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    Edwin Charlebois, PhD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address550 16th Street, 3rd Floor
    San Francisco CA 94158
    Phone415-476-6241

       Overview 
       Overview
      As a senior scientist at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) my research program focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV infection and its consequences. Overarching this focus are translational science efforts to improve the methodology and evaluation of research and interventions aimed at controlling and eventually eliminating the domestic and international spread of HIV.

      Domestic HIV Research: My most recent domestic HIV prevention research is an evaluation of the potential effect of expanded ART and HIV testing strategies on reducing the number of new HIV infections in San Francisco. In this computational biology modeling paper published in CID in 2011 (with an accompanying editorial) we estimated significant reductions in new HIV infections are likely with expanded HIV treatment of those already in care and even greater gains with more frequent at-risk community HIV testing. This research along with the results of recent clinical trials were cited as evidence for a change in treatment policy in San Francisco to offer ART to all HIV infected persons. Our studies relate well with a recent editorial we published in 2010 in Archives of Internal Medicine wherein we highlight the importance of linking HIV infected persons into care and the associated potential HIV prevention benefits.

      Another priority research area for me is the development of methods for the evaluation of combination HIV prevention interventions. Combination HIV prevention interventions are specifically called for in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and specific evaluation methods for them have been identified as significant scientific gap in our recently published 2011 editorial in JAIDS on setting the NIH research agenda for the NHAS. Specifically, I have received developmental funding to pursue novel evaluation methods for community-level combination HIV prevention interventions that involve surveillance measurements of community HIV viral load, intervention process measures and structural equation modeling. In addition I will be co-directing a research team assisting in the evaluation of the San Francisco implementation of the HRSA and CDC’s 12-city project – a combination HIV prevention intervention comprising 14 interventions. In the fall of 2011 I will be leading a national round-table on the state-of-the-art and future research directions for evaluation methods for combination HIV prevention interventions to be hosted by the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies.

      International HIV Research: Internationally, my research focus is on HIV and co-infections/interaction with Tuberculosis and Malaria. Primarily working in East Africa, I am Principal Investigator of three NIH sponsored grants and co-investigator on several more. I am currently studying effective strategies for diagnosing HIV among outpatient TB evaluation patients and their family and household members in a 2,000 person randomized trial of home-based versus TB clinic based HIV testing and utilization of same-day rapid HIV tests. I am also involved in studying interactions between HIV protease inhibitor treatment and malaria incidence in two additional randomized HIV treatment trials among HIV infected children and HIV infected pregnant women. On a broader scale I am co-leading the development of a three country research collaboration, SEARCH (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health) to study the community level effectiveness of a program of community-wide HIV testing and universal HIV treatment to all HIV infected persons and its effect on HIV, TB, Malaria incidence and community economic and educational productivity. My area of research within the collaboration focuses on the 40 community-cluster randomized design, its HIV specific end-points of HIV incidence and community HIV viral load, and the development and evaluation of streamlined HIV care and evaluation.

