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    Carl Grunfeld, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address111F
    Phone415-750-2005

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       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Scherzer R, Gandhi M, Estrella MM, Tien PC, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Shlipak MG. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans. AIDS. 2014 Jun 1; 28(9):1289-95.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Manenschijn L, Scherzer R, Koper JW, Danoff A, van Rossum EF, Grunfeld C. Association of glucocorticoid receptor haplotypes with body composition and metabolic parameters in HIV-infected patients from the FRAM study. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014 Mar; 24(3):156-61.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Wheeler AL, Scherzer R, Lee D, Delaney JA, Bacchetti P, Shlipak MG, Sidney S, Grunfeld C, Tien PC. HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection ameliorates the atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities of HIV infection. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2; 28(1):49-58.
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      4. Peralta C, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Abraham A, Tien P, Devarajan P, Bennett M, Butch A, Anastos K, Cohen M, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young M, Sarnak M, Parikh C, Shlipak M. Urinary biomarkers of kidney injury are associated with all-cause mortality in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV Med. 2014 May; 15(5):291-300.
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      5. Shrestha S, Irvin MR, Grunfeld C, Arnett DK. HIV, Inflammation, and Calcium in Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Feb; 34(2):244-50.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Jotwani V, Scherzer R, Abraham A, Estrella MM, Bennett M, Devarajan P, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young M, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Parikh CR, Shlipak MG. Does HIV infection promote early kidney injury in women? Antivir Ther. 2014; 19(1):79-87.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Maguen S, Madden E, Cohen B, Bertenthal D, Neylan T, Talbot L, Grunfeld C, Seal K. The relationship between body mass index and mental health among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jul; 28 Suppl 2:S563-70.
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      8. Lang J, Scherzer R, Weekley CC, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Serum albumin and short-term risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected veterans. AIDS. 2013 May 15; 27(8):1339-43.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Parikh RV, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Nitta EM, Leone A, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Ganz P, Hsue PY. Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with lower CD4+ count and higher viral load in HIV-infected individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jul; 229(1):246-52.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hsu JC, Li Y, Marcus GM, Hsue PY, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: incidence, risk factors, and association with markers of HIV disease severity. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 4; 61(22):2288-95.
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      11. Jiang YJ, Kim P, Uchida Y, Elias PM, Bikle DD, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Ceramides stimulate caspase-14 expression in human keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2013 Feb; 22(2):113-8.
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      12. Shlipak MG, Scherzer R, Abraham A, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Devarajan P, Bennett M, Butch AW, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young MA, Sarnak MJ, Parikh CR. Urinary markers of kidney injury and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Dec 15; 61(5):565-73.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Lipids: a key player in the battle between the host and microorganisms. J Lipid Res. 2012 Dec; 53(12):2487-9.
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      14. Feingold KR, Shigenaga JK, Kazemi MR, McDonald CM, Patzek SM, Cross AS, Moser A, Grunfeld C. Mechanisms of triglyceride accumulation in activated macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Oct; 92(4):829-39.
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      15. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Psoriasis: it's more than just the skin. J Lipid Res. 2012 Aug; 53(8):1427-9.
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      16. Scherzer R, Estrella M, Li Y, Choi AI, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Association of tenofovir exposure with kidney disease risk in HIV infection. AIDS. 2012 Apr 24; 26(7):867-75.
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      17. Feingold KR, Shigenaga JK, Cross AS, Moser A, Grunfeld C. Angiopoietin like protein 4 expression is decreased in activated macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 May 11; 421(3):612-5.
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      18. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Heuer JG, Gupta A, Cramer M, Zhang T, Shigenaga JK, Patzek SM, Chan ZW, Moser A, Bina H, Kharitonenkov A. FGF21 is increased by inflammatory stimuli and protects leptin-deficient ob/ob mice from the toxicity of sepsis. Endocrinology. 2012 Jun; 153(6):2689-700.
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      19. Hsue PY, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Nordstrom SM, Schnell A, Kohl LP, Nitta E, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Weiss EJ. HIV infection is associated with decreased thrombin generation. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(8):1196-203.
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      20. Li Y, Shlipak MG, Grunfeld C, Choi AI. Incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury in HIV Infection. Am J Nephrol. 2012; 35(4):327-34.
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      21. Shen W, Scherzer R, Gantz M, Chen J, Punyanitya M, Lewis CE, Grunfeld C. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Apr; 97(4):1337-46.
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      22. Jotwani V, Li Y, Grunfeld C, Choi AI, Shlipak MG. Risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals: traditional and HIV-related factors. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 May; 59(5):628-35.
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      23. Irvin MR, Shrestha S, Chen YD, Wiener HW, Haritunians T, Vaughan LK, Tiwari HK, Taylor KD, Scherzer R, Saag MS, Grunfeld C, Rotter JI, Arnett DK. Genes linked to energy metabolism and immunoregulatory mechanisms are associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in HIV-infected men. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Dec; 21(12):798-807.
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      24. Eastburn A, Scherzer R, Zolopa AR, Benson C, Tracy R, Do T, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Grunfeld C, Tien PC. Association of low level viremia with inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26320.
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      25. Kosmiski LA, Scherzer R, Heymsfield SB, Rimland D, Simberkoff MS, Sidney S, Shlipak MG, Bacchetti P, Biggs ML, Grunfeld C. Association of increased upper trunk and decreased leg fat with 2-h glucose in control and HIV-infected persons. Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov; 34(11):2448-53.
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      26. Scherzer R, Heymsfield SB, Lee D, Powderly WG, Tien PC, Bacchetti P, Shlipak MG, Grunfeld C. Decreased limb muscle and increased central adiposity are associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV infection. AIDS. 2011 Jul 17; 25(11):1405-14.
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      27. Feingold KR, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. Inflammation inhibits GPR81 expression in adipose tissue. Inflamm Res. 2011 Oct; 60(10):991-5.
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      28. Lake JE, Wohl D, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Tien PC, Sidney S, Currier JS. Regional fat deposition and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: the FRAM study. AIDS Care. 2011 Aug; 23(8):929-38.
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      29. Jotwani V, Scherzer R, Choi A, Szczech L, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Grunfeld C, Shlipak M. Reduced kidney function and preclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals: the study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM). Am J Nephrol. 2011; 33(5):453-60.
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      30. Feingold KR, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. Inflammation inhibits the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue. Innate Immun. 2012 Apr; 18(2):231-40.
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      31. Rooney T, Scherzer R, Shigenaga JK, Graf J, Imboden JB, Grunfeld C. Levels of plasma fibrinogen are elevated in well-controlled rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011 Aug; 50(8):1458-65.
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      32. Yarasheski KE, Scherzer R, Kotler DP, Dobs AS, Tien PC, Lewis CE, Kronmal RA, Heymsfield SB, Bacchetti P, Grunfeld C. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Mar; 66(3):332-40.
