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    Philip Rosenthal, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 30
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-206-8845

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoPost-Doc Fellow/Scholar Medicine1988
      University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship Infectious Diseases
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

       Overview 
       Overview
      We have three main areas of interest, all involving malaria, one of the most important infections of humans. First, we study the basic biology of malaria parasites, including the biochemical properties and biological roles of parasite proteases and mechanisms of action of novel antimalarial agents. Second, in collaboration with industry and academic groups, we are pursuing drug discovery, evaluating protease inhibitors and other compounds as potential antimalarial drugs. Third, we study malaria in Africa, with translational studies in Uganda and Burkina Faso evaluating antimalarial drug efficacy and resistance, the molecular epidemiology of malaria, the roles of host and parasite genetic polymorphisms in treatment outcomes, antimalarial immune responses, the interaction of malaria and HIV infection, and related areas.


       ORNG Applications 
       Awarded Grants
       Global Health
       More Info

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Conrad MD, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Polymorphisms in K13 and Falcipain-2 Associated with Artemisinin Resistance Are Not Prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum Isolated from Ugandan Children. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105690.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Zongo I, Somé FA, Somda SA, Parikh S, Rouamba N, Rosenthal PJ, Tarning J, Lindegardh N, Nosten F, Ouédraogo JB. Efficacy and day 7 plasma piperaquine concentrations in african children treated for uncomplicated malaria with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e103200.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Bigira V, Kapisi J, Clark TD, Kinara S, Mwangwa F, Muhindo MK, Osterbauer B, Aweeka FT, Huang L, Achan J, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for the prevention of malaria in young ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2014 Aug; 11(8):e1001689.
        View in: PubMed
      4. ß-amino-alcohol tethered 4-aminoquinoline-isatin conjugates: Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation. Eur J Med Chem. 2014 Sep 12; 84:566-73.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Venkatesan M, Gadalla NB, Stepniewska K, Dahal P, Nsanzabana C, Moriera C, Price RN, Mårtensson A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Sutherland CJ, Guérin P, Davis TM, Ménard D, Adam I, Ademowo G, Arze C, Baliraine FN, Berens-Riha N, Björkman A, Borrmann S, Checchi F, Desai M, Dhorda M, Djimdé AA, El-Sayed BB, Eshetu T, Eyase F, Falade C, Faucher JF, Fröberg G, Grivoyannis A, Hamour S, Houzé S, Johnson J, Kamugisha E, Kariuki S, Kiechel JR, Kironde F, Kofoed PE, LeBras J, Malmberg M, Mwai L, Ngasala B, Nosten F, Nsobya SL, Nzila A, Oguike M, Otienoburu SD, Ogutu B, Ouédraogo JB, Piola P, Rombo L, Schramm B, Somé AF, Thwing J, Ursing J, Wong RP, Zeynudin A, Zongo I, Plowe CV, Sibley CH. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Multidrug Resistance 1 Genes: Parasite Risk Factors That Affect Treatment Outcomes for P. falciparum Malaria After Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Oct 1; 91(4):833-43.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Raj R, Mehra V, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Wicht KJ, Egan TJ, Hopper M, Wrischnik LA, Land KM, Kumar V. Discovery of highly selective 7-chloroquinoline-thiohydantoins with potent antimalarial activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2014 Sep 12; 84:425-32.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Oliveira R, Guedes RC, Meireles P, Albuquerque IS, Gonçalves LM, Pires E, Bronze MR, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, Moreira R, O'Neill PM, Lopes F. Tetraoxane-pyrimidine nitrile hybrids as dual stage antimalarials. J Med Chem. 2014 Jun 12; 57(11):4916-23.
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      8. Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Arinaitwe E, Bigira V, Muhindo MK, Conrad M, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. Longitudinal outcomes in a cohort of ugandan children randomized to artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of malaria. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15; 59(4):509-16.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Mbogo GW, Nankoberanyi S, Tukwasibwe S, Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Arinaitwe E, Kamya M, Tappero J, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jul 2; 91(1):54-61.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hsiang MS, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. Point of Care Testing for Malaria Using LAMP, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification. J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 15; 210(8):1167-9.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Carrasco MP, Newton AS, Gonçalves L, Góis A, Machado M, Gut J, Nogueira F, Hänscheid T, Guedes RC, Dos Santos DJ, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R. Probing the aurone scaffold against Plasmodium falciparum: Design, synthesis and antimalarial activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2014 Jun 10; 80:523-34.
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      12. Kakuru A, Achan J, Muhindo MK, Ikilezi G, Arinaitwe E, Mwangwa F, Ruel T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies Are Efficacious and Safe for Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1; 59(3):446-53.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Paulo A, Figueiras M, Machado M, Charneira C, Lavrado J, Santos SA, Lopes D, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Nogueira F, Moreira R. Bis-alkylamine Indolo[3,2-b]quinolines as Hemozoin Ligands: Implications for Antimalarial Cytostatic and Cytocidal Activities. J Med Chem. 2014 Apr 24; 57(8):3295-313.
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      14. Ruel TD, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Kamya M, Achan J. Virologic and Immunologic Outcomes of HIV-Infected Ugandan Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):535-41.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Somé AF, Zongo I, Compaoré YD, Sakandé S, Nosten F, Ouédraogo JB, Rosenthal PJ. Selection of Drug Resistance-Mediating Plasmodium falciparum Genetic Polymorphisms by Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Burkina Faso. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jul; 58(7):3660-5.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Sundararaj S, Saxena AK, Sharma R, Vashisht K, Sharma S, Anvikar A, Dixit R, Rosenthal PJ, Pandey KC. Cross-Talk between Malarial Cysteine Proteases and Falstatin: The BC Loop as a Hot-Spot Target. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93008.
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      17. Taylor AR, Flegg JA, Nsobya SL, Yeka A, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Sibley CH, Guerin PJ, Holmes CC. Estimation of malaria haplotype and genotype frequencies: a statistical approach to overcome the challenge associated with multiclonal infections. Malar J. 2014; 13(1):102.
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      18. Raj R, Biot C, Carrère-Kremer S, Kremer L, Guérardel Y, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Forge D, Kumar V. 7-Chloroquinoline-isatin Conjugates: Antimalarial, Antitubercular, and Cytotoxic Evaluation. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2014 May; 83(5):622-9.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Nankoberanyi S, Mbogo GW, Leclair NP, Conrad MD, Tumwebaze P, Tukwasibwe S, Kamya MR, Tappero J, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Validation of the ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum resistance mediating polymorphisms in Uganda. Malar J. 2014; 13(1):95.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Nankabirwa JI, Wandera B, Amuge P, Kiwanuka N, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Brooker SJ, Staedke SG, Kamya MR. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on malaria in ugandan schoolchildren: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 May; 58(10):1404-12.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Gaynor BD, Amza A, Kadri B, Nassirou B, Lawan O, Maman L, Stoller NE, Yu SN, Chin SA, West SK, Bailey RL, Rosenthal PJ, Keenan JD, Porco TC, Lietman TM. Impact of Mass Azithromycin Distribution on Malaria Parasitemia during the Low-Transmission Season in Niger: A Cluster-Randomized Trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 May; 90(5):846-51.
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      22. Conrad MD, LeClair N, Arinaitwe E, Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Greenhouse B, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Comparative Impacts Over 5 Years of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies on Plasmodium falciparum Polymorphisms That Modulate Drug Sensitivity in Ugandan Children. J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1; 210(3):344-53.
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      23. Weldon DJ, Shah F, Chittiboyina AG, Sheri A, Chada RR, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Shivakumar D, Sherman W, Desai P, Jung JC, Avery MA. Synthesis, biological evaluation, hydration site thermodynamics, and chemical reactivity analysis of a-keto substituted peptidomimetics for the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Mar 1; 24(5):1274-9.
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      24. Tukwasibwe S, Mugenyi L, Mbogo GW, Nankoberanyi S, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Joloba ML, Nsobya SL, Staedke SG, Rosenthal PJ. Differential prevalence of transporter polymorphisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic falciparum malaria infections in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 1; 210(1):154-7.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Raj R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kumar V. 1H-1,2,3-Triazole-tethered isatin-7-chloroquinoline and 3-hydroxy-indole-7-chloroquinoline conjugates: Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Feb 1; 24(3):756-9.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Rosenthal PJ. Changes at our journal. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jan; 90(1):1-2.
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      27. Miranda D, Capela R, Albuquerque IS, Meireles P, Paiva I, Nogueira F, Amewu R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Oliveira R, Mota MM, Moreira R, Marti F, Prudêncio M, O'Neill PM, Lopes F. Novel endoperoxide-based transmission-blocking antimalarials with liver- and blood-schizontocidal activities. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2014 Feb 13; 5(2):108-12.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Singh P, Raj R, Singh P, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kumar V. Urea/oxalamide tethered ß-lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates: Synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation. Eur J Med Chem. 2014 Jan; 71:128-34.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Raj R, Biot C, Carrère-Kremer S, Kremer L, Guérardel Y, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kumar V. 4-Aminoquinoline-ß-Lactam Conjugates: Synthesis, Antimalarial, and Antitubercular Evaluation. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2014 Feb; 83(2):191-7.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Mugumbate G, Newton AS, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Moreira R, Chibale K, Guedes RC. Novel anti-Plasmodial hits identified by virtual screening of the ZINC database. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2013 Oct; 27(10):859-71.