      Training the Next Generation of HIV Scientists: An important part of my research program is training and mentoring the next generation of HIV scientists. As the principal investigator of 2 large international data management and statistical support cores (one for a NICHD supported program project, and one for a NIAID funded International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research, ICEMR) – I am able to organize and support the cores as a resource for training and mentoring post-doctoral researchers and medical students in international HIV and clinical research. Through individual level research mentorship, a weekly international investigators seminar held in the US, the UCSF CAPS Traineeship in AIDS Prevention Studies (TAPS) program, and affiliated NIH K training grants, I supervise and assist between 3-5 trainees annually in the development of individual research projects, and epidemiologic and biostatistical training.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Young SL, Plenty AH, Luwedde FA, Natamba BK, Natureeba P, Achan J, Mwesigwa J, Ruel TD, Ades V, Osterbauer B, Clark TD, Dorsey G, Charlebois ED, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Cohan DL. Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Nutritional Status, and Infant Feeding Practices Among HIV-infected Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov; 18(9):2044-53.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Achan J, Ruel T, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Ugandan Women Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir- or Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Oct 1; 67(2):128-35.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Jain V, Byonanebye DM, Amanyire G, Kwarisiima D, Black D, Kabami J, Chamie G, Clark TD, Rooney JF, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Successful antiretroviral therapy delivery and retention in care among asymptomatic individuals with high CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/µl in rural Uganda. AIDS. 2014 Sep 24; 28(15):2241-9.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Marquez C, Davis JL, Katamba A, Haguma P, Ochom E, Ayakaka I, Chamie G, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Cattamanchi A. Assessing the quality of tuberculosis evaluation for children with prolonged cough presenting to routine community health care settings in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105935.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Marquez C, Okiring J, Chamie G, Ruel TD, Achan J, Kakuru A, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Dorsey G. Increased Morbidity in Early Childhood Among HIV-exposed Uninfected Children in Uganda is Associated with Breastfeeding Duration. J Trop Pediatr. 2014 Aug 21.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Natureeba P, Ades V, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Plenty A, Okong P, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Havlir DV, Achan J, Kamya MR, Cohan D, Dorsey G. Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Versus Efavirenz-Based ART for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 15; 210(12):1938-45.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Kakuru A, Achan J, Muhindo MK, Ikilezi G, Arinaitwe E, Mwangwa F, Ruel T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies Are Efficacious and Safe for Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1; 59(3):446-53.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Ruel TD, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Kamya M, Achan J. Virologic and Immunologic Outcomes of HIV-Infected Ugandan Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):535-41.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Jain V, Byonanebye DM, Liegler T, Kwarisiima D, Chamie G, Kabami J, Petersen ML, Balzer LB, Clark TD, Black D, Thirumurthy H, Geng EH, Charlebois ED, Amanyire G, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Changes in Population HIV RNA Levels in Mbarara, Uganda, During Scale-up of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Access. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 1; 65(3):327-32.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Kotwani P, Balzer L, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Byonanebye D, Bainomujuni B, Black D, Chamie G, Jain V, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Geng EH, Petersen ML, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Evaluating linkage to care for hypertension after community-based screening in rural Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Apr; 19(4):459-68.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, Balzer LB, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Uptake of Community-Based HIV Testing during a Multi-Disease Health Campaign in Rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84317.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Kotwani P, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Geng EH, Jain V, Chamie G, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13(1):1151.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Das M, Christopoulos KA, Geckeler D, Huriaux E, Cohen SE, Philip S, Shade S, Moss NJ, Morin SF, Charlebois ED. Linkage to HIV care in San Francisco: implications of measure selection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 1; 64 Suppl 1:S27-32.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Tsai AC, Mimiaga MJ, Dilley JW, Hammer GP, Karasic DH, Charlebois ED, Sorensen JL, Safren SA, Bangsberg DR. Does effective depression treatment alone reduce secondary HIV transmission risk? Equivocal findings from a randomized controlled trial. AIDS Behav. 2013 Oct; 17(8):2765-72.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in tororo, uganda. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 54(2):121-32.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Kim LH, Arinaitwe E, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Clark TD, Okong P, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Acceptability and feasibility of serial HIV antibody testing during pregnancy/postpartum and male partner testing in Tororo, Uganda. AIDS Care. 2014 Mar; 26(3):360-6.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Namusobya J, Semitala FC, Amanyire G, Kabami J, Chamie G, Bogere J, Jain V, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Geng EH. High retention in care among HIV-infected patients entering care with CD4 levels >350 cells/µL under routine program conditions in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov; 57(9):1343-50.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Ades V, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Clark TD, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D, Ruel TD. Neonatal Mortality in HIV-Exposed Infants Born to Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Dec; 59(6):441-6.