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      33. Crane HM, Grunfeld C, Willig JH, Mugavero MJ, Van Rompaey S, Moore R, Rodriguez B, Feldman BJ, Lederman MM, Saag MS, Kitahata MM. Impact of NRTIs on lipid levels among a large HIV-infected cohort initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical care. AIDS. 2011 Jan 14; 25(2):185-95.
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      34. Shlipak MG, Li Y, Fox C, Coresh J, Grunfeld C, Whooley M. Uromodulin concentrations are not associated with incident CKD among persons with coronary artery disease. BMC Nephrol. 2011; 12:2.
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      35. Tien PC, Choi AI, Zolopa AR, Benson C, Tracy R, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Grunfeld C. Inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults: analysis of the FRAM study cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):316-22.
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      36. Taylor SA, Lee GA, Pao VY, Anthonypillai J, Aweeka FT, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Boosting dose ritonavir does not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy HIV-seronegative volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):361-4.
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      37. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. The role of HDL in innate immunity. J Lipid Res. 2011 Jan; 52(1):1-3.
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      38. Delaney JA, Scherzer R, Biggs ML, Shliplak MG, Polak JF, Currier JS, Kronmal RA, Wanke C, Bacchetti P, O'leary D, Tien PC, Grunfeld C. Associations of antiretroviral drug use and HIV-specific risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness. AIDS. 2010 Sep 10; 24(14):2201-9.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Kim P, Moser A, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Expression and regulation of GPAT isoforms in cultured human keratinocytes and rodent epidermis. J Lipid Res. 2010 Nov; 51(11):3207-16.
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      40. Choi A, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Tien PC, Saag MS, Gibert CL, Szczech LA, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C, albuminuria, and 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV-infected persons. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Nov; 56(5):872-82.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Grunfeld C. Dyslipidemia and its Treatment in HIV Infection. Top HIV Med. 2010 Aug-Sep; 18(3):112-8.
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      42. Grunfeld C, Saag M, Cofrancesco J, Lewis CE, Kronmal R, Heymsfield S, Tien PC, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Scherzer R. Regional adipose tissue measured by MRI over 5 years in HIV-infected and control participants indicates persistence of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS. 2010 Jul 17; 24(11):1717-26.
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      43. Rao MN, Mulligan K, Tai V, Wen MJ, Dyachenko A, Weinberg M, Li X, Lang T, Grunfeld C, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M. Effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-binding protein-3 treatment on glucose metabolism and fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep; 95(9):4361-6.
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      44. Scherzer R, Shen W, Heymsfield SB, Lewis CE, Kotler DP, Punyanitya M, Bacchetti P, Shlipak MG, Grunfeld C. Intermuscular adipose tissue and metabolic associations in HIV infection. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Feb; 19(2):283-91.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Delaney JA, Scherzer R, Polak J, Biggs ML, Kronmal R, Chen H, Sidney S, Grunfeld C. Effect of inter-reader variability on outcomes in studies using carotid intima media thickness quantified by carotid ultrasonography. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 25(6):385-92.
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      46. Shrestha S, Irvin MR, Taylor KD, Wiener HW, Pajewski NM, Haritunians T, Delaney JA, Schambelan M, Polak JF, Arnett DK, Chen YD, Grunfeld C. A genome-wide association study of carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected men. AIDS. 2010 Feb 20; 24(4):583-92.
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      47. Choi AI, Li Y, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Volberding PA, Shlipak MG. Association between kidney function and albuminuria with cardiovascular events in HIV-infected persons. Circulation. 2010 Feb 9; 121(5):651-8.
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      48. Feingold KR, Shigenaga JK, Patzek SM, Chui LG, Moser A, Grunfeld C. Endotoxin, zymosan, and cytokines decrease the expression of the transcription factor, carbohydrate response element binding protein, and its target genes. Innate Immun. 2011 Apr; 17(2):174-82.
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      49. Grunfeld C, Scherzer R, Varosy PD, Ambarish G, Nasir K, Budoff M. Relation of coronary artery plaque location to extent of coronary artery disease studied by computed tomographic angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2010 Jan-Feb; 4(1):19-26.
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      50. Pao VY, Lee GA, Taylor S, Aweeka FT, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The protease inhibitor combination lopinavir/ritonavir does not decrease insulin secretion in healthy, HIV-seronegative volunteers. AIDS. 2010 Jan 16; 24(2):265-70.
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      51. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. The acute phase response inhibits reverse cholesterol transport. J Lipid Res. 2010 Apr; 51(4):682-4.
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      52. Cockerham L, Scherzer R, Zolopa A, Rimland D, Lewis CE, Bacchetti P, Grunfeld C, Shlipak M, Tien PC. Association of HIV infection, demographic and cardiovascular risk factors with all-cause mortality in the recent HAART era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jan; 53(1):102-6.
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      53. Lu B, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. The acute phase response stimulates the expression of angiopoietin like protein 4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jan 22; 391(4):1737-41.
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      54. Lee GA, Schwarz JM, Patzek S, Kim S, Dyachenko A, Wen M, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The acute effects of HIV protease inhibitors on insulin suppression of glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Oct 1; 52(2):246-8.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Grunfeld C, Delaney JA, Wanke C, Currier JS, Scherzer R, Biggs ML, Tien PC, Shlipak MG, Sidney S, Polak JF, O'Leary D, Bacchetti P, Kronmal RA. Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study. AIDS. 2009 Sep 10; 23(14):1841-9.
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      56. Feingold KR, Kazemi MR, Magra AL, McDonald CM, Chui LG, Shigenaga JK, Patzek SM, Chan ZW, Londos C, Grunfeld C. ADRP/ADFP and Mal1 expression are increased in macrophages treated with TLR agonists. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Mar; 209(1):81-8.
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      57. Graf J, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Imboden J. Levels of C-reactive protein associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk are prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS One. 2009; 4(7):e6242.
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      58. Shlay JC, Sharma S, Peng G, Gibert CL, Grunfeld C. The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Jul 1; 51(3):298-304.
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      59. Longenecker CT, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Lewis CE, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. HIV viremia and changes in kidney function. AIDS. 2009 Jun 1; 23(9):1089-96.
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      60. Feingold KR, Moser A, Patzek SM, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. Infection decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the diaphragm. J Lipid Res. 2009 Oct; 50(10):2055-63.
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      61. Jiang YJ, Uchida Y, Lu B, Kim P, Mao C, Akiyama M, Elias PM, Holleran WM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Ceramide stimulates ABCA12 expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 10; 284(28):18942-52.
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      62. Mulligan K, Khatami H, Schwarz JM, Sakkas GK, DePaoli AM, Tai VW, Wen MJ, Lee GA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effects of recombinant human leptin on visceral fat, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy and hypoleptinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr; 94(4):1137-44.