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      31. Tukulula M, Njoroge M, Abay ET, Mugumbate GC, Wiesner L, Taylor D, Gibhard L, Norman J, Swart KJ, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Barteau S, Streckfuss J, Kameni-Tcheudji J, Chibale K. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluation of new 4-aminoquinoline-based compounds. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Dec 12; 4(12):1198-202.
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      32. Ressurreição AS, Gonçalves D, Sitoe AR, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Góis A, Gonçalves LM, Bronze MR, Hanscheid T, Biagini GA, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, O'Neill P, Mota MM, Lopes F, Moreira R. Structural optimization of quinolon-4(1H)-imines as dual-stage antimalarials: toward increased potency and metabolic stability. J Med Chem. 2013 Oct 10; 56(19):7679-90.
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      33. Rodrigues T, Ressurreição AS, da Cruz FP, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Carrasco MP, Gonçalves D, Guedes RC, Dos Santos DJ, Mota MM, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Prudêncio M, Lopes F. Flavones as isosteres of 4(1H)-quinolones: Discovery of ligand efficient and dual stage antimalarial lead compounds. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Nov; 69:872-80.
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      34. Ribeiro CJ, Kumar SP, Gut J, Gonçalves LM, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Santos MM. Squaric acid/4-aminoquinoline conjugates: Novel potent antiplasmodial agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Nov; 69:365-72.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Gong L, Parikh S, Rosenthal PJ, Greenhouse B. Biochemical and immunological mechanisms by which sickle cell trait protects against malaria. Malar J. 2013; 12(1):317.
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      36. Prasad R. Blocking Plasmodium falciparum development via dual inhibition of hemoglobin degradation and the ubiquitin proteasome system by MG132. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73530.
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      37. Rosenthal PJ. The interplay between drug resistance and fitness in malaria parasites. Mol Microbiol. 2013 Sep; 89(6):1025-38.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Oliveira R, Newton AS, Guedes RC, Miranda D, Amewu RK, Srivastava A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Lopes F, Moreira R. An endoperoxide-based hybrid approach to deliver falcipain inhibitors inside malaria parasites. ChemMedChem. 2013 Sep; 8(9):1528-36.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Tukulula M, Njoroge M, Mugumbate GC, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Barteau S, Streckfuss J, Heudi O, Kameni-Tcheudji J, Chibale K. Tetrazole-based deoxyamodiaquines: synthesis, ADME/PK profiling and pharmacological evaluation as potential antimalarial agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Sep 1; 21(17):4904-13.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Schuck DC, Ferreira SB, Cruz LN, da Rocha DR, Moraes MS, Nakabashi M, Rosenthal PJ, Ferreira VF, Garcia CR. Biological evaluation of hydroxynaphthoquinones as anti-malarials. Malar J. 2013; 12:234.
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      41. Gantt S, Huang ML, Magaret A, Bunts L, Selke S, Wald A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Casper C. An artesunate-containing antimalarial treatment regimen did not suppress cytomegalovirus viremia. J Clin Virol. 2013 Sep; 58(1):276-8.
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      42. LeClair NP, Conrad MD, Baliraine FN, Nsanzabana C, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Optimization of a ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay for characterization of resistance-mediating polymorphisms in African samples of Plasmodium falciparum. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Aug; 51(8):2564-70.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Rodrigues T, da Cruz FP, Lafuente-Monasterio MJ, Gonçalves D, Ressurreição AS, Sitoe AR, Bronze MR, Gut J, Schneider G, Mota MM, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, Gamo FJ, Lopes F, Moreira R. Quinolin-4(1H)-imines are potent antiplasmodial drugs targeting the liver stage of malaria. J Med Chem. 2013 Jun 13; 56(11):4811-5.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Njogu PM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Design, Synthesis, and Antiplasmodial Activity of Hybrid Compounds Based on (2R,3S)-N-Benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jul 11; 4(7):637-41.
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      45. Andayi WA, Egan TJ, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Synthesis, Antiplasmodial Activity, and ß-Hematin Inhibition of Hydroxypyridone-Chloroquine Hybrids. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jul 11; 4(7):642-6.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Draper MP, Bhatia B, Assefa H, Honeyman L, Garrity-Ryan LK, Verma AK, Gut J, Larson K, Donatelli J, Macone A, Klausner K, Leahy RG, Odinecs A, Ohemeng K, Rosenthal PJ, Nelson ML. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacies of optimized tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul; 57(7):3131-6.
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      47. Marques AF, Esser D, Rosenthal PJ, Kassack MU, Lima LM. Falcipain-2 inhibition by suramin and suramin analogues. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Jul 1; 21(13):3667-73.
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      48. Molleston JP, Mellman W, Narkewicz MR, Balistreri WF, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Jonas MM, Lobritto SJ, Mohan P, Murray KF, Njoku D, Rosenthal P, Barton BA, Talor MV, Cheng I, Schwarz KB, Haber BA. Autoantibodies and autoimmune disease during treatment of children with chronic hepatitis C. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Mar; 56(3):304-10.
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      49. Raj R, Singh P, Singh P, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kumar V. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition en route to 1H-1,2,3-triazole-tethered 7-chloroquinoline-isatin chimeras: synthesis and antimalarial evaluation. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Apr; 62:590-6.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr; 88(4):744-6.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Cotrin SS, Gouvêa IE, Melo PM, Bagnaresi P, Assis DM, Araújo MS, Juliano MA, Gazarini ML, Rosenthal PJ, Juliano L, Carmona AK. Substrate specificity studies of the cysteine peptidases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 from Plasmodium falciparum and demonstration of their kininogenase activity. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013 Feb; 187(2):111-6.
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      52. Pérez BC, Teixeira C, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Gomes JR, Prudêncio M, Gomes P. N-cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues as dual-stage antimalarial leads. J Med Chem. 2013 Jan 24; 56(2):556-67.
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      53. Jagannathan P, Muhindo MK, Kakuru A, Arinaitwe E, Greenhouse B, Tappero J, Rosenthal PJ, Kaharuza F, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Increasing incidence of malaria in children despite insecticide-treated bed nets and prompt anti-malarial therapy in Tororo, Uganda. Malar J. 2012; 11:435.
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      54. Pérez B, Teixeira C, Gomes AS, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, Gomes P. In vitro efficiency of 9-(N-cinnamoylbutyl)aminoacridines against blood- and liver-stage malaria parasites. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Feb 1; 23(3):610-3.
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      55. Keh CE, Jha AR, Nzarubara B, Lanar DE, Dutta S, Theisen M, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Nixon DF, Greenhouse B. Associations between antibodies to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum specific antigens and response to sub-optimal antimalarial therapy in Kampala, Uganda. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52571.
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      56. Baltzell KA, Shakely D, Hsiang M, Kemere J, Ali AS, Björkman A, Mårtensson A, Omar R, Elfving K, Msellem M, Aydin-Schmidt B, Rosenthal PJ, Greenhouse B. Prevalence of PCR detectable malaria infection among febrile patients with a negative Plasmodium falciparum specific rapid diagnostic test in Zanzibar. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Feb; 88(2):289-91.
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      57. Mahajan SS, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Renslo AR. Ferrous iron-dependent delivery of therapeutic agents to the malaria parasite. Future Med Chem. 2012 Dec; 4(18):2241-9.
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      58. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark TD, Nsanzabana C, Charlebois E, Aweeka F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29; 367(22):2110-8.
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      59. Kamkumo RG, Ngoutane AM, Tchokouaha LR, Fokou PV, Madiesse EA, Legac J, Kezetas JJ, Lenta BN, Boyom FF, Dimo T, Mbacham WF, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia (Anacardiaceae) exhibit potent anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo. Malar J. 2012; 11:382.
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      60. Huang L, Parikh S, Rosenthal PJ, Lizak P, Marzan F, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Aweeka FT. Concomitant efavirenz reduces pharmacokinetic exposure to the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine in healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 1; 61(3):310-6.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Lu X, Altharawi A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Long TE. 1,4-naphthoquinone cations as antiplasmodial agents: hydroxy-, acyloxy-, and alkoxy-substituted analogues. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2012 Dec 13; 3(12):1029-33.
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      62. Tukulula M, Little S, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Wan B, Franzblau SG, Chibale K. The design, synthesis, in silico ADME profiling, antiplasmodial and antimycobacterial evaluation of new arylamino quinoline derivatives. Eur J Med Chem. 2012 Nov; 57:259-67.
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      63. Pérez B, Teixeira C, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Gomes JR, Gomes P. Cinnamic acid/chloroquinoline conjugates as potent agents against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. ChemMedChem. 2012 Sep; 7(9):1537-40.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Ongarora DS, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. Benzoheterocyclic amodiaquine analogues with potent antiplasmodial activity: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Aug 1; 22(15):5046-50.
