics, function, and death under conditions of incomplete ischemia: a mechanism of glial death in the penumbra. Glia. 1997 Sep; 21(1):142-53. PMID: 9298857.
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    119. Longuemare MC, Swanson RA. Net glutamate release from astrocytes is not induced by extracellular potassium concentrations attainable in brain. J Neurochem. 1997 Aug; 69(2):879-82. PMID: 9231751.
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    120. Swanson RA, Liu J, Miller JW, Rothstein JD, Farrell K, Stein BA, Longuemare MC. Neuronal regulation of glutamate transporter subtype expression in astrocytes. J Neurosci. 1997 Feb 1; 17(3):932-40. PMID: 8994048.
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    121. Narasimhan P, Sklar R, Murrell M, Swanson RA, Sharp FR. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase induction by cerebral ischemia and neurotoxicity of the mitochondrial toxin methylmalonic acid. J Neurosci. 1996 Nov 15; 16(22):7336-46. PMID: 8929440.
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    122. Longhurst PA, Schwegel T, Folander K, Swanson R. The human P2x1 receptor: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and localization to chromosome 17. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Sep 11; 1308(3):185-8. PMID: 8809107.
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    123. Narasimhan P, Swanson RA, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Astrocyte survival and HSP70 heat shock protein induction following heat shock and acidosis. Glia. 1996 Jun; 17(2):147-59. PMID: 8776581.
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    124. Longuemare MC, Keung EC, Chun S, Sharp FR, Chan PH, Swanson RA. MK-801 reduces uptake and stimulates efflux of excitatory amino acids via membrane depolarization. Am J Physiol. 1996 May; 270(5 Pt 1):C1398-404. PMID: 8967440.
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    125. Swanson RA, Benington JH. Astrocyte glucose metabolism under normal and pathological conditions in vitro. Dev Neurosci. 1996; 18(5-6):515-21. PMID: 8940626.
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    126. Massa SM, Swanson RA, Sharp FR. The stress gene response in brain. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev. 1996; 8(2):95-158. PMID: 8727184.
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    127. Swanson RA, Farrell K, Simon RP. Acidosis causes failure of astrocyte glutamate uptake during hypoxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 May; 15(3):417-24. PMID: 7713999.
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    128. Longuemare MC, Swanson RA. Excitatory amino acid release from astrocytes during energy failure by reversal of sodium-dependent uptake. J Neurosci Res. 1995 Feb 15; 40(3):379-86. PMID: 7745632.
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    129. Swanson RA, Graham SH. Fluorocitrate and fluoroacetate effects on astrocyte metabolism in vitro. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 21; 664(1-2):94-100. PMID: 7895052.
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    130. Morgan ET, Thomas KB, Swanson R, Vales T, Hwang J, Wright K. Selective suppression of cytochrome P-450 gene expression by interleukins 1 and 6 in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 18; 1219(2):475-83. PMID: 7918645.
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    131. Sharp FR, Butman M, Koistinaho J, Aardalen K, Nakki R, Massa SM, Swanson RA, Sagar SM. Phencyclidine induction of the hsp 70 stress gene in injured pyramidal neurons is mediated via multiple receptors and voltage gated calcium channels. Neuroscience. 1994 Oct; 62(4):1079-92. PMID: 7845588.
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    132. Fraser CL, Swanson RA. Female sex hormones inhibit volume regulation in rat brain astrocyte culture. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct; 267(4 Pt 1):C909-14. PMID: 7943284.
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    133. Longuemare MC, Hill MP, Swanson RA. Glycolysis can prevent non-synaptic excitatory amino acid release during hypoxia. Neuroreport. 1994 Sep 8; 5(14):1789-92. PMID: 7827333.
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    134. Swanson RA, Sharp FR. Infarct measurement methodology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jul; 14(4):697-8. PMID: 7516936.
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    135. Swanson RA, Chen J, Graham SH. Glucose can fuel glutamate uptake in ischemic brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jan; 14(1):1-6. PMID: 7903308.
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    136. Sharp FR, Butman M, Aardalen K, Nickolenko J, Nakki R, Massa SM, Swanson RA, Sagar SM. Neuronal injury produced by NMDA antagonists can be detected using heat shock proteins and can be blocked with antipsychotics. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994; 30(4):555-60. PMID: 7770620.
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    137. Swanson RA, Sharp FR. BW619C89, a glutamate release inhibitor, protects against focal cerebral ischemic damage. Stroke. 1994 Jan; 25(1):225-6. PMID: 7903493.
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    138. Koistinaho J, Swanson RA, de Vente J, Sagar SM. NADPH-diaphorase (nitric oxide synthase)-reactive amacrine cells of rabbit retina: putative target cells and stimulation by light. Neuroscience. 1993 Dec; 57(3):587-97. PMID: 7508576.
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    139. Giffard RG, Weiss JH, Swanson RA, Choi DW. Secobarbital attenuates excitotoxicity but potentiates oxygen-glucose deprivation neuronal injury in cortical cell culture. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Sep; 13(5):803-10. PMID: 8360287.