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      63. Gibert CL, Shlay JC, Sharma S, Bartsch G, Peng G, Grunfeld C. Racial differences in changes of metabolic parameters and body composition in antiretroviral therapy-naive persons initiating antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Jan 1; 50(1):44-53.
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      64. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin in the gut and chylomicrons: translocation or transportation? J Lipid Res. 2009 Jan; 50(1):1-2.
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      65. Lu B, Lu Y, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. LPS and proinflammatory cytokines decrease lipin-1 in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec; 295(6):E1502-9.
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      66. Scherzer R, Shen W, Bacchetti P, Kotler D, Lewis CE, Shlipak MG, Punyanitya M, Heymsfield SB, Grunfeld C. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct; 88(4):1088-96.
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      67. Grunfeld C. Understanding the complications of antiretroviral drugs. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 15; 47(4):575-6.
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      68. Feingold KR, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Patzek SM, Grunfeld C. Inflammation stimulates the expression of PCSK9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Sep 19; 374(2):341-4.
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      69. Feingold KR, Wang Y, Moser A, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. LPS decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the kidney. J Lipid Res. 2008 Oct; 49(10):2179-87.
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      70. Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Currier JS, Lundgren JD, Dubé MP, Lipshultz SE, Hsue PY, Squires K, Schambelan M, Wilson PW, Yarasheski KE, Hadigan CM, Stein JH, Eckel RH. State of the science conference: Initiative to decrease cardiovascular risk and increase quality of care for patients living with HIV/AIDS: executive summary. Circulation. 2008 Jul 8; 118(2):198-210.
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      71. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Arnett DK, Falutz JM, Haffner SM, Hruz P, Masur H, Meigs JB, Mulligan K, Reiss P, Samaras K. Contribution of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Circulation. 2008 Jul 8; 118(2):e20-8.
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      72. Reingold J, Wanke C, Kotler D, Lewis C, Tracy R, Heymsfield S, Tien P, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Shlipak M. Association of HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection with C-reactive protein levels: the fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM) study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jun 1; 48(2):142-8.
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      73. Grunfeld C. Insulin resistance in HIV infection: drugs, host responses, or restoration to health? Top HIV Med. 2008 Jun-Jul; 16(2):89-93.
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      74. Scherzer R, Shen W, Bacchetti P, Kotler D, Lewis CE, Shlipak MG, Heymsfield SB, Grunfeld C. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun; 87(6):1809-17.
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      75. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. HDL and innate immunity: a tale of two apolipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 2008 Aug; 49(8):1605-6.
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      76. Wohl D, Scherzer R, Heymsfield S, Simberkoff M, Sidney S, Bacchetti P, Grunfeld C. The associations of regional adipose tissue with lipid and lipoprotein levels in HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 1; 48(1):44-52.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Shlay JC, Sharma S, Peng G, Gibert CL, Grunfeld C. Long-term subcutaneous tissue changes among antiretroviral-naive persons initiating stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir with lamivudine. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 1; 48(1):53-62.
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      78. Madden E, Lee G, Kotler DP, Wanke C, Lewis CE, Tracy R, Heymsfield S, Shlipak MG, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C. Association of antiretroviral therapy with fibrinogen levels in HIV-infection. AIDS. 2008 Mar 30; 22(6):707-15.
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      79. Pao V, Lee GA, Grunfeld C. HIV therapy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008 Feb; 10(1):61-70.
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      80. Cofrancesco J, Scherzer R, Tien PC, Gibert CL, Southwell H, Sidney S, Dobs A, Grunfeld C. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort. AIDS. 2008 Jan 30; 22(3):357-65.
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      81. Feingold KR, Shigenaga JK, Chui LG, Moser A, Khovidhunkit W, Grunfeld C. Infection and inflammation decrease apolipoprotein M expression. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Jul; 199(1):19-26.
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      82. Odden MC, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Szczech LA, Sidney S, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C level as a marker of kidney function in human immunodeficiency virus infection: the FRAM study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12; 167(20):2213-9.
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      83. Grunfeld C, Rimland D, Gibert CL, Powderly WG, Sidney S, Shlipak MG, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Haffner S, Heymsfield SB. Association of upper trunk and visceral adipose tissue volume with insulin resistance in control and HIV-infected subjects in the FRAM study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Nov 1; 46(3):283-90.
        View in: PubMed
      84. Lee GA, Rao M, Mulligan K, Lo JC, Aweeka F, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Effects of ritonavir and amprenavir on insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. AIDS. 2007 Oct 18; 21(16):2183-90.
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      85. Kosmiski LA, Bacchetti P, Kotler DP, Heymsfield SB, Lewis CE, Shlipak MG, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C. Relationship of fat distribution with adipokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan; 93(1):216-24.
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      86. Lee D, Benson CA, Lewis CE, Grunfeld C, Scherzer R. Prevalence and factors associated with dry skin in HIV infection: the FRAM study. AIDS. 2007 Oct 1; 21(15):2051-7.
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      87. Grunfeld C, Thompson M, Brown SJ, Richmond G, Lee D, Muurahainen N, Kotler DP. Recombinant human growth hormone to treat HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome: 12 week induction and 24-week maintenance therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jul 1; 45(3):286-97.
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      88. Lu B, Sims PJ, Wiedmer T, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Expression of the phospholipid scramblase (PLSCR) gene family during the acute phase response. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Sep; 1771(9):1177-85.
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      89. Szczech LA, Grunfeld C, Scherzer R, Canchola JA, van der Horst C, Sidney S, Wohl D, Shlipak MG. Microalbuminuria in HIV infection. AIDS. 2007 May 11; 21(8):1003-9.
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      90. Shlay JC, Bartsch G, Peng G, Wang J, Grunfeld C, Gibert CL, Visnegarwala F, Raghavan SS, Xiang Y, Farrough M, Perry HE, Kotler D, El-Sadr WM. Long-term body composition and metabolic changes in antiretroviral naive persons randomized to protease inhibitor-, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-, or protease inhibitor plus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based strategy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Apr 15; 44(5):506-17.
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      91. Kim MS, Sweeney TR, Shigenaga JK, Chui LG, Moser A, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 decrease RXRalpha, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, LXRalpha, and the coactivators SRC-1, PGC-1alpha, and PGC-1beta in liver cells. Metabolism. 2007 Feb; 56(2):267-79.
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      92. Kotler DP, Muurahainen N, Grunfeld C, Wanke C, Thompson M, Saag M, Bock D, Simons G, Gertner JM. Effects of growth hormone on visceral adipose tissue and dyslipidemia in HIV, an erratum. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Nov 1; 43(3):378-80.
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      93. Lee GA, Lo JC, Aweeka F, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Single-dose lopinavir-ritonavir acutely inhibits insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1; 43(5):658-60.
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      94. Lu B, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Type II nuclear hormone receptors, coactivator, and target gene repression in adipose tissue in the acute-phase response. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct; 47(10):2179-90.