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      65. Pérez BC, Teixeira C, Figueiras M, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Gomes JR, Gomes P. Novel cinnamic acid/4-aminoquinoline conjugates bearing non-proteinogenic amino acids: towards the development of potential dual action antimalarials. Eur J Med Chem. 2012 Aug; 54:887-99.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Bagnaresi P, Barros NM, Assis DM, Melo PM, Fonseca RG, Juliano MA, Pesquero JB, Juliano L, Rosenthal PJ, Carmona AK, Gazarini ML. Intracellular proteolysis of kininogen by malaria parasites promotes release of active kinins. Malar J. 2012; 11:156.
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      67. Shah F, Gut J, Legac J, Shivakumar D, Sherman W, Rosenthal PJ, Avery MA. Computer-aided drug design of falcipain inhibitors: virtual screening, structure-activity relationships, hydration site thermodynamics, and reactivity analysis. J Chem Inf Model. 2012 Mar 26; 52(3):696-710.
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      68. Long TE, Lu X, Galizzi M, Docampo R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Phosphonium lipocations as antiparasitic agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Apr 15; 22(8):2976-9.
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      69. Gong L, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Rosenthal PJ, Hubbard AE, Drakeley CJ, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B. Evidence for both innate and acquired mechanisms of protection from Plasmodium falciparum in children with sickle cell trait. Blood. 2012 Apr 19; 119(16):3808-14.
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      70. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1001-9.
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      71. Rosenthal PJ. How do we best diagnose malaria in Africa? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb; 86(2):192-3.
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      72. Matos J, da Cruz FP, Cabrita É, Gut J, Nogueira F, do Rosário VE, Moreira R, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, Gomes P. Novel potent metallocenes against liver stage malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Mar; 56(3):1564-70.
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      73. Singh P, Singh P, Kumar M, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kumar K, Kumar V, Mahajan MP, Bisetty K. Synthesis, docking and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of bifunctional hybrids derived from ß-lactams and 7-chloroquinoline using click chemistry. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Jan 1; 22(1):57-61.
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      74. Makanga M, Bassat Q, Falade CO, Premji ZG, Krudsood S, Hunt P, Walter V, Beck HP, Marrast AC, Cousin M, Rosenthal PJ. Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a pooled analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Nov; 85(5):793-804.
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      75. Gupta V, Perez-Perez GI, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Blaser MJ. The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its relationship to malaria in Ugandan children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jan; 106(1):35-42.
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      76. Glória PM, Gut J, Gonçalves LM, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Santos MM. Aza vinyl sulfones: synthesis and evaluation as antiplasmodial agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Dec 15; 19(24):7635-42.
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      77. Baliraine FN, Rosenthal PJ. Prolonged selection of pfmdr1 polymorphisms after treatment of falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 1; 204(7):1120-4.
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      78. Rodrigues T, Moreira R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, O Neill PM, Biagini GA, Lopes F, dos Santos DJ, Guedes RC. Identification of new antimalarial leads by use of virtual screening against cytochrome bc1. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1; 19(21):6302-8.
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      79. Nsanzabana C, Rosenthal PJ. In vitro activity of antiretroviral drugs against Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Nov; 55(11):5073-7.
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      80. Gama BE, Pereira-Carvalho GA, Lutucuta Kosi FJ, Almeida de Oliveira NK, Fortes F, Rosenthal PJ, do Rosário VE, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz M. Molecular markers of antifolate resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Luanda, Angola. Malar J. 2011; 10:248.
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      81. Capela R, Cabal GG, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Mota MM, Moreira R, Lopes F, Prudêncio M. Design and evaluation of primaquine-artemisinin hybrids as a multistage antimalarial strategy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct; 55(10):4698-706.
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      82. Kemgne EA, Mbacham WF, Boyom FF, Zollo PH, Tsamo E, Rosenthal PJ. In vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates to extracts from Cameroonian Annonaceae plants. Parasitol Res. 2012 Jan; 110(1):109-17.
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      83. Talisuna A, Adibaku S, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. II. The path forward. Acta Trop. 2012 Mar; 121(3):196-201.
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      84. Greenhouse B, Ho B, Hubbard A, Njama-Meya D, Narum DL, Lanar DE, Dutta S, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, John CC. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens predict a higher risk of malaria but protection from symptoms once parasitemic. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 1; 204(1):19-26.
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      85. Rosenthal PJ. Lessons from sickle cell disease in the treatment and control of malaria. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30; 364(26):2549-51.
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      86. Klonis N, Crespo-Ortiz MP, Bottova I, Abu-Bakar N, Kenny S, Rosenthal PJ, Tilley L. Artemisinin activity against Plasmodium falciparum requires hemoglobin uptake and digestion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 12; 108(28):11405-10.
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      87. Langolf S, Machon U, Ehlers M, Sicking W, Schirmeister T, Büchhold C, Gelhaus C, Rosenthal PJ, Schmuck C. Development of antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial nonpeptidic cysteine protease inhibitors based on N-protected-guanidino-furan and -pyrrole building blocks. ChemMedChem. 2011 Sep 5; 6(9):1581-6.
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      88. Achan J, Talisuna AO, Erhart A, Yeka A, Tibenderana JK, Baliraine FN, Rosenthal PJ, D'Alessandro U. Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria. Malar J. 2011; 10:144.
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      89. Guantai EM, Ncokazi K, Egan TJ, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Bhampidipati R, Kopinathan A, Smith PJ, Chibale K. Enone- and chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid analogues: in silico guided design, synthesis, antiplasmodial activity, in vitro metabolism, and mechanistic studies. J Med Chem. 2011 May 26; 54(10):3637-49.
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      90. Ang KK, Ratnam J, Gut J, Legac J, Hansell E, Mackey ZB, Skrzypczynska KM, Debnath A, Engel JC, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Arkin MR, Renslo AR. Mining a cathepsin inhibitor library for new antiparasitic drug leads. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5(5):e1023.
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      91. Shah F, Mukherjee P, Gut J, Legac J, Rosenthal PJ, Tekwani BL, Avery MA. Identification of novel malarial cysteine protease inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening of a focused cysteine protease inhibitor library. J Chem Inf Model. 2011 Apr 25; 51(4):852-64.
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      92. Yeka A, Gasasira A, Mpimbaza A, Achan J, Nankabirwa J, Nsobya S, Staedke SG, Donnelly MJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Talisuna A, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination: I. Epidemiology and current control efforts. Acta Trop. 2012 Mar; 121(3):184-95.
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      93. Hans RH, Wiid IJ, van Helden PD, Wan B, Franzblau SG, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Novel thiolactone-isatin hybrids as potential antimalarial and antitubercular agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Apr 1; 21(7):2055-8.
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      94. Gut J, Ang KK, Legac J, Arkin MR, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH. An image-based assay for high throughput screening of Giardia lamblia. J Microbiol Methods. 2011 Mar; 84(3):398-405.
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      95. Boyom FF, Fokou PV, Yamthe LR, Mfopa AN, Kemgne EM, Mbacham WF, Tsamo E, Zollo PH, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Potent antiplasmodial extracts from Cameroonian Annonaceae. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12; 134(3):717-24.
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      96. Praveen Kumar S, Gut J, Guedes RC, Rosenthal PJ, Santos MM, Moreira R. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 3-methylene-substituted indolinones as antimalarials. Eur J Med Chem. 2011 Mar; 46(3):927-33.
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      97. Lavrado J, Cabal GG, Prudêncio M, Mota MM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Díaz C, Guedes RC, dos Santos DJ, Bichenkova E, Douglas KT, Moreira R, Paulo A. Incorporation of basic side chains into cryptolepine scaffold: structure-antimalarial activity relationships and mechanistic studies. J Med Chem. 2011 Feb 10; 54(3):734-50.
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      98. Büchold C, Hemberger Y, Heindl C, Welker A, Degel B, Pfeuffer T, Staib P, Schneider S, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Morschhäuser J, Bringmann G, Schirmeister T. New cis-configured aziridine-2-carboxylates as aspartic acid protease inhibitors. ChemMedChem. 2011 Jan 3; 6(1):141-52.
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      99. Rosenthal PJ. Falcipains and other cysteine proteases of malaria parasites. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011; 712:30-48.
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      100. Ruel TD, Kamya MR, Li P, Pasutti W, Charlebois ED, Liegler T, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK, Achan J. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1; 56(1):44-50.
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      101. Cruz LN, Alves E, Leal MT, Juliano MA, Rosenthal PJ, Juliano L, Garcia CR. FRET peptides reveal differential proteolytic activation in intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii. Int J Parasitol. 2011 Mar; 41(3-4):363-72.
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      102. Zhang YK, Plattner JJ, Freund YR, Easom EE, Zhou Y, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Waterson D, Gamo FJ, Angulo-Barturen I, Ge M, Li Z, Li L, Jian Y, Cui H, Wang H, Yang J. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel benzoxaboroles as a new class of antimalarial agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15; 21(2):644-51.
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      103. Gama BE, de Oliveira NK, de Souza JM, Santos F, de Carvalho LJ, Melo YF, Rosenthal PJ, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, Ferreira-da-Cruz Mde F. Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum isolates: investigation of candidate polymorphisms for artemisinin resistance before introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Malar J. 2010; 9:355.