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Chamie G, Wandera B, Luetkemeyer A, Bogere J, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Household ventilation and tuberculosis transmission in Kampala, Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Jun; 17(6):764-70.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Thirumurthy H, Chamie G, Jain V, Kabami J, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Geng E, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Improved employment and education outcomes in households of HIV-infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: evidence from a community health campaign in Uganda. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20; 27(4):627-34.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr; 88(4):744-6.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Jain V, Liegler T, Kabami J, Chamie G, Clark TD, Black D, Geng EH, Kwarisiima D, Wong JK, Abdel-Mohsen M, Sonawane N, Aweeka FT, Thirumurthy H, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Assessment of population-based HIV RNA levels in a rural east African setting using a fingerprick-based blood collection method. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Feb; 56(4):598-605.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark TD, Nsanzabana C, Charlebois E, Aweeka F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29; 367(22):2110-8.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43400.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Young S, Murray K, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Osterbauer B, Achan J, Arinaitwe E, Clark T, Ades V, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kamya M, Havlir D, Cohan D. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41934.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Tsai AC, Karasic DH, Hammer GP, Charlebois ED, Ragland K, Moss AR, Sorensen JL, Dilley JW, Bangsberg DR. Directly observed antidepressant medication treatment and HIV outcomes among homeless and marginally housed HIV-positive adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb; 103(2):308-15.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1001-9.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Luetkemeyer AF, Charlebois ED, Hare CB, Black D, Smith A, Havlir DV, Peters MG. Resistance patterns and response to entecavir intensification among HIV-HBV-coinfected adults with persistent HBV viremia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Nov 1; 58(3):e96-9.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Nanteza MW, Mayanja-Kizza H, Charlebois E, Srikantiah P, Lin R, Mupere E, Mugyenyi P, Boom WH, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Whalen CC. A randomized trial of punctuated antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan HIV-seropositive adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4? T-cell counts of = 350 cells/µL. J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 15; 204(6):884-92.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Ruel TD, Zanoni BC, Ssewanyana I, Cao H, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Feeney ME. Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell percentage during childhood. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep; 53(6):592-9.
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      32. Morin SF, Kelly JA, Charlebois ED, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Cleary PD. Responding to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy-setting the research agenda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 1; 57(3):175-80.
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      33. Charlebois ED, Das M, Porco TC, Havlir DV. The effect of expanded antiretroviral treatment strategies on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 15; 52(8):1046-9.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Lancioni CL, Mahan CS, Johnson DF, Walusimbi M, Chervenak KA, Nalukwago S, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Mayanja-Kizza H, Whalen CC, Boom WH. Effects of antiretroviral therapy on immune function of HIV-infected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4+ >350 cells/mm3. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 203(7):992-1001.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Carrico AW, Riley ED, Johnson MO, Charlebois ED, Neilands TB, Remien RH, Lightfoot MA, Steward WT, Weinhardt LS, Kelly JA, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Morin SF, Chesney MA. Psychiatric risk factors for HIV disease progression: the role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Feb 1; 56(2):146-50.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Ruel TD, Kamya MR, Li P, Pasutti W, Charlebois ED, Liegler T, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK, Achan J. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1; 56(1):44-50.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Kateera F, Akello C, Cao H, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Ssewanyana I, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):330-5.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Chamie G, Luetkemeyer A, Walusimbi-Nanteza M, Okwera A, Whalen CC, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Significant variation in presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis across a high resolution of CD4 strata. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Oct; 14(10):1295-302.
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      39. Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. "A bird in the hand...": a commentary on the test and treat approach for HIV. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Aug 9; 170(15):1354-6.
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      40. Chamie G, Charlebois ED, Srikantiah P, Walusimbi-Nanteza M, Mugerwa RD, Mayanja H, Okwera A, Whalen CC, Havlir DV. Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologic and clinical treatment outcomes in a randomized trial of immediate versus CD4(+)-initiated antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with a high CD4(+) cell count. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 1; 51(3):359-62.
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      41. Bebell LM, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Busch MP, Dunn Williams J, Nugent CT, Bentsen C, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois ED. Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria. AIDS. 2010 Jul 31; 24(12):1945-52.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malar J. 2010; 9:177.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Chamie G, Luetkemeyer A, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Tuberculosis as part of the natural history of HIV infection in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15; 50 Suppl 3:S245-54.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Boivin MJ, Ruel TD, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Cao H, Eller LA, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Achan J, Akello C, Wong JK. HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children. AIDS. 2010 May 15; 24(8):1163-70.