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      95. Shen W, Punyanitya M, Chen J, Gallagher D, Albu J, Pi-Sunyer X, Lewis CE, Grunfeld C, Heshka S, Heymsfield SB. Waist circumference correlates with metabolic syndrome indicators better than percentage fat. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr; 14(4):727-36.
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      96. Lu B, Xu FY, Jiang YJ, Choy PC, Hatch GM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding human cardiolipin synthase (hCLS1). J Lipid Res. 2006 Jun; 47(6):1140-5.
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      97. Tien PC, Benson C, Zolopa AR, Sidney S, Osmond D, Grunfeld C. The study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM): methods, design, and sample characteristics. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 May 1; 163(9):860-9.
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      98. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Dobs A, Glesby M, Bhasin S. Oxandrolone in the treatment of HIV-associated weight loss in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Mar; 41(3):304-14.
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      99. Sweeney TR, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Decreased nuclear hormone receptor expression in the livers of mice in late pregnancy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun; 290(6):E1313-20.
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      100. Grunfeld C. Fish oil for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV infection: fish or foul? Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15; 41(10):1505-6.
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      101. Bacchetti P, Gripshover B, Grunfeld C, Heymsfield S, McCreath H, Osmond D, Saag M, Scherzer R, Shlipak M, Tien P. Fat distribution in men with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Oct 1; 40(2):121-31.
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      102. Visnegarwala F, Raghavan SS, Mullin CM, Bartsch G, Wang J, Kotler D, Gibert CL, Shlay J, Grunfeld C, Carr A, El-Sadr W. Sex differences in the associations of HIV disease characteristics and body composition in antiretroviral-naive persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Oct; 82(4):850-6.
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      103. Wang Y, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Downregulation of liver X receptor-alpha in mouse kidney and HK-2 proximal tubular cells by LPS and cytokines. J Lipid Res. 2005 Nov; 46(11):2377-87.
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      104. Kim MS, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Suppression of estrogen-related receptor alpha and medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase in the acute-phase response. J Lipid Res. 2005 Oct; 46(10):2282-8.
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      105. Kazemi MR, McDonald CM, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein expression and lipid accumulation are increased during activation of murine macrophages by toll-like receptor agonists. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jun; 25(6):1220-4.
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      106. Shlay JC, Visnegarwala F, Bartsch G, Wang J, Peng G, El-Sadr WM, Gibert C, Kotler D, Grunfeld C, Raghavan S. Body composition and metabolic changes in antiretroviral-naive patients randomized to didanosine and stavudine vs. abacavir and lamivudine. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Feb 1; 38(2):147-55.
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      107. Lee GA, Rao MN, Grunfeld C. The effects of HIV protease inhibitors on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Feb; 2(1):39-50.
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      108. Khovidhunkit W, Hachem JP, Medzihradszky KF, Duchateau PN, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Movsesyan I, Naya-Vigne J, Kane JP, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Parotid secretory protein is an HDL-associated protein with anticandidal activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):R1306-15.
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      109. Schwarz JM, Lee GA, Park S, Noor MA, Lee J, Wen M, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Indinavir increases glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men. AIDS. 2004 Sep 3; 18(13):1852-4.
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      110. Khovidhunkit W, Duchateau PN, Medzihradszky KF, Moser AH, Naya-Vigne J, Shigenaga JK, Kane JP, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Apolipoproteins A-IV and A-V are acute-phase proteins in mouse HDL. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Sep; 176(1):37-44.
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      111. Mafong DD, Lee GA, Yu S, Tien P, Mauro T, Grunfeld C. Development of multiple lipomas during treatment with rosiglitazone in a patient with HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20; 18(12):1742-4.
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      112. Lo JC, Mulligan K, Noor MA, Lee GA, Schwarz JM, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effects of low-dose growth hormone in HIV-infected men with fat accumulation: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1; 39(5):732-5.
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      113. Kim MS, Shigenaga J, Moser A, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Suppression of DHEA sulfotransferase (Sult2A1) during the acute-phase response. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct; 287(4):E731-8.
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      114. Lee GA, Mafong DD, Noor MA, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. HIV protease inhibitors increase adiponectin levels in HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 May 1; 36(1):645-7.
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      115. Khovidhunkit W, Kim MS, Memon RA, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host. J Lipid Res. 2004 Jul; 45(7):1169-96.
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      116. Lee GA, Seneviratne T, Noor MA, Lo JC, Schwarz JM, Aweeka FT, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The metabolic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative men. AIDS. 2004 Mar 5; 18(4):641-9.
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      117. Kotler DP, Muurahainen N, Grunfeld C, Wanke C, Thompson M, Saag M, Bock D, Simons G, Gertner JM. Effects of growth hormone on abnormal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Mar 1; 35(3):239-52.
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      118. Feingold K, Kim MS, Shigenaga J, Moser A, Grunfeld C. Altered expression of nuclear hormone receptors and coactivators in mouse heart during the acute-phase response. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb; 286(2):E201-7.
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      119. Tien PC, Grunfeld C. What is HIV-associated lipodystrophy? Defining fat distribution changes in HIV infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb; 17(1):27-32.
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      120. Tien PC, Cole SR, Williams CM, Li R, Justman JE, Cohen MH, Young M, Rubin N, Augenbraun M, Grunfeld C. Incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in the women's interagency HIV study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Dec 15; 34(5):461-6.
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      121. Khovidhunkit W, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin down-regulates ABCG5 and ABCG8 in mouse liver and ABCA1 and ABCG1 in J774 murine macrophages: differential role of LXR. J Lipid Res. 2003 Sep; 44(9):1728-36.
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      122. Kim MS, Shigenaga J, Moser A, Feingold K, Grunfeld C. Repression of farnesoid X receptor during the acute phase response. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11):8988-95.
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      123. Grunfeld C, Tien P. Difficulties in understanding the metabolic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 37 Suppl 2:S43-6.
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      124. Schambelan M, Benson CA, Carr A, Currier JS, Dubé MP, Gerber JG, Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Mulligan K, Powderly WG, Saag MS. Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Nov 1; 31(3):257-75.
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      125. Hare CB, Vu MP, Grunfeld C, Lampiris HW. Simvastatin-nelfinavir interaction implicated in rhabdomyolysis and death. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 15; 35(10):e111-2.
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      126. Beigneux AP, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Sick euthyroid syndrome is associated with decreased TR expression and DNA binding in mouse liver. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan; 284(1):E228-36.
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      127. Monto A, Alonzo J, Watson JJ, Grunfeld C, Wright TL. Steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: relative contributions of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol. Hepatology. 2002 Sep; 36(3):729-36.
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      128. Nonogaki K, Memon RA, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Tecott LH. Altered gene expressions involved in energy expenditure in 5-HT(2C) receptor mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jul 12; 295(2):249-54.
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      129. Grunfeld C. Leptin and the immunosuppression of malnutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul; 87(7):3038-9.