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      104. Boyom FF, Ngouana V, Kemgne EA, Zollo PH, Menut C, Bessiere JM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Antiplasmodial volatile extracts from Cleistopholis patens Engler & Diels and Uvariastrum pierreanum Engl. (Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) growing in Cameroon. Parasitol Res. 2011 May; 108(5):1211-7.
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      105. Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Achan J, Tibenderana JK, Talisuna AO, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. Limited ability of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfnhe1 polymorphisms to predict quinine in vitro sensitivity or clinical effectiveness in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb; 55(2):615-22.
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      106. Sun L, Shah F, Helal MA, Wu Y, Pedduri Y, Chittiboyina AG, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Avery MA. Design, synthesis, and development of novel guaianolide-endoperoxides as potential antimalarial agents. J Med Chem. 2010 Nov 11; 53(21):7864-8.
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      107. Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Kateera F, Akello C, Cao H, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Ssewanyana I, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):330-5.
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      108. Guantai EM, Ncokazi K, Egan TJ, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Smith PJ, Chibale K. Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Dec 1; 18(23):8243-56.
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      109. Gibbons P, Verissimo E, Araujo NC, Barton V, Nixon GL, Amewu RK, Chadwick J, Stocks PA, Biagini GA, Srivastava A, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Guedes RC, Moreira R, Sharma R, Berry N, Cristiano ML, Shone AE, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Endoperoxide carbonyl falcipain 2/3 inhibitor hybrids: toward combination chemotherapy of malaria through a single chemical entity. J Med Chem. 2010 Nov 25; 53(22):8202-6.
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      110. Nankabirwa J, Cundill B, Clarke S, Kabatereine N, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Brooker S, Staedke SG. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of three regimens for prevention of malaria: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Ugandan schoolchildren. PLoS One. 2010; 5(10):e13438.
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      111. Na BK, Bae YA, Zo YG, Choe Y, Kim SH, Desai PV, Avery MA, Craik CS, Kim TS, Rosenthal PJ, Kong Y. Biochemical properties of a novel cysteine protease of Plasmodium vivax, vivapain-4. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010; 4(10):e849.
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      112. Li P, Ruel T, Fujimoto K, Hatano H, Yukl S, Eller LA, Liegler T, Kamya M, Gassasira A, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes. J Virol Methods. 2010 Dec; 170(1-2):115-20.
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      113. Coterón JM, Catterick D, Castro J, Chaparro MJ, Díaz B, Fernández E, Ferrer S, Gamo FJ, Gordo M, Gut J, de las Heras L, Legac J, Marco M, Miguel J, Muñoz V, Porras E, de la Rosa JC, Ruiz JR, Sandoval E, Ventosa P, Rosenthal PJ, Fiandor JM. Falcipain inhibitors: optimization studies of the 2-pyrimidinecarbonitrile lead series. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 26; 53(16):6129-52.
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      114. Lavrado J, Gani K, Nobre PA, Santos SA, Figueiredo P, Lopes D, Rosário Vd, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Paulo A. Bis-alkylamine quindolone derivatives as new antimalarial leads. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Oct 1; 20(19):5634-7.
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      115. Bebell LM, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Busch MP, Dunn Williams J, Nugent CT, Bentsen C, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois ED. Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria. AIDS. 2010 Jul 31; 24(12):1945-52.
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      116. Clark TD, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Greenhouse B, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Incidence of malaria and efficacy of combination antimalarial therapies over 4 years in an urban cohort of Ugandan children. PLoS One. 2010; 5(7):e11759.
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      117. Khanye SD, Smith GS, Lategan C, Smith PJ, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of gold(I) thiosemicarbazone complexes for antimalarial activity. J Inorg Biochem. 2010 Oct; 104(10):1079-83.
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      118. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malar J. 2010; 9:177.
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      119. Gama BE, Pereira-Carvalho GA, Lutucuta Kosi FJ, Almeida de Oliveira NK, Fortes F, Rosenthal PJ, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz M. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Angola show the StctVMNT haplotype in the pfcrt gene. Malar J. 2010; 9:174.
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      120. Guiguemde WA, Shelat AA, Bouck D, Duffy S, Crowther GJ, Davis PH, Smithson DC, Connelly M, Clark J, Zhu F, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Martinez MS, Wilson EB, Tripathi AK, Gut J, Sharlow ER, Bathurst I, El Mazouni F, Fowble JW, Forquer I, McGinley PL, Castro S, Angulo-Barturen I, Ferrer S, Rosenthal PJ, Derisi JL, Sullivan DJ, Lazo JS, Roos DS, Riscoe MK, Phillips MA, Rathod PK, Van Voorhis WC, Avery VM, Guy RK. Chemical genetics of Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 2010 May 20; 465(7296):311-5.
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      121. Sijwali PS, Rosenthal PJ. Functional evaluation of Plasmodium export signals in Plasmodium berghei suggests multiple modes of protein export. PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10227.
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      122. Somé AF, Séré YY, Dokomajilar C, Zongo I, Rouamba N, Greenhouse B, Ouédraogo JB, Rosenthal PJ. Selection of known Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms by artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but not dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Burkina Faso. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 May; 54(5):1949-54.
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      123. Breuning A, Degel B, Schulz F, Büchold C, Stempka M, Machon U, Heppner S, Gelhaus C, Leippe M, Leyh M, Kisker C, Rath J, Stich A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Schmuck C, Schirmeister T. Michael acceptor based antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal cysteine protease inhibitors with unusual amino acids. J Med Chem. 2010 Mar 11; 53(5):1951-63.
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      124. Hans RH, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Comparison of the antiplasmodial and falcipain-2 inhibitory activity of beta-amino alcohol thiolactone-chalcone and isatin-chalcone hybrids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Apr 1; 20(7):2234-7.
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      125. Gupta V, Dorsey G, Hubbard AE, Rosenthal PJ, Greenhouse B. Gel versus capillary electrophoresis genotyping for categorizing treatment outcomes in two anti-malarial trials in Uganda. Malar J. 2010; 9:19.
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      126. Nsobya SL, Kiggundu M, Nanyunja S, Joloba M, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. In vitro sensitivities of Plasmodium falciparum to different antimalarial drugs in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Mar; 54(3):1200-6.
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      127. Hans RH, Guantai EM, Lategan C, Smith PJ, Wan B, Franzblau SG, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Feb 1; 20(3):942-4.
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      128. Vale N, Prudêncio M, Marques CA, Collins MS, Gut J, Nogueira F, Matos J, Rosenthal PJ, Cushion MT, do Rosário VE, Mota MM, Moreira R, Gomes P. Imidazoquines as antimalarial and antipneumocystis agents. J Med Chem. 2009 Dec 10; 52(23):7800-7.
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      129. Arinaitwe E, Sandison TG, Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Homsy J, Kalamya J, Kamya MR, Vora N, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ, Tappero J, Dorsey G. Artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for falciparum malaria: a longitudinal, randomized trial in young Ugandan children. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1; 49(11):1629-37.
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      130. Nawaz F, Nsobya SL, Kiggundu M, Joloba M, Rosenthal PJ. Selection of parasites with diminished drug susceptibility by amodiaquine-containing antimalarial regimens in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1; 200(11):1650-7.
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      131. Newman PM, Wanzira H, Tumwine G, Arinaitwe E, Waldman S, Achan J, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Clark TD, Cohan D. Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda. Malar J. 2009; 8:254.
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      132. Löser R, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Frizler M, Gütschow M, Andrews KT. Antimalarial activity of azadipeptide nitriles. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Jan 1; 20(1):252-5.
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      133. Mwesigwa J, Parikh S, McGee B, German P, Drysdale T, Kalyango JN, Clark TD, Dorsey G, Lindegardh N, Annerberg A, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR, Aweeka F. Pharmacokinetics of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine in children in Kampala, Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Jan; 54(1):52-9.
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      134. Johnson MK, Clark TD, Njama-Meya D, Rosenthal PJ, Parikh S. Impact of the method of G6PD deficiency assessment on genetic association studies of malaria susceptibility. PLoS One. 2009; 4(9):e7246.
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      135. Machon U, Büchold C, Stempka M, Schirmeister T, Gelhaus C, Leippe M, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Kisker C, Leyh M, Schmuck C. On-bead screening of a combinatorial fumaric acid derived peptide library yields antiplasmodial cysteine protease inhibitors with unusual peptide sequences. J Med Chem. 2009 Sep 24; 52(18):5662-72.
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      136. Jensen TP, Bukirwa H, Njama-Meya D, Francis D, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Use of the slide positivity rate to estimate changes in malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children. Malar J. 2009; 8:213.
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      137. German P, Parikh S, Lawrence J, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Charlebois E, Hanpithakpong W, Lindegardh N, Aweeka FT. Lopinavir/ritonavir affects pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Aug 1; 51(4):424-9.
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      138. Butler LM, Dorsey G, Hladik W, Rosenthal PJ, Brander C, Neilands TB, Mbisa G, Whitby D, Kiepiela P, Mosam A, Mzolo S, Dollard SC, Martin JN. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in population-based samples of African children: evidence for at least 2 patterns of KSHV transmission. J Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 1; 200(3):430-8.