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      45. Mahan CS, Walusimbi M, Johnson DF, Lancioni C, Charlebois E, Baseke J, Chervenak KA, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Mayanja-Kizza H, Whalen CC, Boom WH. Tuberculosis treatment in HIV infected Ugandans with CD4 counts>350 cells/mm reduces immune activation with no effect on HIV load or CD4 count. PLoS One. 2010; 5(2):e9138.
        View in: PubMed
      46. German P, Parikh S, Lawrence J, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Charlebois E, Hanpithakpong W, Lindegardh N, Aweeka FT. Lopinavir/ritonavir affects pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Aug 1; 51(4):424-9.
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      47. Cohan D, Gomez E, Greenberg M, Washington S, Charlebois ED. Patient perspectives with abbreviated versus standard pre-test HIV counseling in the prenatal setting: a randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5166.
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      48. Ruel T, Ssewanyana I, Achan J, Gasasira A, Kamya MR, Kekitiinwa A, Wong JK, Cao H, Havlir D, Charlebois ED. Dynamics of T cell activation accompanying CD4 recovery in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected Ugandan children. Clin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 131(3):410-4.
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      49. Davis JL, Huang L, Kovacs JA, Masur H, Murray P, Havlir DV, Worodria WO, Charlebois ED, Srikantiah P, Cattamanchi A, Huber C, Shea YR, Chow Y, Fischer SH. Polymerase chain reaction of secA1 on sputum or oral wash samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15; 48(6):725-32.
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      50. Ssewanyana I, Baker CA, Ruel T, Bousheri S, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. The Distribution and Immune Profile of T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Children from Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Jan; 25(1):65-71.
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      51. Morin SF, Shade SB, Steward WT, Carrico AW, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Kelly JA, Charlebois ED, Johnson MO, Chesney MA. A behavioral intervention reduces HIV transmission risk by promoting sustained serosorting practices among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 15; 49(5):544-51.
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      52. Srikantiah P, Wong JK, Liegler T, Walusimbi M, Mayanja-Kizza H, Kayanja HK, Mugerwa RD, Charlebois ED, Boom WH, Whalen CC, Havlir DV. Unexpected low-level viremia among HIV-infected Ugandan adults with untreated active tuberculosis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 1; 49(4):458-60.
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      53. Khumalo-Sakutukwa G, Morin SF, Fritz K, Charlebois ED, van Rooyen H, Chingono A, Modiba P, Mrumbi K, Visrutaratna S, Singh B, Sweat M, Celentano DD, Coates TJ. Project Accept (HPTN 043): a community-based intervention to reduce HIV incidence in populations at risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 1; 49(4):422-31.
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      54. Ruel TD, Achan J, Gasasira AF, Charlebois ED, Mehbratu T, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Kekitiinwa A, Wong J, Havlir DV. HIV RNA suppression among HIV-infected Ugandan children with measles. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jun 1; 48(2):225-7.
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      55. Steward WT, Charlebois ED, Johnson MO, Remien RH, Goldstein RB, Wong FL, Morin SF. Receipt of prevention services among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jun; 98(6):1011-4.
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      56. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Kalyango JN, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Staedke SG, Kekitiinwa A, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. High risk of neutropenia in HIV-infected children following treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1; 46(7):985-91.
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      57. Bebell LM, Gasasira A, Kiggundu M, Dokomajilar C, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. HIV-1 infection in patients referred for malaria blood smears at government health clinics in Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Dec 15; 46(5):624-30.
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      58. Johnson MO, Charlebois E, Morin SF, Remien RH, Chesney MA. Effects of a behavioral intervention on antiretroviral medication adherence among people living with HIV: the healthy living project randomized controlled study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Dec 15; 46(5):574-80.
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      59. Ssewanyana I, Elrefaei M, Dorsey G, Ruel T, Jones NG, Gasasira A, Kamya M, Nakiwala J, Achan J, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. Profile of T cell immune responses in HIV-infected children from Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1; 196(11):1667-70.