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      130. Beigneux AP, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Reduction in cytochrome P-450 enzyme expression is associated with repression of CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (pregnane X receptor) in mouse liver during the acute phase response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Apr 26; 293(1):145-9.
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      131. Grunfeld C. HIV protease inhibitors and glucose metabolism. AIDS. 2002 Apr 12; 16(6):925-6.
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      132. Noor MA, Seneviratne T, Aweeka FT, Lo JC, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Indinavir acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. AIDS. 2002 Mar 29; 16(5):F1-8.
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      133. Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Lee J, Lo JC, Wen M, Noor MA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):942.
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      134. Tien PC, Grunfeld C. The fatty liver in AIDS. Semin Gastrointest Dis. 2002 Jan; 13(1):47-54.
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      135. Faggioni R, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Leptin regulation of the immune response and the immunodeficiency of malnutrition. FASEB J. 2001 Dec; 15(14):2565-71.
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      136. Khovidhunkit W, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of scavenger receptor class B type I in hamster liver and Hep3B cells by endotoxin and cytokines. J Lipid Res. 2001 Oct; 42(10):1636-44.
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      137. Lo JC, Mulligan K, Noor MA, Schwarz JM, Halvorsen RA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effects of recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 86(8):3480-7.
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      138. Memon RA, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. In vivo and in vitro regulation of sterol 27-hydroxylase in the liver during the acute phase response. potential role of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 10; 276(32):30118-26.
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      139. Khovidhunkit W, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Cholesterol efflux by acute-phase high density lipoprotein: role of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase. J Lipid Res. 2001 Jun; 42(6):967-75.
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      140. Noor MA, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schwarz JM, Halvorsen RA, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Metabolic effects of indinavir in healthy HIV-seronegative men. AIDS. 2001 May 4; 15(7):F11-8.
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      141. Memon RA, Holleran WM, Uchida Y, Moser AH, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid metabolism in extrahepatic tissues by endotoxin. J Lipid Res. 2001 Mar; 42(3):452-9.
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      142. Memon RA, Tecott LH, Nonogaki K, Beigneux A, Moser AH, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-alpha) and PPAR-gamma messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the liver in murine obesity: troglitazone induces expression of PPAR-gamma-responsive adipose tissue-specific genes in the liver of obese diabetic mice. Endocrinology. 2000 Nov; 141(11):4021-31.
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      143. Khovidhunkit W, Memon RA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Infection and inflammation-induced proatherogenic changes of lipoproteins. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jun; 181 Suppl 3:S462-72.
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      144. Memon RA, Staprans I, Noor M, Holleran WM, Uchida Y, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Infection and inflammation induce LDL oxidation in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 Jun; 20(6):1536-42.
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      145. Beigneux AP, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. The acute phase response is associated with retinoid X receptor repression in rodent liver. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 26; 275(21):16390-9.
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      146. Faggioni R, Moser A, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Reduced leptin levels in starvation increase susceptibility to endotoxic shock. Am J Pathol. 2000 May; 156(5):1781-7.
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      147. Staprans I, Pan XM, Rapp JH, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Oxidized cholesterol in the diet accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor- and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 Mar; 20(3):708-14.
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      148. Faggioni R, Jones-Carson J, Reed DA, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Fantuzzi G. Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice are protected from T cell-mediated hepatotoxicity: role of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-18. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Feb 29; 97(5):2367-72.
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      149. Memon RA, Hotamisligil GS, Wiesbrock SM, Uysal KT, Faggioni R, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Upregulation of uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in genetic obesity: lack of an essential role for leptin, hyperphagia, increased tissue lipid content, and TNF-alpha. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Feb 24; 1484(1):41-50.
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      150. Mulligan K, Grunfeld C, Tai VW, Algren H, Pang M, Chernoff DN, Lo JC, Schambelan M. Hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance are induced by protease inhibitors independent of changes in body composition in patients with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Jan 1; 23(1):35-43.
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      151. Khovidhunkit W, Memon RA, Shigenaga JK, Pang M, Schambelan M, Mulligan K, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Metabolism. 1999 Dec; 48(12):1524-31.
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      152. Memon RA, Bass NM, Moser AH, Fuller J, Appel R, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Down-regulation of liver and heart specific fatty acid binding proteins by endotoxin and cytokines in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Aug 25; 1440(1):118-26.
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      153. Memon RA, Holleran WM, Uchida Y, Moser AH, Ichikawa S, Hirabayashi Y, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism in liver during the acute phase response. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 9; 274(28):19707-13.
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      154. Memon RA, Fuller J, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. In vivo regulation of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase during the acute phase response. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jul; 277(1 Pt 2):R94-103.
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      155. Wood LC, Ashby MN, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cloning of murine translation initiation factor 6 and functional analysis of the homologous sequence YPR016c in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 23; 274(17):11653-9.
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      156. Grunfeld C, Marshall M, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Tobias P, Feingold KR. Lipoproteins inhibit macrophage activation by lipoteichoic acid. J Lipid Res. 1999 Feb; 40(2):245-52.
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      157. Feingold KR, Memon RA, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. Endotoxin and interleukin-1 decrease hepatic lipase mRNA levels. Atherosclerosis. 1999 Feb; 142(2):379-87.
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      158. Faggioni R, Fantuzzi G, Gabay C, Moser A, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Leptin deficiency enhances sensitivity to endotoxin-induced lethality. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan; 276(1 Pt 2):R136-42.
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      159. Memon RA, Fuller J, Moser AH, Smith PJ, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of putative fatty acid transporters and Acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and adipose tissue in ob/ob mice. Diabetes. 1999 Jan; 48(1):121-7.
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      160. Harris IR, Farrell AM, Memon RA, Grunfeld C, Elias PM, Feingold KR. Expression and regulation of mRNA for putative fatty acid transport related proteins and fatty acyl CoA synthase in murine epidermis and cultured human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 1998 Nov; 111(5):722-6.
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      161. Memon RA, Holleran WM, Moser AH, Seki T, Uchida Y, Fuller J, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin and cytokines increase hepatic sphingolipid biosynthesis and produce lipoproteins enriched in ceramides and sphingomyelin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Aug; 18(8):1257-65.
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      162. Feingold KR, Memon RA, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Paraoxonase activity in the serum and hepatic mRNA levels decrease during the acute phase response. Atherosclerosis. 1998 Aug; 139(2):307-15.
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      163. Memon RA, Fuller J, Moser AH, Smith PJ, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. In vivo regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase mRNA and activity by endotoxin and cytokines. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 1):E64-72.
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      164. Navasa M, Gordon DA, Hariharan N, Jamil H, Shigenaga JK, Moser A, Fiers W, Pollock A, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA expression by endotoxin and cytokines. J Lipid Res. 1998 Jun; 39(6):1220-30.
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      165. Faggioni R, Shigenaga J, Moser A, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Induction of UCP2 gene expression by LPS: a potential mechanism for increased thermogenesis during infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Mar 6; 244(1):75-8.