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      139. Achan J, Tibenderana JK, Kyabayinze D, Wabwire Mangen F, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, D'Alessandro U, Rosenthal PJ, Talisuna AO. Effectiveness of quinine versus artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children: randomised trial. BMJ. 2009; 339:b2763.
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      140. Kerr ID, Lee JH, Farady CJ, Marion R, Rickert M, Sajid M, Pandey KC, Caffrey CR, Legac J, Hansell E, McKerrow JH, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ, Brinen LS. Vinyl sulfones as antiparasitic agents and a structural basis for drug design. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):25697-703.
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      141. Arico-Muendel C, Centrella PA, Contonio BD, Morgan BA, O'Donovan G, Paradise CL, Skinner SR, Sluboski B, Svendsen JL, White KF, Debnath A, Gut J, Wilson N, McKerrow JH, DeRisi JL, Rosenthal PJ, Chiang PK. Antiparasitic activities of novel, orally available fumagillin analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Sep 1; 19(17):5128-31.
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      142. Mpimbaza A, Staedke SG, Ndeezi G, Byarugaba J, Rosenthal PJ. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda. Malar J. 2009; 8:145.
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      143. Pandey KC, Barkan DT, Sali A, Rosenthal PJ. Regulatory elements within the prodomain of Falcipain-2, a cysteine protease of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS One. 2009; 4(5):e5694.
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      144. Rodrigues T, Guedes RC, dos Santos DJ, Carrasco M, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Lopes F. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of (1H-pyridin-4-ylidene)amines as potential antimalarials. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jul 1; 19(13):3476-80.
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      145. Capela R, Oliveira R, Gonçalves LM, Domingos A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Lopes F, Moreira R. Artemisinin-dipeptidyl vinyl sulfone hybrid molecules: design, synthesis and preliminary SAR for antiplasmodial activity and falcipain-2 inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Jun 15; 19(12):3229-32.
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      146. Subramanian S, Hardt M, Choe Y, Niles RK, Johansen EB, Legac J, Gut J, Kerr ID, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ. Hemoglobin cleavage site-specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5156.
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      147. Staedke SG, Mwebaza N, Kamya MR, Clark TD, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Whitty CJ. Home management of malaria with artemether-lumefantrine compared with standard care in urban Ugandan children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009 May 9; 373(9675):1623-31.
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      148. Mobula L, Lilley B, Tshefu AK, Rosenthal PJ. Resistance-mediating polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Apr; 80(4):555-8.
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      149. Boyom FF, Kemgne EM, Tepongning R, Ngouana V, Mbacham WF, Tsamo E, Zollo PH, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts from seven medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 25; 123(3):483-8.
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      150. Noungoue DT, Chaabi M, Ngouela S, Antheaume C, Boyom FF, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Lobstein A, Tsamo E. Antimalarial compounds from the stem bark of Vismia laurentii. Z Naturforsch C. 2009 Mar-Apr; 64(3-4):210-4.
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      151. Greenhouse B, Slater M, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Clark TD, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Decreasing efficacy of antimalarial combination therapy in Uganda is explained by decreasing host immunity rather than increasing drug resistance. J Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 1; 199(5):758-65.
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      152. Kerr ID, Lee JH, Pandey KC, Harrison A, Sajid M, Rosenthal PJ, Brinen LS. Structures of falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 bound to small molecule inhibitors: implications for substrate specificity. J Med Chem. 2009 Feb 12; 52(3):852-7.
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      153. Ssewanyana I, Baker CA, Ruel T, Bousheri S, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. The Distribution and Immune Profile of T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Children from Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Jan; 25(1):65-71.
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      154. Dude MA, Kaeppler U, Herb M, Schiller M, Schulz F, Vedder B, Heppner S, Pradel G, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Schirmeister T, Leippe M, Gelhaus C. Synthesis and evaluation of non-peptidic cysteine protease inhibitors of P. falciparum derived from etacrynic acid. Molecules. 2009; 14(1):19-35.
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      155. McKerrow JH, Rosenthal PJ, Swenerton R, Doyle P. Development of protease inhibitors for protozoan infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 Dec; 21(6):668-72.
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      156. Nsobya SL, Kiggundu M, Joloba M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Complexity of Plasmodium falciparum clinical samples from Uganda during short-term culture. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15; 198(10):1554-7.
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      157. Parikh S, Rosenthal PJ. Human genetics and malaria: relevance for the design of clinical trials. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 1; 198(9):1255-7.
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      158. Dominguez JN, Leon C, Rodrigues J, Gamboa de Dominguez N, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Synthesis of chlorovinyl sulfones as structural analogs of chalcones and their antiplasmodial activities. Eur J Med Chem. 2009 Apr; 44(4):1457-62.
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      159. Kim CC, Parikh S, Sun JC, Myrick A, Lanier LL, Rosenthal PJ, DeRisi JL. Experimental malaria infection triggers early expansion of natural killer cells. Infect Immun. 2008 Dec; 76(12):5873-82.
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      160. Clark TD, Greenhouse B, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Staedke SG, Seto E, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Factors determining the heterogeneity of malaria incidence in children in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1; 198(3):393-400.
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      161. Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Jagannathan P, Yau VM, Clark TD, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Talisuna AO, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Staedke SG. Safety and tolerability of combination antimalarial therapies for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children. Malar J. 2008; 7:106.
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      162. Staedke SG, Jagannathan P, Yeka A, Bukirwa H, Banek K, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Njama-Meya D, Mpimbaza A, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR, Wabwire-Mangen F, Dorsey G, Talisuna AO. Monitoring antimalarial safety and tolerability in clinical trials: a case study from Uganda. Malar J. 2008; 7:107.
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      163. Yeka A, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Talisuna A, Lugemwa M, Rwakimari JB, Staedke SG, Rosenthal PJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Bukirwa H. Artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treating uncomplicated malaria: a randomized trial to guide policy in Uganda. PLoS One. 2008; 3(6):e2390.
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      164. Vale N, Matos J, Gut J, Nogueira F, do Rosário V, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R, Gomes P. Imidazolidin-4-one peptidomimetic derivatives of primaquine: synthesis and antimalarial activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jul 15; 18(14):4150-3.
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      165. Angulo-Barturen I, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Mulet T, Rullas J, Herreros E, Ferrer S, Jiménez E, Mendoza A, Regadera J, Rosenthal PJ, Bathurst I, Pompliano DL, Gómez de las Heras F, Gargallo-Viola D. A murine model of falciparum-malaria by in vivo selection of competent strains in non-myelodepleted mice engrafted with human erythrocytes. PLoS One. 2008; 3(5):e2252.
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      166. Verissimo E, Berry N, Gibbons P, Cristiano ML, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Design and synthesis of novel 2-pyridone peptidomimetic falcipain 2/3 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jul 15; 18(14):4210-4.
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      167. Dahl EL, Rosenthal PJ. Apicoplast translation, transcription and genome replication: targets for antimalarial antibiotics. Trends Parasitol. 2008 Jun; 24(6):279-84.
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      168. Rosenthal PJ. Artesunate for the treatment of severe falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 24; 358(17):1829-36.
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      169. Mehlotra RK, Mattera G, Bockarie MJ, Maguire JD, Baird JK, Sharma YD, Alifrangis M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Fryauff DJ, Kazura JW, Stoneking M, Zimmerman PA. Discordant patterns of genetic variation at two chloroquine resistance loci in worldwide populations of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Jun; 52(6):2212-22.
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      170. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Kalyango JN, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Staedke SG, Kekitiinwa A, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. High risk of neutropenia in HIV-infected children following treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1; 46(7):985-91.
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      171. Davis AR, Rosenthal P. Hepatitis B in children. Pediatr Rev. 2008 Apr; 29(4):111-9; quiz 120.
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      172. Ngouamegne ET, Fongang RS, Ngouela S, Boyom FF, Rohmer M, Tsamo E, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Endodesmiadiol, a friedelane triterpenoid, and other antiplasmodial compounds from Endodesmia calophylloides. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Mar; 56(3):374-7.
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      173. Drew ME, Banerjee R, Uffman EW, Gilbertson S, Rosenthal PJ, Goldberg DE. Plasmodium food vacuole plasmepsins are activated by falcipains. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 9; 283(19):12870-6.
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      174. Hopkins H, Bebell L, Kambale W, Dokomajilar C, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria at sites of varying transmission intensity in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15; 197(4):510-8.
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      175. Ndjakou Lenta B, Devkota KP, Ngouela S, Fekam Boyom F, Naz Q, Choudhary MI, Tsamo E, Rosenthal PJ, Sewald N. Anti-plasmodial and cholinesterase inhibiting activities of some constituents of Psorospermum glaberrimum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Feb; 56(2):222-6.
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      176. Lavrado J, Paulo A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Moreira R. Cryptolepine analogues containing basic aminoalkyl side-chains at C-11: synthesis, antiplasmodial activity, and cytotoxicity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 15; 18(4):1378-81.
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      177. Mpimbaza A, Ndeezi G, Staedke S, Rosenthal PJ, Byarugaba J. Comparison of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in Ugandan children: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan; 121(1):e58-64.
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      178. Bebell LM, Gasasira A, Kiggundu M, Dokomajilar C, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. HIV-1 infection in patients referred for malaria blood smears at government health clinics in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Dec 15; 46(5):624-30.