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    140. Pulliam L, West D, Haigwood N, Swanson RA. HIV-1 envelope gp120 alters astrocytes in human brain cultures. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1993 May; 9(5):439-44. PMID: 8318270.
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    141. Sharp FR, Sagar SM, Swanson RA. Metabolic mapping with cellular resolution: c-fos vs. 2-deoxyglucose. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1993; 7(3-4):205-28. PMID: 8221912.
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    142. Swanson RA, Choi DW. Glial glycogen stores affect neuronal survival during glucose deprivation in vitro. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Jan; 13(1):162-9. PMID: 8417005.
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    143. Swanson R. Astrocyte glutamate uptake during chemical hypoxia in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Dec 7; 147(2):143-6. PMID: 1362805.
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    144. Halt PS, Swanson R, Faden AI. Alcohol exacerbates behavioral and neurochemical effects of rat spinal cord trauma. Arch Neurol. 1992 Nov; 49(11):1178-84. PMID: 1444885.
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    145. Swanson R, Morton MM, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Sensory stimulation induces local cerebral glycogenolysis: demonstration by autoradiography. Neuroscience. 1992 Nov; 51(2):451-61. PMID: 1465204.
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    146. Chang LH, Shimizu H, Abiko H, Swanson R, Faden AI, James TL, Weinstein PR. Effect of dichloroacetate on recovery of brain lactate, phosphorus energy metabolites, and glutamate during reperfusion after complete cerebral ischemia in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992 Nov; 12(6):1030-8. PMID: 1356994.
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    147. Tombaugh GC, Yang SH, Swanson R, Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids exacerbate hypoxic and hypoglycemic hippocampal injury in vitro: biochemical correlates and a role for astrocytes. J Neurochem. 1992 Jul; 59(1):137-46. PMID: 1613495.
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    148. Swanson R. Physiologic coupling of glial glycogen metabolism to neuronal activity in brain. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 70 Suppl:S138-44. PMID: 1295664.
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    149. Swanson R, Sharp FR. Zinc toxicity and induction of the 72 kD heat shock protein in primary astrocyte culture. Glia. 1992; 6(3):198-205. PMID: 1335969.
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    150. Swanson R, Sharp FR. Glucose and infarct size. Neurology. 1991 Dec; 41(12):2013. PMID: 1745369.
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    151. Young GP, Hedges JR, Gibler WB, Green TR, Swanson R. Do CK-MB results affect chest pain decision making in the emergency department? Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Nov; 20(11):1220-8. PMID: 1952309.
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    152. Luneau CJ, Williams JB, Marshall J, Levitan ES, Oliva C, Smith JS, Antanavage J, Folander K, Stein RB, Swanson R. Alternative splicing contributes to K+ channel diversity in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 1; 88(9):3932-6. PMID: 2023941; PMCID: PMC51567.
    153. Hisanaga K, Sagar SM, Hicks KJ, Swanson R, Sharp FR. c-fos proto-oncogene expression in astrocytes associated with differentiation or proliferation but not depolarization. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990 Jun; 8(1):69-75. PMID: 2166202.
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    154. Swanson RA, Morton MT, Tsao-Wu G, Savalos RA, Davidson C, Sharp FR. A semiautomated method for measuring brain infarct volume. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1990 Mar; 10(2):290-3. PMID: 1689322.
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    155. Swanson R, Yu AC, Chan PH, Sharp FR. Glutamate increases glycogen content and reduces glucose utilization in primary astrocyte culture. J Neurochem. 1990 Feb; 54(2):490-6. PMID: 1967630.
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    156. Swanson R, Shiraishi K, Morton MT, Sharp FR. Methionine sulfoximine reduces cortical infarct size in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke. 1990 Feb; 21(2):322-7. PMID: 2305410.
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    157. Swanson RA, Yu AC, Sharp FR, Chan PH. Regulation of glycogen content in primary astrocyte culture: effects of glucose analogues, phenobarbital, and methionine sulfoximine. J Neurochem. 1989 May; 52(5):1359-65. PMID: 2540267.
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    158. Swanson R, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Regional brain glycogen stores and metabolism during complete global ischaemia. Neurol Res. 1989 Mar; 11(1):24-8. PMID: 2565546.
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    159. Sagar SM, Sharp FR, Swanson RA. The regional distribution of glycogen in rat brain fixed by microwave irradiation. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 4; 417(1):172-4. PMID: 3304537.
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    160. Swanson RA, Schmidley JW. Amnestic syndrome and vertical gaze palsy: early detection of bilateral thalamic infarction by CT and NMR. Stroke. 1985 Sep-Oct; 16(5):823-7. PMID: 4049446.
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    161. Monteiro ML, Swanson RA, Coppeto JR, Cuneo RA, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. A microangiopathic syndrome of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and retinal arteriolar occlusions. Neurology. 1985 Aug; 35(8):1113-21. PMID: 4022345.
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    162. WAY EL, SWANSON R, GIMBLE AI. Studies in vitro and in vivo on the influence of the liver on isonipecaine (demerol) activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1947 Oct; 91(2):178-84. PMID: 20270121.
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