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      60. Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Moskowitz JT, Neilands TB, Morin SF, Charlebois ED, Steward WT, Remien RH, Wong FL, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Lightfoot MA, Chesney MA. Affect regulation, stimulant use, and viral load among HIV-positive persons on anti-retroviral therapy. Psychosom Med. 2007 Nov; 69(8):785-92.
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      61. Kamya MR, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Ruel T, Kekitiinwa A, Charlebois ED, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and insecticide-treated bednets on malaria among HIV-infected Ugandan children. AIDS. 2007 Oct 1; 21(15):2059-66.
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      62. Srikantiah P, Walusimbi MN, Kayanja HK, Mayanja-Kizza H, Mugerwa RD, Lin R, Charlebois ED, Boom WH, Whalen CC, Havlir DV. Early virological response of zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir for patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis in Uganda. AIDS. 2007 Sep 12; 21(14):1972-4.
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      63. Klitzman R, Exner T, Correale J, Kirshenbaum SB, Remien R, Ehrhardt AA, Lightfoot M, Catz SL, Weinhardt LS, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Kelly JA, Charlebois E. It's not just what you say: relationships of HIV dislosure and risk reduction among MSM in the post-HAART era. AIDS Care. 2007 Jul; 19(6):749-56.
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      64. Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Remien RH, Charlebois ED, Steward WT, Chesney MA. Correlates of suicidal ideation among HIV-positive persons. AIDS. 2007 May 31; 21(9):1199-203.
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      65. German P, Greenhouse B, Coates C, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Lindegardh N, Havlir D, Aweeka FT. Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 44(6):889-91.
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      66. Srikantiah P, Lin R, Walusimbi M, Okwera A, Luzze H, Whalen CC, Boom WH, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Elevated HIV seroprevalence and risk behavior among Ugandan TB suspects: implications for HIV testing and prevention. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Feb; 11(2):168-74.
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      67. Luetkemeyer AF, Charlebois ED, Flores LL, Bangsberg DR, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Havlir DV. Comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay with tuberculin skin testing in HIV-infected individuals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr 1; 175(7):737-42.
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      68. Paydar KZ, Hansen SL, Charlebois ED, Harris HW, Young DM. Inappropriate antibiotic use in soft tissue infections. Arch Surg. 2006 Sep; 141(9):850-4; discussion 855-6.
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      69. Gasasira AF, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Havlir D, Kiggundu M, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois ED. False-positive results of enzyme immunoassays for human immunodeficiency virus in patients with uncomplicated malaria. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 44(8):3021-4.
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      70. Johnson JL, Hadad DJ, Boom WH, Daley CL, Peloquin CA, Eisenach KD, Jankus DD, Debanne SM, Charlebois ED, Maciel E, Palaci M, Dietze R. Early and extended early bactericidal activity of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jun; 10(6):605-12.
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      71. Johnson MO, Chesney MA, Goldstein RB, Remien RH, Catz S, Gore-Felton C, Charlebois E, Morin SF. Positive provider interactions, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral medications among HIV-infected adults: A mediation model. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006 Apr; 20(4):258-68.
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      72. Swaminathan S, Luetkemeyer A, Srikantiah P, Lin R, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Antiretroviral therapy and TB. Trop Doct. 2006 Apr; 36(2):73-9.
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      73. Morin SF, Khumalo-Sakutukwa G, Charlebois ED, Routh J, Fritz K, Lane T, Vaki T, Fiamma A, Coates TJ. Removing barriers to knowing HIV status: same-day mobile HIV testing in Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Feb 1; 41(2):218-24.
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      74. Koester KA, Maiorana A, Vernon K, Charlebois E, Gaffney S, Lane T, Morin SF. HIV surveillance in theory and practice: assessing the acceptability of California's non-name HIV surveillance regulations. Health Policy. 2006 Aug 22; 78(1):101-10.
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      75. Morin SF, Steward WT, Charlebois ED, Remien RH, Pinkerton SD, Johnson MO, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Lightfoot M, Goldstein RB, Kittel L, Samimy-Muzaffar F, Weinhardt L, Kelly JA, Chesney MA. Predicting HIV transmission risk among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: findings from the healthy living project. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Oct 1; 40(2):226-35.