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      179. Vale N, Collins MS, Gut J, Ferraz R, Rosenthal PJ, Cushion MT, Moreira R, Gomes P. Anti-Pneumocystis carinii and antiplasmodial activities of primaquine-derived imidazolidin-4-ones. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jan 15; 18(2):485-8.
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      180. Ssewanyana I, Pietras C, Baker CA, Nghania F, Jones NG, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Cao H. Pattern of malaria-specific T-cell responses in a cohort of Ugandan children. J Trop Pediatr. 2008 Feb; 54(1):6-13.
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      181. Zongo I, Dorsey G, Rouamba N, Dokomajilar C, Séré Y, Rosenthal PJ, Ouédraogo JB. Randomized comparison of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemether-lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1; 45(11):1453-61.
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      182. Biot C, Pradines B, Sergeant MH, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Design, synthesis, and antimalarial activity of structural chimeras of thiosemicarbazone and ferroquine analogues. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Dec 1; 17(23):6434-8.
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      183. Kamya MR, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Ruel T, Kekitiinwa A, Charlebois ED, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and insecticide-treated bednets on malaria among HIV-infected Ugandan children. AIDS. 2007 Oct 1; 21(15):2059-66.
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      184. Plowe CV, Roper C, Barnwell JW, Happi CT, Joshi HH, Mbacham W, Meshnick SR, Mugittu K, Naidoo I, Price RN, Shafer RW, Sibley CH, Sutherland CJ, Zimmerman PA, Rosenthal PJ. World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN) III: molecular markers for drug resistant malaria. Malar J. 2007; 6:121.
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      185. Dahl EL, Rosenthal PJ. Multiple antibiotics exert delayed effects against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Oct; 51(10):3485-90.
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      186. Schulz F, Gelhaus C, Degel B, Vicik R, Heppner S, Breuning A, Leippe M, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Schirmeister T. Screening of protease inhibitors as antiplasmodial agents. Part I: Aziridines and epoxides. ChemMedChem. 2007 Aug; 2(8):1214-24.
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      187. Greenhouse B, Dokomajilar C, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Impact of transmission intensity on the accuracy of genotyping to distinguish recrudescence from new infection in antimalarial clinical trials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Sep; 51(9):3096-103.
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      188. Subramanian S, Sijwali PS, Rosenthal PJ. Falcipain cysteine proteases require bipartite motifs for trafficking to the Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24; 282(34):24961-9.
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      189. Nsobya SL, Dokomajilar C, Joloba M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Resistance-mediating Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles after treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Aug; 51(8):3023-5.
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      190. Hopkins H, Kambale W, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Comparison of HRP2- and pLDH-based rapid diagnostic tests for malaria with longitudinal follow-up in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jun; 76(6):1092-7.
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      191. Dorsey G, Staedke S, Clark TD, Njama-Meya D, Nzarubara B, Maiteki-Sebuguzi C, Dokomajilar C, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ. Combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 23; 297(20):2210-9.
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      192. Kamya MR, Yeka A, Bukirwa H, Lugemwa M, Rwakimari JB, Staedke SG, Talisuna AO, Greenhouse B, Nosten F, Rosenthal PJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Dorsey G. Artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of malaria: a randomized trial. PLoS Clin Trials. 2007; 2(5):e20.
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      193. Wang SX, Pandey KC, Scharfstein J, Whisstock J, Huang RK, Jacobelli J, Fletterick RJ, Rosenthal PJ, Abrahamson M, Brinen LS, Rossi A, Sali A, McKerrow JH. The structure of chagasin in complex with a cysteine protease clarifies the binding mode and evolution of an inhibitor family. Structure. 2007 May; 15(5):535-43.
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      194. Singh A, Walker KJ, Sijwali PS, Lau AL, Rosenthal PJ. A chimeric cysteine protease of Plasmodium berghei engineered to resemble the Plasmodium falciparum protease falcipain-2. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007 Apr; 20(4):171-7.
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      195. German P, Greenhouse B, Coates C, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Lindegardh N, Havlir D, Aweeka FT. Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 44(6):889-91.
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      196. Parikh S, Ouedraogo JB, Goldstein JA, Rosenthal PJ, Kroetz DL. Amodiaquine metabolism is impaired by common polymorphisms in CYP2C8: implications for malaria treatment in Africa. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Aug; 82(2):197-203.
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      197. Ndjakou Lenta B, Ngouela S, Fekam Boyom F, Tantangmo F, Feuya Tchouya GR, Tsamo E, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Donald Connolly J. Anti-plasmodial activity of some constituents of the root bark of Harungana madagascariensis LAM. (Hypericaceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007 Mar; 55(3):464-7.
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      198. Zongo I, Dorsey G, Rouamba N, Tinto H, Dokomajilar C, Guiguemde RT, Rosenthal PJ, Ouedraogo JB. Artemether-lumefantrine versus amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2007 Feb 10; 369(9560):491-8.
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      199. León C, Rodrigues J, Gamboa de Domínguez N, Charris J, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Domínguez JN. Synthesis and evaluation of sulfonylurea derivatives as novel antimalarials. Eur J Med Chem. 2007 Jun; 42(6):735-42.
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      200. Collins WJ, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. The use of genotyping in antimalarial clinical trials: a systematic review of published studies from 1995-2005. Malar J. 2006; 5:122.
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      201. Pandey KC, Singh N, Arastu-Kapur S, Bogyo M, Rosenthal PJ. Falstatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum, facilitates erythrocyte invasion. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Nov; 2(11):e117.
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      202. Greenhouse B, Myrick A, Dokomajilar C, Woo JM, Carlson EJ, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Validation of microsatellite markers for use in genotyping polyclonal Plasmodium falciparum infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Nov; 75(5):836-42.
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      203. Chipeleme A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phenolic Mannich bases of benzaldehyde and (thio)semicarbazone derivatives against the cysteine protease falcipain-2 and a chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Jan 1; 15(1):273-82.
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      204. Malamba SS, Mermin J, Reingold A, Lule JR, Downing R, Ransom R, Kigozi A, Hunt BM, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis taken by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons on the selection of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant malaria parasites among HIV-uninfected household members. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Sep; 75(3):375-80.
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      205. Dahl EL, Shock JL, Shenai BR, Gut J, DeRisi JL, Rosenthal PJ. Tetracyclines specifically target the apicoplast of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Sep; 50(9):3124-31.
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      206. Gasasira AF, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Havlir D, Kiggundu M, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois ED. False-positive results of enzyme immunoassays for human immunodeficiency virus in patients with uncomplicated malaria. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 44(8):3021-4.
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      207. Wang SX, Pandey KC, Somoza JR, Sijwali PS, Kortemme T, Brinen LS, Fletterick RJ, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH. Structural basis for unique mechanisms of folding and hemoglobin binding by a malarial protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 1; 103(31):11503-8.
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      208. Sijwali PS, Koo J, Singh N, Rosenthal PJ. Gene disruptions demonstrate independent roles for the four falcipain cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Nov; 150(1):96-106.
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      209. Dokomajilar C, Lankoande ZM, Dorsey G, Zongo I, Ouedraogo JB, Rosenthal PJ. Roles of specific Plasmodium falciparum mutations in resistance to amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul; 75(1):162-5.
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      210. Hwang J, Bitarakwate E, Pai M, Reingold A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Chloroquine or amodiaquine combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for uncomplicated malaria: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Jun; 11(6):789-99.
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      211. Parikh S, Liu J, Sijwali P, Gut J, Goldberg DE, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors differ from those of the aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jun; 50(6):2207-9.
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      212. Bukirwa H, Yeka A, Kamya MR, Talisuna A, Banek K, Bakyaita N, Rwakimari JB, Rosenthal PJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Dorsey G, Staedke SG. Artemisinin combination therapies for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006 May; 1(1):e7.
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      213. Valente C, Guedes RC, Moreira R, Iley J, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Dipeptide vinyl sultams: synthesis via the Wittig-Horner reaction and activity against papain, falcipain-2 and Plasmodium falciparum. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Aug 1; 16(15):4115-9.
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      214. Musonda CC, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Yardley V, Carvalho de Souza RC, Chibale K. Application of multicomponent reactions to antimalarial drug discovery. Part 2: New antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal 4-aminoquinoline gamma- and delta-lactams via a 'catch and release' protocol. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Aug 15; 14(16):5605-15.
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      215. Myrick A, Leemann E, Dokomajilar C, Hopkins H, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ. Short report: Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria after sub-optimal therapy in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 May; 74(5):758-61.
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      216. Dokomajilar C, Nsobya SL, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum pfmdr1 alleles following therapy with artemether-lumefantrine in an area of Uganda where malaria is highly endemic. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May; 50(5):1893-5.
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      217. Lee SA, Yeka A, Nsobya SL, Dokomajilar C, Rosenthal PJ, Talisuna A, Dorsey G. Complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections and antimalarial drug efficacy at 7 sites in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 15; 193(8):1160-3.
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      218. Desai PV, Patny A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Tekwani B, Srivastava A, Avery M. Identification of novel parasitic cysteine protease inhibitors by use of virtual screening. 2. The available chemical directory. J Med Chem. 2006 Mar 9; 49(5):1576-84.