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      166. Memon RA, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Fuller J, Grunfeld C. Regulation of fatty acid transport protein and fatty acid translocase mRNA levels by endotoxin and cytokines. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb; 274(2 Pt 1):E210-7.
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      167. Harris IR, Farrell AM, Holleran WM, Jackson S, Grunfeld C, Elias PM, Feingold KR. Parallel regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and the enzymes of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis but not ceramide synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. J Lipid Res. 1998 Feb; 39(2):412-22.
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      168. Faggioni R, Fantuzzi G, Fuller J, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. IL-1 beta mediates leptin induction during inflammation. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jan; 274(1 Pt 2):R204-8.
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      169. Feingold KR, Hardardóttir I, Grunfeld C. Beneficial effects of cytokine induced hyperlipidemia. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1998; 37 Suppl 1:66-74.
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      170. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Lipoproteins: are they important components of host defense? Hepatology. 1997 Dec; 26(6):1685-6.
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      171. Harris IR, Farrell AM, Grunfeld C, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Feingold KR. Permeability barrier disruption coordinately regulates mRNA levels for key enzymes of cholesterol, fatty acid, and ceramide synthesis in the epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Dec; 109(6):783-7.
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      172. Grunfeld C, Doerrler W, Pang M, Jensen P, Weisgraber KH, Feingold KR. Abnormalities of apolipoprotein E in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov; 82(11):3734-40.
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      173. Memon RA, Shechter I, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1 decrease hepatic squalene synthase activity, protein, and mRNA levels in Syrian hamsters. J Lipid Res. 1997 Aug; 38(8):1620-9.
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      174. Wood LC, Stalder AK, Liou A, Campbell IL, Grunfeld C, Elias PM, Feingold KR. Barrier disruption increases gene expression of cytokines and the 55 kD TNF receptor in murine skin. Exp Dermatol. 1997 Apr; 6(2):98-104.
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      175. Grunfeld C, Pang M, Shigenaga JK, Jensen P, Lallone R, Friedman J, Feingold KR. Serum leptin levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Dec; 81(12):4342-6.
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      176. Schambelan M, Mulligan K, Grunfeld C, Daar ES, LaMarca A, Kotler DP, Wang J, Bozzette SA, Breitmeyer JB. Recombinant human growth hormone in patients with HIV-associated wasting. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Serostim Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 1; 125(11):873-82.
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      177. Sellmeyer DE, Grunfeld C. Endocrine and metabolic disturbances in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Endocr Rev. 1996 Oct; 17(5):518-32.
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      178. Nonogaki K, Pan XM, Moser AH, Shigenaga J, Staprans I, Sakamoto N, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. LIF and CNTF, which share the gp130 transduction system, stimulate hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. Am J Physiol. 1996 Sep; 271(3 Pt 1):E521-8.
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      179. Yoshida M, Roth RI, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Levin J. Soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan purified from Candida albicans: biologic effects and distribution in blood and organs in rabbits. J Lab Clin Med. 1996 Jul; 128(1):103-14.
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      180. Grunfeld C, Zhao C, Fuller J, Pollack A, Moser A, Friedman J, Feingold KR. Endotoxin and cytokines induce expression of leptin, the ob gene product, in hamsters. J Clin Invest. 1996 May 1; 97(9):2152-7.
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      181. Papadakis MA, Grady D, Black D, Tierney MJ, Gooding GA, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Apr 15; 124(8):708-16.
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      182. Wood LC, Elias PM, Calhoun C, Tsai JC, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Barrier disruption stimulates interleukin-1 alpha expression and release from a pre-formed pool in murine epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Mar; 106(3):397-403.
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      183. Nonogaki K, Moser AH, Shigenaga J, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Beta-nerve growth factor as a mediator of the acute phase response in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Feb 27; 219(3):956-61.
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      184. Feingold KR, Spady DK, Pollock AS, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Endotoxin, TNF, and IL-1 decrease cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels and activity. J Lipid Res. 1996 Feb; 37(2):223-8.
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      185. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Regulation of lipid metabolism by cytokines during host defense. Nutrition. 1996 Jan; 12(1 Suppl):S24-6.
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      186. Papadakis MA, Grady D, Tierney MJ, Black D, Wells L, Grunfeld C. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and functional status in healthy older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995 Dec; 43(12):1350-5.
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      187. Hardardóttir I, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Effects of endotoxin on lipid metabolism. Biochem Soc Trans. 1995 Nov; 23(4):1013-8.
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      188. Nonogaki K, Pan XM, Moser AH, Staprans I, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Keratinocyte growth factor increases fatty acid mobilization and hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats. Endocrinology. 1995 Oct; 136(10):4278-84.
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      189. Nonogaki K, Moser AH, Pan XM, Staprans I, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Lipoteichoic acid stimulates lipolysis and hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats in vivo. J Lipid Res. 1995 Sep; 36(9):1987-95.
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      190. Funk JL, Lausier J, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Huling S, Nissenson RA, Strewler GJ, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin induces parathyroid hormone-related protein gene expression in splenic stromal and smooth muscle cells, not in splenic lymphocytes. Endocrinology. 1995 Aug; 136(8):3412-21.
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      191. Feingold KR, Pollock AS, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Grunfeld C. Discordant regulation of proteins of cholesterol metabolism during the acute phase response. J Lipid Res. 1995 Jul; 36(7):1474-82.
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      192. Read TE, Grunfeld C, Kumwenda ZL, Calhoun MC, Kane JP, Feingold KR, Rapp JH. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins prevent septic death in rats. J Exp Med. 1995 Jul 1; 182(1):267-72.
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      193. Ly H, Francone OL, Fielding CJ, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin and TNF lead to reduced plasma LCAT activity and decreased hepatic LCAT mRNA levels in Syrian hamsters. J Lipid Res. 1995 Jun; 36(6):1254-63.
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      194. Grunfeld C. State of the art in wasting: an interview with Carl Grunfeld, PhD. Interview by Jeff Getty. BETA. 1995 Jun; 34-7.
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      195. Nonogaki K, Fuller GM, Fuentes NL, Moser AH, Staprans I, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Interleukin-6 stimulates hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats. Endocrinology. 1995 May; 136(5):2143-9.
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      196. Feingold KR, Funk JL, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Rapp JH, Grunfeld C. Role for circulating lipoproteins in protection from endotoxin toxicity. Infect Immun. 1995 May; 63(5):2041-6.
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      197. Ottey KA, Wood LC, Grunfeld C, Elias PM, Feingold KR. Cutaneous permeability barrier disruption increases fatty acid synthetic enzyme activity in the epidermis of hairless mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1995 Mar; 104(3):401-4.
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      198. Read TE, Grunfeld C, Kumwenda Z, Calhoun MC, Kane JP, Feingold KR, Rapp JH. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins improve survival when given after endotoxin in rats. Surgery. 1995 Jan; 117(1):62-7.