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      76. Pan ES, Diep BA, Charlebois ED, Auerswald C, Carleton HA, Sensabaugh GF, Perdreau-Remington F. Population dynamics of nasal strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus--and their relation to community-associated disease activity. J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1; 192(5):811-8.
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      77. Charlebois ED, Maiorana A, McLaughlin M, Koester K, Gaffney S, Rutherford GW, Morin SF. Potential deterrent effect of name-based HIV infection surveillance. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Jun 1; 39(2):219-27.
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      78. Frazee BW, Lynn J, Charlebois ED, Lambert L, Lowery D, Perdreau-Remington F. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in emergency department skin and soft tissue infections. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Mar; 45(3):311-20.
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      79. Johnson MO, Charlebois E, Morin SF, Catz SL, Goldstein RB, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Mickalian JD, Kittel L, Samimy-Muzaffar F, Lightfoot MA, Gore-Felton C, Chesney A. Perceived adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005 Feb; 29(2):193-205.
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      80. Hahn JA, Bangsberg DR, McFarland W, Charlebois ED, Clark RA, Moss AR. HIV seroconversion among the homeless and marginally housed in San Francisco: a ten-year study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15; 37(5):1616-9.
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      81. Srikantiah P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Rapid increase in tuberculosis incidence soon after infection with HIV--a new twist in the twin epidemics. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 15; 191(2):147-9.
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      82. Winston LG, Charlebois ED, Pang S, Bangsberg DR, Perdreau-Remington F, Chambers HF. Impact of a formulary switch from ticarcillin-clavulanate to piperacillin-tazobactam on colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Am J Infect Control. 2004 Dec; 32(8):462-9.
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      83. Carleton HA, Diep BA, Charlebois ED, Sensabaugh GF, Perdreau-Remington F. Community-adapted methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): population dynamics of an expanding community reservoir of MRSA. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15; 190(10):1730-8.
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      84. Myers JJ, Steward WT, Charlebois E, Koester KA, Maiorana A, Morin SF. Written clinic procedures enhance delivery of HIV "prevention with positives" counseling in primary health care settings. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 1; 37 Suppl 2:S95-S100.
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      85. Moss AR, Hahn JA, Perry S, Charlebois ED, Guzman D, Clark RA, Bangsberg DR. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the homeless population in San Francisco: a prospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15; 39(8):1190-8.
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      86. Young DM, Harris HW, Charlebois ED, Chambers H, Campbell A, Perdreau-Remington F, Lee C, Mankani M, Mackersie R, Schecter WP. An epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus soft tissue infections among medically underserved patients. Arch Surg. 2004 Sep; 139(9):947-51; discussion 951-3.
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      87. Oyugi JH, Byakika-Tusiime J, Charlebois ED, Kityo C, Mugerwa R, Mugyenyi P, Bangsberg DR. Multiple validated measures of adherence indicate high levels of adherence to generic HIV antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug 15; 36(5):1100-2.
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      88. Holodniy M, Charlebois ED, Bangsberg DR, Zolopa AR, Schulte M, Moss AR. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the HIV-1-infected urban indigent population in San Francisco: a representative study. Int J STD AIDS. 2004 Aug; 15(8):543-51.
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      89. Robertson MJ, Clark RA, Charlebois ED, Tulsky J, Long HL, Bangsberg DR, Moss AR. HIV seroprevalence among homeless and marginally housed adults in San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 2004 Jul; 94(7):1207-17.
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      90. Bangsberg DR, Porco TC, Kagay C, Charlebois ED, Deeks SG, Guzman D, Clark R, Moss A. Modeling the HIV protease inhibitor adherence-resistance curve by use of empirically derived estimates. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 1; 190(1):162-5.
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      91. Kagay CR, Porco TC, Liechty CA, Charlebois E, Clark R, Guzman D, Moss AR, Bangsberg DR. Modeling the impact of modified directly observed antiretroviral therapy on HIV suppression and resistance, disease progression, and death. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 1; 38 Suppl 5:S414-20.