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      219. Francis D, Nsobya SL, Talisuna A, Yeka A, Kamya MR, Machekano R, Dokomajilar C, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Geographic differences in antimalarial drug efficacy in Uganda are explained by differences in endemicity and not by known molecular markers of drug resistance. J Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 1; 193(7):978-86.
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      220. Eggena MP, Hopkins H, Barugahare B, Okello M, Ssali F, Mugyenyi P, Rosenthal PJ, Cao H, Dorsey G. CD4 T cell activation as a predictor for treatment failure in Ugandans with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jan; 74(1):41-3.
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      221. Ngouela S, Lenta BN, Noungoue DT, Ngoupayo J, Boyom FF, Tsamo E, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Connolly JD. Anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of constituents of the seed shells of Symphonia globulifera Linn f. Phytochemistry. 2006 Feb; 67(3):302-6.
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      222. Singh N, Sijwali PS, Pandey KC, Rosenthal PJ. Plasmodium falciparum: biochemical characterization of the cysteine protease falcipain-2'. Exp Parasitol. 2006 Mar; 112(3):187-92.
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      223. Kamya MR, Gasasira AF, Yeka A, Bakyaita N, Nsobya SL, Francis D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Havlir D. Effect of HIV-1 infection on antimalarial treatment outcomes in Uganda: a population-based study. J Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 1; 193(1):9-15.
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      224. Zongo I, Dorsey G, Rouamba N, Dokomajilar C, Lankoande M, Ouedraogo JB, Rosenthal PJ. Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized controlled trial from Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Nov; 73(5):826-32.
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      225. Slater M, Kiggundu M, Dokomajilar C, Kamya MR, Bakyaita N, Talisuna A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Distinguishing recrudescences from new infections in antimalarial clinical trials: major impact of interpretation of genotyping results on estimates of drug efficacy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Aug; 73(2):256-62.
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      226. Yeka A, Banek K, Bakyaita N, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Talisuna A, Kironde F, Nsobya SL, Kilian A, Slater M, Reingold A, Rosenthal PJ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Dorsey G. Artemisinin versus nonartemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria: randomized clinical trials from four sites in Uganda. PLoS Med. 2005 Jul; 2(7):e190.
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      227. Parikh S, Gut J, Istvan E, Goldberg DE, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jul; 49(7):2983-5.
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      228. Pandey KC, Wang SX, Sijwali PS, Lau AL, McKerrow JH, Rosenthal PJ. The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 captures its substrate, hemoglobin, via a unique motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 28; 102(26):9138-43.
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      229. Domínguez JN, León C, Rodrigues J, Gamboa de Domínguez N, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Synthesis and evaluation of new antimalarial phenylurenyl chalcone derivatives. J Med Chem. 2005 May 19; 48(10):3654-8.
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      230. Chiyanzu I, Clarkson C, Smith PJ, Lehman J, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Design, synthesis and anti-plasmodial evaluation in vitro of new 4-aminoquinoline isatin derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 May 2; 13(9):3249-61.
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      231. Bakyaita N, Dorsey G, Yeka A, Banek K, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Talisuna A, Kironde F, Nsobya S, Kilian A, Reingold A, Rosenthal PJ, Wabwire-Mangen F. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus chloroquine or amodiaquine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized, multisite trial to guide national policy in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 May; 72(5):573-80.
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      232. Domínguez JN, León C, Rodrigues J, Gamboa de Domínguez N, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of sulfonamide chalcone derivatives. Farmaco. 2005 Apr; 60(4):307-11.
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      233. Dahl EL, Rosenthal PJ. Biosynthesis, localization, and processing of falcipain cysteine proteases of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005 Feb; 139(2):205-12.
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      234. Fujii N, Mallari JP, Hansell EJ, Mackey Z, Doyle P, Zhou YM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Guy RK. Discovery of potent thiosemicarbazone inhibitors of rhodesain and cruzain. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Jan 3; 15(1):121-3.
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      235. Rosenthal PJ. Cysteine proteases of malaria parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2004 Dec; 34(13-14):1489-99.
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      236. Parikh S, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Host polymorphisms and the incidence of malaria in Ugandan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec; 71(6):750-3.
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      237. Dorsey G, Dokomajilar C, Kiggundu M, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ. Principal role of dihydropteroate synthase mutations in mediating resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in single-drug and combination therapy of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec; 71(6):758-63.
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      238. Staedke SG, Mpimbaza A, Kamya MR, Nzarubara BK, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Combination treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda: randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2004 Nov 27-Dec 3; 364(9449):1950-7.
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      239. Na BK, Kim TS, Rosenthal PJ, Lee JK, Kong Y. Evaluation of cysteine proteases of Plasmodium vivax as antimalarial drug targets: sequence analysis and sensitivity to cysteine protease inhibitors. Parasitol Res. 2004 Oct; 94(4):312-7.
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      240. Go ML, Liu M, Wilairat P, Rosenthal PJ, Saliba KJ, Kirk K. Antiplasmodial chalcones inhibit sorbitol-induced hemolysis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Sep; 48(9):3241-5.
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      241. Musonda CC, Taylor D, Lehman J, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. Application of multi-component reactions to antimalarial drug discovery. Part 1: Parallel synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of new 4-aminoquinoline Ugi adducts. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Aug 2; 14(15):3901-5.
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      242. Singh A, Rosenthal PJ. Selection of cysteine protease inhibitor-resistant malaria parasites is accompanied by amplification of falcipain genes and alteration in inhibitor transport. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 20; 279(34):35236-41.
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      243. Greenbaum DC, Mackey Z, Hansell E, Doyle P, Gut J, Caffrey CR, Lehrman J, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Chibale K. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of parasiticidal thiosemicarbazone cysteine protease inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi. J Med Chem. 2004 Jun 3; 47(12):3212-9.
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      244. Fidock DA, Rosenthal PJ, Croft SL, Brun R, Nwaka S. Antimalarial drug discovery: efficacy models for compound screening. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Jun; 3(6):509-20.
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      245. Sijwali PS, Kato K, Seydel KB, Gut J, Lehman J, Klemba M, Goldberg DE, Miller LH, Rosenthal PJ. Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-1 is not essential in erythrocytic stage malaria parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 8; 101(23):8721-6.
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      246. Nsobya SL, Parikh S, Kironde F, Lubega G, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Molecular evaluation of the natural history of asymptomatic parasitemia in Ugandan children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 15; 189(12):2220-6.
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      247. Staedke SG, Sendagire H, Lamola S, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Relationship between age, molecular markers, and response to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in Kampala, Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 May; 9(5):624-9.
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      248. Sijwali PS, Rosenthal PJ. Gene disruption confirms a critical role for the cysteine protease falcipain-2 in hemoglobin hydrolysis by Plasmodium falciparum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 30; 101(13):4384-9.
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      249. Na BK, Shenai BR, Sijwali PS, Choe Y, Pandey KC, Singh A, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ. Identification and biochemical characterization of vivapains, cysteine proteases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Biochem J. 2004 Mar 1; 378(Pt 2):529-38.
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      250. Locher CP, Ruben PC, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. 5HT1A serotonin receptor agonists inhibit Plasmodium falciparum by blocking a membrane channel. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec; 47(12):3806-9.
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      251. Lee BJ, Singh A, Chiang P, Kemp SJ, Goldman EA, Weinhouse MI, Vlasuk GP, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial activities of novel synthetic cysteine protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec; 47(12):3810-4.
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      252. Boyom FF, Ngouana V, Zollo PH, Menut C, Bessiere JM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ. Composition and anti-plasmodial activities of essential oils from some Cameroonian medicinal plants. Phytochemistry. 2003 Dec; 64(7):1269-75.
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      253. Pandey KC, Sijwali PS, Singh A, Na BK, Rosenthal PJ. Independent intramolecular mediators of folding, activity, and inhibition for the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 30; 279(5):3484-91.
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      254. Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial drug discovery: old and new approaches. J Exp Biol. 2003 Nov; 206(Pt 21):3735-44.
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      255. Chiyanzu I, Hansell E, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Chibale K. Synthesis and evaluation of isatins and thiosemicarbazone derivatives against cruzain, falcipain-2 and rhodesain. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Oct 20; 13(20):3527-30.
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      256. Dorsey G, Vlahos J, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Rosenthal PJ. Prevention of increasing rates of treatment failure by combining sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with artesunate or amodiaquine for the sequential treatment of malaria. J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 15; 188(8):1231-8.
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      257. Kyabayinze D, Cattamanchi A, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Validation of a simplified method for using molecular markers to predict sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failure in African children with falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Sep; 69(3):247-52.
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      258. Staedke SG, Nottingham EW, Cox J, Kamya MR, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Short report: proximity to mosquito breeding sites as a risk factor for clinical malaria episodes in an urban cohort of Ugandan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Sep; 69(3):244-6.
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      259. Batra S, Sabnis YA, Rosenthal PJ, Avery MA. Structure-based approach to falcipain-2 inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,6,7-trisubstituted dihydroisoquinolines and isoquinolines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 May 15; 11(10):2293-9.