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      199. Nonogaki K, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Alpha-adrenergic receptors mediate the hypertriglyceridemia induced by endotoxin, but not tumor necrosis factor, in rats. Endocrinology. 1994 Dec; 135(6):2644-50.
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      200. Wood LC, Elias PM, Sequeira-Martin SM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Occlusion lowers cytokine mRNA levels in essential fatty acid-deficient and normal mouse epidermis, but not after acute barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol. 1994 Dec; 103(6):834-8.
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      201. Feingold KR, Marshall M, Gulli R, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Effect of endotoxin and cytokines on lipoprotein lipase activity in mice. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Nov; 14(11):1866-72.
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      202. Doerrler W, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Cytokines induce catabolic effects in cultured adipocytes by multiple mechanisms. Cytokine. 1994 Sep; 6(5):478-84.
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      203. Funk JL, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Krul EJ, Strewler GJ, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Cytokine regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein messenger ribonucleic acid levels in mouse spleen: paradoxical effects of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4. Endocrinology. 1994 Jul; 135(1):351-8.
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      204. Marshall MK, Doerrler W, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Leukemia inhibitory factor induces changes in lipid metabolism in cultured adipocytes. Endocrinology. 1994 Jul; 135(1):141-7.
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      205. Wood LC, Feingold KR, Sequeira-Martin SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C. Barrier function coordinately regulates epidermal IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist mRNA levels. Exp Dermatol. 1994 Apr; 3(2):56-60.
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      206. Feingold KR, Wilson DE, Wood LC, Kwong LK, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Diabetes increases hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein and mRNA levels in the small intestine. Metabolism. 1994 Apr; 43(4):450-4.
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      207. Memon RA, Grunfeld C, Moser AH, Feingold KR. Fatty acid synthesis in obese insulin resistant diabetic mice. Horm Metab Res. 1994 Feb; 26(2):85-7.
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      208. Tsai JC, Feingold KR, Crumrine D, Wood LC, Grunfeld C, Elias PM. Permeability barrier disruption alters the localization and expression of TNF alpha/protein in the epidermis. Arch Dermatol Res. 1994; 286(5):242-8.
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      209. Feingold KR, Hardardottir I, Memon R, Krul EJ, Moser AH, Taylor JM, Grunfeld C. Effect of endotoxin on cholesterol biosynthesis and distribution in serum lipoproteins in Syrian hamsters. J Lipid Res. 1993 Dec; 34(12):2147-58.
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      210. Read TE, Harris HW, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Kane JP, Rapp JH. The protective effect of serum lipoproteins against bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Eur Heart J. 1993 Dec; 14 Suppl K:125-9.
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      211. Funk JL, Krul EJ, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Strewler GJ, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Endotoxin increases parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA levels in mouse spleen. Mediation by tumor necrosis factor. J Clin Invest. 1993 Nov; 92(5):2546-52.
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      212. Mulligan K, Grunfeld C, Hellerstein MK, Neese RA, Schambelan M. Anabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with wasting associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Oct; 77(4):956-62.
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      213. Grunfeld C, Pang M, Doerrler W, Jensen P, Shimizu L, Feingold KR, Cavalieri RR. Indices of thyroid function and weight loss in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Metabolism. 1993 Oct; 42(10):1270-6.
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      214. Read TE, Harris HW, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Calhoun MC, Kane JP, Rapp JH. Chylomicrons enhance endotoxin excretion in bile. Infect Immun. 1993 Aug; 61(8):3496-502.
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      215. Feingold KR, Krauss RM, Pang M, Doerrler W, Jensen P, Grunfeld C. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jun; 76(6):1423-7.
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      216. Memon RA, Grunfeld C, Moser AH, Feingold KR. Tumor necrosis factor mediates the effects of endotoxin on cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice. Endocrinology. 1993 May; 132(5):2246-53.
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      217. Harris HW, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Read TE, Kane JP, Jones AL, Eichbaum EB, Bland GF, Rapp JH. Chylomicrons alter the fate of endotoxin, decreasing tumor necrosis factor release and preventing death. J Clin Invest. 1993 Mar; 91(3):1028-34.
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      218. Funk JL, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages induces lipid accumulation and foam cell formation. Atherosclerosis. 1993 Jan 4; 98(1):67-82.
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      219. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Pang M, Doerrler W, Krauss RM. LDL subclass phenotypes and triglyceride metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992 Dec; 12(12):1496-502.
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      220. Feingold KR, Staprans I, Memon RA, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Doerrler W, Dinarello CA, Grunfeld C. Endotoxin rapidly induces changes in lipid metabolism that produce hypertriglyceridemia: low doses stimulate hepatic triglyceride production while high doses inhibit clearance. J Lipid Res. 1992 Dec; 33(12):1765-76.
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      221. Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Role of cytokines in inducing hyperlipidemia. Diabetes. 1992 Oct; 41 Suppl 2:97-101.
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      222. Memon RA, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Doerrler W, Grunfeld C. In vivo effects of interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma on lipolysis and ketogenesis. Endocrinology. 1992 Oct; 131(4):1695-702.
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      223. Sechi LA, Griffin CA, Grady EF, Grunfeld C, Kalinyak JE, Schambelan M. Tissue-specific regulation of insulin receptor mRNA levels in rats with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1992 Sep; 41(9):1113-8.
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      224. Wood LC, Jackson SM, Elias PM, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Cutaneous barrier perturbation stimulates cytokine production in the epidermis of mice. J Clin Invest. 1992 Aug; 90(2):482-7.
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      225. Memon RA, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Doerrler W, Adi S, Dinarello CA, Grunfeld C. Differential effects of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor on ketogenesis. Am J Physiol. 1992 Aug; 263(2 Pt 1):E301-9.
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      226. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Metabolic disturbances and wasting in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 30; 327(5):329-37.
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      227. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin, and interferon induced changes in lipid metabolism as part of host defense. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1992 Jun; 200(2):224-7.
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      228. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP. Wasting in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Semin Liver Dis. 1992 May; 12(2):175-87.
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      229. Adi S, Pollock AS, Shigenaga JK, Moser AH, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Role for monokines in the metabolic effects of endotoxin. Interferon-gamma restores responsiveness of C3H/HeJ mice in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1992 May; 89(5):1603-9.
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      230. Grunfeld C, Pang M, Doerrler W, Shigenaga JK, Jensen P, Feingold KR. Lipids, lipoproteins, triglyceride clearance, and cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 May; 74(5):1045-52.
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      231. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. The role of the cytokines, interferon alpha and tumor necrosis factor in the hypertriglyceridemia and wasting of AIDs. J Nutr. 1992 Mar; 122(3 Suppl):749-53.
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      232. Grunfeld C, Pang M, Shimizu L, Shigenaga JK, Jensen P, Feingold KR. Resting energy expenditure, caloric intake, and short-term weight change in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Feb; 55(2):455-60.