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      92. Charlebois ED, Perdreau-Remington F, Kreiswirth B, Bangsberg DR, Ciccarone D, Diep BA, Ng VL, Chansky K, Edlin BR, Edlin B, Chambers HF. Origins of community strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 1; 39(1):47-54.
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      93. Hall CS, Charlebois ED, Hahn JA, Moss AR, Bangsberg DR. Hepatitis C virus infection in San Francisco's HIV-infected urban poor. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 Apr; 19(4):357-65.
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      94. Giordano TP, Guzman D, Clark R, Charlebois ED, Bangsberg DR. Measuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a diverse population using a visual analogue scale. HIV Clin Trials. 2004 Mar-Apr; 5(2):74-9.
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      95. Porco TC, Martin JN, Page-Shafer KA, Cheng A, Charlebois E, Grant RM, Osmond DH. Decline in HIV infectivity following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2004 Jan 2; 18(1):81-8.
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      96. Liechty CA, Alexander CS, Harrigan PR, Guzman JD, Charlebois ED, Moss AR, Bangsberg DR. Are untimed antiretroviral drug levels useful predictors of adherence behavior? AIDS. 2004 Jan 2; 18(1):127-9.
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      97. Johnson MO, Catz SL, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Morin SF, Charlebois E, Gore-Felton C, Goldsten RB, Wolfe H, Lightfoot M, Chesney MA. Theory-guided, empirically supported avenues for intervention on HIV medication nonadherence: findings from the Healthy Living Project. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Dec; 17(12):645-56.
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      98. Pan ES, Diep BA, Carleton HA, Charlebois ED, Sensabaugh GF, Haller BL, Perdreau-Remington F. Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in California jails. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15; 37(10):1384-8.
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      99. Bangsberg DR, Charlebois ED, Grant RM, Holodniy M, Deeks SG, Perry S, Conroy KN, Clark R, Guzman D, Zolopa A, Moss A. High levels of adherence do not prevent accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations. AIDS. 2003 Sep 5; 17(13):1925-32.
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      100. Winston LG, Bangsberg DR, Chambers HF, Felt SC, Rosen JI, Charlebois ED, Wong M, Steele L, Gerberding JL, Perdreau-Remington F. Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium under a selective isolation policy at an urban county hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2002 Nov; 30(7):400-6.
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      101. Charlebois ED, Bangsberg DR, Moss NJ, Moore MR, Moss AR, Chambers HF, Perdreau-Remington F. Population-based community prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the urban poor of San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 15; 34(4):425-33.
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      102. Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Gasasira A, Ndeezi G, Charlebois ED, Rosenthal PJ. Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001 Aug 4; 358(9279):368-74.
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      103. Bangsberg DR, Perry S, Charlebois ED, Clark RA, Roberston M, Zolopa AR, Moss A. Non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy predicts progression to AIDS. AIDS. 2001 Jun 15; 15(9):1181-3.
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      104. Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Clague H, Charlebois ED, Ciccarone D, Chesney M, Moss A. Provider assessment of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Apr 15; 26(5):435-42.
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      105. Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Charlebois ED, Zolopa AR, Holodniy M, Sheiner L, Bamberger JD, Chesney MA, Moss A. Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population. AIDS. 2000 Mar 10; 14(4):357-66.
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      106. Elbeik T, Charlebois E, Nassos P, Kahn J, Hecht FM, Yajko D, Ng V, Hadley K. Quantitative and cost comparison of ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load assays: Bayer bDNA quantiplex versions 3.0 and 2.0 and Roche PCR Amplicor monitor version 1.5. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Mar; 38(3):1113-20.
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      107. Morin SF, Charlebois ED. Expanding access to early HIV care: new challenges for federal health policy. AIDS Public Policy J. 2000; 15(2):65-74.
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      108. Kohl S, Charlebois ED, Sigouroudinia M, Goldbeck C, Hartog K, Sekulovich RE, Langenberg AG, Burke RL. Limited antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody response induced by a herpes simplex virus type 2 subunit vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):335-9.
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      109. Grant RW, Charlebois ED, Wachter RM. Risk factors for early hospital readmission in patients with AIDS and pneumonia. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Sep; 14(9):531-6.