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      260. Sabnis YA, Desai PV, Rosenthal PJ, Avery MA. Probing the structure of falcipain-3, a cysteine protease from Plasmodium falciparum: comparative protein modeling and docking studies. Protein Sci. 2003 Mar; 12(3):501-9.
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      261. Gasasira AF, Dorsey G, Nzarubara B, Staedke SG, Nassali A, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR. Comparative efficacy of aminoquinoline-antifolate combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Feb; 68(2):127-32.
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      262. Cattamanchi A, Kyabayinze D, Hubbard A, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Distinguishing recrudescence from reinfection in a longitudinal antimalarial drug efficacy study: comparison of results based on genotyping of msp-1, msp-2, and glurp. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Feb; 68(2):133-9.
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      263. Shenai BR, Lee BJ, Alvarez-Hernandez A, Chong PY, Emal CD, Neitz RJ, Roush WR, Rosenthal PJ. Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of cysteine protease activity and development of Plasmodium falciparum by peptidyl vinyl sulfones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan; 47(1):154-60.
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      264. Dorsey G, Njama D, Kamya MR, Cattamanchi A, Kyabayinze D, Staedke SG, Gasasira A, Rosenthal PJ. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine alone or with amodiaquine or artesunate for treatment of uncomplicated malaria: a longitudinal randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 Dec 21-28; 360(9350):2031-8.
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      265. Singh A, Shenai BR, Choe Y, Gut J, Sijwali PS, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ. Critical role of amino acid 23 in mediating activity and specificity of vinckepain-2, a papain-family cysteine protease of rodent malaria parasites. Biochem J. 2002 Nov 15; 368(Pt 1):273-81.
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      266. Shenai BR, Rosenthal PJ. Reducing requirements for hemoglobin hydrolysis by Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002 Jun; 122(1):99-104.
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      267. Park BS, Kim DY, Rosenthal PJ, Huh SC, Lee BJ, Park E-, Kim SM, Kim JE, Kim MH, Huh TL, Choi YJ, Suh KH, Choi WS, Lee SE. Synthesis and evaluation of new antimalarial analogues of quinoline alkaloids derived from Cinchona ledgeriana Moens ex Trimen. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002 May 20; 12(10):1351-5.
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      268. Shenai BR, Semenov AV, Rosenthal PJ. Stage-specific antimalarial activity of cysteine protease inhibitors. Biol Chem. 2002 May; 383(5):843-7.
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      269. Sabnis Y, Rosenthal PJ, Desai P, Avery MA. Homology modeling of falcipain-2: validation, de novo ligand design and synthesis of novel inhibitors. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2002 Apr; 19(5):765-74.
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      270. Rosenthal PJ. Hydrolysis of erythrocyte proteins by proteases of malaria parasites. Curr Opin Hematol. 2002 Mar; 9(2):140-5.
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      271. Sijwali PS, Shenai BR, Rosenthal PJ. Folding of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 is mediated by a chaperone-like peptide and not the prodomain. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 26; 277(17):14910-5.
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      272. Rosenthal PJ, Sijwali PS, Singh A, Shenai BR. Cysteine proteases of malaria parasites: targets for chemotherapy. Curr Pharm Des. 2002; 8(18):1659-72.
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      273. Sijwali PS, Shenai BR, Gut J, Singh A, Rosenthal PJ. Expression and characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum haemoglobinase falcipain-3. Biochem J. 2001 Dec 1; 360(Pt 2):481-9.
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      274. Joachimiak MP, Chang C, Rosenthal PJ, Cohen FE. The impact of whole genome sequence data on drug discovery--a malaria case study. Mol Med. 2001 Oct; 7(10):698-710.
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      275. Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Gasasira A, Ndeezi G, Charlebois ED, Rosenthal PJ. Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001 Aug 4; 358(9279):368-74.
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      276. Sijwali PS, Brinen LS, Rosenthal PJ. Systematic optimization of expression and refolding of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2. Protein Expr Purif. 2001 Jun; 22(1):128-34.
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      277. Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Singh A, Rosenthal PJ. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes and clinical response to chloroquine in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2001 May 1; 183(9):1417-20.
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      278. Singh A, Rosenthal PJ. Comparison of efficacies of cysteine protease inhibitors against five strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Mar; 45(3):949-51.
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      279. Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Gasasira A, Ndeezi G, Babirye JN, Staedke SG, Rosenthal PJ. The comparative efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Jan-Feb; 95(1):50-5.
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      280. Shenai BR, Sijwali PS, Singh A, Rosenthal PJ. Characterization of native and recombinant falcipain-2, a principal trophozoite cysteine protease and essential hemoglobinase of Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15; 275(37):29000-10.
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      281. Dorsey G, Gandhi M, Oyugi JH, Rosenthal PJ. Difficulties in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of imported malaria. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Sep 11; 160(16):2505-10.
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      282. Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Ndeezi G, Babirye JN, Phares CR, Olson JE, Katabira ET, Rosenthal PJ. Predictors of chloroquine treatment failure in children and adults with falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jun; 62(6):686-92.
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      283. Olson JE, Lee GK, Semenov A, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial effects in mice of orally administered peptidyl cysteine protease inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999 Apr; 7(4):633-8.
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      284. Rosenthal PJ. Proteases of protozoan parasites. Adv Parasitol. 1999; 43:105-59.
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      285. Rosenthal PJ, Semenov A, Ploplis VA, Plow EF. Plasminogen activators are not required in the erythrocytic life cycle of malaria parasites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Nov 30; 97(1-2):253-7.
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      286. Semenov A, Olson JE, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial synergy of cysteine and aspartic protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep; 42(9):2254-8.
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      287. Gor DO, Li AC, Wiser MF, Rosenthal PJ. Plasmodial serine repeat antigen homologues with properties of schizont cysteine proteases. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Sep 1; 95(1):153-8.
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      288. Gor DO, Rosenthal PJ. Humoral immune responses of Africans to cysteine protease-related antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jul; 178(1):285-8.
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      289. Gor DO, Li AC, Rosenthal PJ. Protective immune responses against protease-like antigens of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei. Vaccine. 1998 Jul; 16(11-12):1193-202.
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      290. Rosenthal PJ. Proteases of malaria parasites: new targets for chemotherapy. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998 Jan-Mar; 4(1):49-57.
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      291. Rosenthal PJ, Meshnick SR. Hemoglobin catabolism and iron utilization by malaria parasites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Dec 20; 83(2):131-9.
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      292. Rosenthal PJ, Olson JE, Lee GK, Palmer JT, Klaus JL, Rasnick D. Antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Jul; 40(7):1600-3.
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      293. Gamboa de Domínguez ND, Rosenthal PJ. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors block early steps in hemoglobin degradation by cultured malaria parasites. Blood. 1996 May 15; 87(10):4448-54.
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      294. Rosenthal PJ. Conservation of key amino acids among the cysteine proteinases of multiple malarial species. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Jan; 75(2):255-60.
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      295. Salas F, Fichmann J, Lee GK, Scott MD, Rosenthal PJ. Functional expression of falcipain, a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase, supports its role as a malarial hemoglobinase. Infect Immun. 1995 Jun; 63(6):2120-5.
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      296. Rosenthal PJ. Plasmodium falciparum: effects of proteinase inhibitors on globin hydrolysis by cultured malaria parasites. Exp Parasitol. 1995 Mar; 80(2):272-81.
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      297. Li Z, Chen X, Davidson E, Zwang O, Mendis C, Ring CS, Roush WR, Fegley G, Li R, Rosenthal PJ, et al. Anti-malarial drug development using models of enzyme structure. Chem Biol. 1994 Sep; 1(1):31-7.
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      298. Rosenthal PJ, Ring CS, Chen X, Cohen FE. Characterization of a Plasmodium vivax cysteine proteinase gene identifies uniquely conserved amino acids that may mediate the substrate specificity of malarial hemoglobinases. J Mol Biol. 1994 Aug 12; 241(2):312-6.
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      299. Rosenthal PJ. A Plasmodium vinckei cysteine proteinase shares unique features with its Plasmodium falciparum analogue. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Apr 29; 1173(1):91-3.
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      300. Rosenthal PJ, Lee GK, Smith RE. Inhibition of a Plasmodium vinckei cysteine proteinase cures murine malaria. J Clin Invest. 1993 Mar; 91(3):1052-6.
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      301. Rosenthal PJ, Nelson RG. Isolation and characterization of a cysteine proteinase gene of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Mar; 51(1):143-52.
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      302. Rosenthal PJ, Wollish WS, Palmer JT, Rasnick D. Antimalarial effects of peptide inhibitors of a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase. J Clin Invest. 1991 Nov; 88(5):1467-72.
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      303. Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Rasnick D, Leech JH. Plasmodium falciparum: inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteinases inhibit a trophozoite proteinase and block parasite development. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1989 Jun 15; 35(2):177-83.
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      304. Rosenthal PJ, McKerrow JH, Aikawa M, Nagasawa H, Leech JH. A malarial cysteine proteinase is necessary for hemoglobin degradation by Plasmodium falciparum. J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov; 82(5):1560-6.
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      305. Rosenthal PJ, Chaisson RE, Hadley WK, Leech JH. Rectal leishmaniasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1988 Feb; 84(2):307-9.
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