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      233. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP. Pathophysiology of the AIDS wasting syndrome. AIDS Clin Rev. 1992; 191-224.
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      234. Grunfeld C, Memon RA, Rapp JH, Feingold KR. Regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by cytokines that induce the acute phase response. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 1992; 30(4):201-2.
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      235. Grunfeld C. Diabetic foot ulcers: etiology, treatment, and prevention. Adv Intern Med. 1992; 37:103-32.
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      236. Feingold KR, Doerrler W, Dinarello CA, Fiers W, Grunfeld C. Stimulation of lipolysis in cultured fat cells by tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and the interferons is blocked by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Endocrinology. 1992 Jan; 130(1):10-6.
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      237. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. Tumor necrosis factor, cytokines, and the hyperlipidemia of infection. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Nov-Dec; 2(6):213-9.
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      238. Grunfeld C, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interferon alpha stimulate triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. Metabolism. 1991 Sep; 40(9):894-8.
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      239. Grunfeld C, Soued M, Adi S, Moser AH, Fiers W, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR. Interleukin 4 inhibits stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis by tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 but not by interferon-alpha. Cancer Res. 1991 Jun 1; 51(11):2803-7.
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      240. Feingold KR, Soued M, Adi S, Staprans I, Neese R, Shigenaga J, Doerrler W, Moser A, Dinarello CA, Grunfeld C. Effect of interleukin-1 on lipid metabolism in the rat. Similarities to and differences from tumor necrosis factor. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991 May-Jun; 11(3):495-500.
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      241. Feingold KR, Barker ME, Jones AL, Grunfeld C. Localization of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated DNA synthesis in the liver. Hepatology. 1991 Apr; 13(4):773-9.
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      242. Williams ML, Coleman RA, Placezk D, Grunfeld C. Neutral lipid storage disease: a possible functional defect in phospholipid- linked triacylglycerol metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Feb 22; 1096(2):162-9.
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      243. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Shigenaga JK, Doerrler W, Tierney A, Wang J, Pierson RN, Feingold KR. Circulating interferon-alpha levels and hypertriglyceridemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1991 Feb; 90(2):154-62.
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      244. Grunfeld C, Feingold KR. The metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor and other cytokines. Biotherapy. 1991; 3(2):143-58.
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      245. Feingold KR, Soued M, Adi S, Staprans I, Shigenaga J, Doerrler W, Moser A, Grunfeld C. Tumor necrosis factor-increased hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein production and increased serum triglyceride levels in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 1990 Dec; 39(12):1569-74.
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      246. Feingold KR, Moser A, Adi S, Soued M, Grunfeld C. Small intestinal fatty acid synthesis is increased in diabetic rats. Endocrinology. 1990 Nov; 127(5):2247-52.
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      247. Harris HW, Grunfeld C, Feingold KR, Rapp JH. Human very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons can protect against endotoxin-induced death in mice. J Clin Invest. 1990 Sep; 86(3):696-702.
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      248. Feingold KR, Adi S, Staprans I, Moser AH, Neese R, Verdier JA, Doerrler W, Grunfeld C. Diet affects the mechanisms by which TNF stimulates hepatic triglyceride production. Am J Physiol. 1990 Aug; 259(2 Pt 1):E177-84.
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      249. Grunfeld C, Adi S, Soued M, Moser A, Fiers W, Feingold KR. Search for mediators of the lipogenic effects of tumor necrosis factor: potential role for interleukin 6. Cancer Res. 1990 Jul 15; 50(14):4233-8.
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      250. Grunfeld C, Soued M, Adi S, Moser AH, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR. Evidence for two classes of cytokines that stimulate hepatic lipogenesis: relationships among tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interferon-alpha. Endocrinology. 1990 Jul; 127(1):46-54.
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      251. Feingold KR, Soued M, Serio MK, Adi S, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. The effect of diet on tumor necrosis factor stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Metabolism. 1990 Jun; 39(6):623-32.
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      252. Grunfeld C, Palladino MA. Tumor necrosis factor: immunologic, antitumor, metabolic, and cardiovascular activities. Adv Intern Med. 1990; 35:45-71.
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      253. Feingold KR, Soued M, Serio MK, Moser AH, Dinarello CA, Grunfeld C. Multiple cytokines stimulate hepatic lipid synthesis in vivo. Endocrinology. 1989 Jul; 125(1):267-74.
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      254. Grunfeld C, Wilking H, Neese R, Gavin LA, Moser AH, Gulli R, Serio MK, Feingold KR. Persistence of the hypertriglyceridemic effect of tumor necrosis factor despite development of tachyphylaxis to its anorectic/cachectic effects in rats. Cancer Res. 1989 May 15; 49(10):2554-60.
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      255. Feingold KR, Serio MK, Adi S, Moser AH, Grunfeld C. Tumor necrosis factor stimulates hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion. Endocrinology. 1989 May; 124(5):2336-42.
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      256. Grunfeld C, Gulli R, Moser AH, Gavin LA, Feingold KR. Effect of tumor necrosis factor administration in vivo on lipoprotein lipase activity in various tissues of the rat. J Lipid Res. 1989 Apr; 30(4):579-85.
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      257. Feingold KR, Soued M, Staprans I, Gavin LA, Donahue ME, Huang BJ, Moser AH, Gulli R, Grunfeld C. Effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on lipid metabolism in the diabetic rat. Evidence that inhibition of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity is not required for TNF-induced hyperlipidemia. J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr; 83(4):1116-21.
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      258. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Hamadeh R, Tierney A, Wang J, Pierson RN. Hypertriglyceridemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1989 Jan; 86(1):27-31.
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      259. Holewski JJ, Moss KM, Stess RM, Graf PM, Grunfeld C. Prevalence of foot pathology and lower extremity complications in a diabetic outpatient clinic. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1989; 26(3):35-44.
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      260. Grunfeld C, Sherman BM, Cavalieri RR. The acute effects of human growth hormone administration on thyroid function in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Nov; 67(5):1111-4.
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      261. Grunfeld C, Verdier JA, Neese R, Moser AH, Feingold KR. Mechanisms by which tumor necrosis factor stimulates hepatic fatty acid synthesis in vivo. J Lipid Res. 1988 Oct; 29(10):1327-35.
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      262. Feingold KR, Soued M, Grunfeld C. Tumor necrosis factor stimulates DNA synthesis in the liver of intact rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Jun 16; 153(2):576-82.
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      263. Holewski JJ, Stess RM, Graf PM, Grunfeld C. Aesthesiometry: quantification of cutaneous pressure sensation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1988; 25(2):1-10.
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      264. Williams ML, Monger DJ, Rutherford SL, Hincenbergs M, Rehfeld SJ, Grunfeld C. Neutral lipid storage disease with ichthyosis: lipid content and metabolism of fibroblasts. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1988; 11(2):131-43.
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