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      110. Slome LR, Mitchell TF, Charlebois E, Benevedes JM, Abrams DI. Physician-assisted suicide and patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 6; 336(6):417-21.
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      111. Stansell JD, Osmond DH, Charlebois E, LaVange L, Wallace JM, Alexander BV, Glassroth J, Kvale PA, Rosen MJ, Reichman LB, Turner JR, Hopewell PC. Predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected persons. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Jan; 155(1):60-6.
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      112. Osmond DH, Charlebois E, Moss AR. Bias in observational studies of treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 1; 125(11):941.
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      113. Kohl S, Sigaroudinia M, Charlebois ED, Jacobson MA. Interleukin-12 administered in vivo decreases human NK cell cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. J Infect Dis. 1996 Nov; 174(5):1105-8.
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      114. Brosgart CL, Mitchell T, Charlebois E, Coleman R, Mehalko S, Young J, Abrams DI. Off-label drug use in human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 May 1; 12(1):56-62.
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      115. Wachter RM, Luce JM, Safrin S, Berrios DC, Charlebois E, Scitovsky AA. Cost and outcome of intensive care for patients with AIDS, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and severe respiratory failure. JAMA. 1995 Jan 18; 273(3):230-5.
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      116. Northfelt DW, Charlebois ED, Mirda MI, Child C, Kaplan LD, Abrams DI. Continuous low-dose interferon-alpha therapy for HIV-related immune thrombocytopenic purpura. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Jan 1; 8(1):45-50.
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      117. Veugelers PJ, Page KA, Tindall B, Schechter MT, Moss AR, Winkelstein WW, Cooper DA, Craib KJ, Charlebois E, Coutinho RA, et al. Determinants of HIV disease progression among homosexual men registered in the Tricontinental Seroconverter Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Oct 15; 140(8):747-58.
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      118. Jenkins M, Landers D, Williams-Herman D, Wara D, Viscarello RR, Hammill HA, Kline MW, Shearer WT, Charlebois ED, Kohl S. Association between anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody titers at birth and vertical transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug; 170(2):308-12.
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      119. Osmond D, Charlebois E, Lang W, Shiboski S, Moss A. Changes in AIDS survival time in two San Francisco cohorts of homosexual men, 1983 to 1993. JAMA. 1994 Apr 13; 271(14):1083-7.
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      120. Busch MP, Valinsky JE, Paglieroni T, Prince HE, Crutcher GJ, Gjerset GF, Operskalski EA, Charlebois E, Bianco C, Holland PV, et al. Screening of blood donors for idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. Transfusion. 1994 Mar; 34(3):192-7.
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      121. Stanley HD, Charlebois E, Harb G, Jacobson MA. Central venous catheter infections in AIDS patients receiving treatment for cytomegalovirus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994 Mar; 7(3):272-8.
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      122. Veugelers PJ, Schechter MT, Tindall B, Moss AR, Page KA, Craib KJ, Cooper DA, Coutinho RA, Charlebois E, Winkelstein W, et al. Differences in time from HIV seroconversion to CD4+ lymphocyte end-points and AIDS in cohorts of homosexual men. AIDS. 1993 Oct; 7(10):1325-9.
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      123. Sanchez-Pescador L, Pereira L, Charlebois ED, Kohl S. Antibodies to epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B (gB) in human sera: analysis of functional gB epitopes defined by inhibition of murine monoclonal antibodies. J Infect Dis. 1993 Oct; 168(4):844-53.
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      124. Jacobson MA, Yajko D, Northfelt D, Charlebois E, Gary D, Brosgart C, Sanders CA, Hadley WK. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rifampin, ethambutol, and ciprofloxacin for AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jul; 168(1):112-9.
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      125. Sheppard H, Winkelstein W, Lang W, Charlebois E. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jun 24; 328(25):1847-8.
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      126. Osmond DH, Charlebois E, Sheppard HW, Page K, Winkelstein W, Moss AR, Reingold A. Comparison of risk factors for hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection in homosexual men. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jan; 167(1):66-71.
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