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    Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD

    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Biophysics
    Address600 16th Street
    San Francisco CA 94158

       Awards and Honors
      2009Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
      2009Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize

      Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Morris Herztein Professor of Biology and Physiology in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, is a leader in the area of telomere and telomerase research.

      She discovered the molecular nature of telomeres - the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve as protective caps essential for preserving the genetic information - and the ribonucleoprotein enzyme, telomerase. Blackburn and her research team at the University of California, San Francisco are working with various cells including human cells, with the goal of understanding telomerase and telomere biology.

      Blackburn earned her B.Sc. (1970) and M.Sc. (1972) degrees from the University of Melbourne in Australia, and her Ph.D. (1975) from the University of Cambridge in England. She did her postdoctoral work in Molecular and Cellular Biology from 1975 to 1977 at Yale.

      In 1978, Blackburn joined the faculty at the University of California at Berkeley in the Department of Molecular Biology. In 1990, she joined the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UC San Francisco, where she served as Department Chair from 1993 to 1999. Blackburn is currently a faculty member in Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at UCSF. She is also a Non-Resident Fellow of the Salk Institute.

      Throughout her career, Blackburn has been honored by her peers as the recipient of many prestigious awards. She was elected President of the American Society for Cell Biology for the year 1998. Blackburn is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1991), the Royal Society of London (1992), the American Academy of Microbiology (1993), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2000).

      She was elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in 1993, and was elected as a Member of the Institute of Medicine in 2000. She was awarded the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in Basic Medical Research (2006). In 2007 she was named one of TIME Magazine’s 100 Most influential People and she is the 2008 North American Laureate for L’Oreal-UNESCO For Women in Science.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Xie Z, Jay KA, Smith DL, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Zheng J, Tian R, Li H, Blackburn EH. Early telomerase inactivation accelerates aging independently of telomere length. Cell. 2015 Feb 26; 160(5):928-39.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Lindqvist D, Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Reus VI, Burke H, Rosser R, Mahan L, Mackin S, Yang T, Weiner M, Mueller S. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Jan 19.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Entringer S, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Buss C, Simhan HN, Wadhwa PD. Maternal estriol concentrations in early gestation predict infant telomere length. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan; 100(1):267-73.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Fraser JA, Worrall EG, Lin Y, Landre V, Pettersson S, Blackburn E, Walkinshaw M, Muller P, Vojtesek B, Ball K, Hupp TR. Phosphomimetic Mutation of the N-Terminal Lid of MDM2 Enhances the Polyubiquitination of p53 through Stimulation of E2-Ubiquitin Thioester Hydrolysis. J Mol Biol. 2015 Apr 24; 427(8):1728-47.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Zota AR, Needham BL, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Park SK, Rehkopf DH, Epel ES. Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2002. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 15; 181(2):127-36.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Roberts JD, Dewland TA, Longoria J, Fitzpatrick AL, Ziv E, Hu D, Lin J, Glidden DV, Psaty BM, Burchard EG, Blackburn EH, Olgin JE, Heckbert SR, Marcus GM. Telomere length and the risk of atrial fibrillation: insights into the role of biological versus chronological aging. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Dec; 7(6):1026-32.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Leung CW, Laraia BA, Needham BL, Rehkopf DH, Adler NE, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the national health and nutrition examination surveys. Am J Public Health. 2014 Dec; 104(12):2425-31.
        View in: PubMed PMC4229419
      8. Gazzaniga FS, Blackburn EH. An antiapoptotic role for telomerase RNA in human immune cells independent of telomere integrity or telomerase enzymatic activity. Blood. 2014 Dec 11; 124(25):3675-84.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Needham BL, Mezuk B, Bareis N, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr; 20(4):520-8.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Chen SH, Epel ES, Mellon SH, Lin J, Reus VI, Rosser R, Kupferman E, Burke H, Mahan L, Blackburn EH, Wolkowitz OM. Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults. J Affect Disord. 2014 Dec 1; 169:86-90.
        View in: PubMed PMC4172492
      11. Puterman E, Lin J, Krauss J, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Determinants of telomere attrition over 1 year in healthy older women: stress and health behaviors matter. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr; 20(4):529-35.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Jacobs EG, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Rasgon NL. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length, telomerase activity, and hippocampal volume in early aging. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Jul 1; 71(7):921-3.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Chen S, Yeh F, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Lee ET, Howard BV, Zhao J. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 May; 6(5):380-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC4069265
      14. Chen S, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Yeh F, Best LG, Devereux RB, Lee ET, Howard BV, Roman MJ, Zhao J. Short leukocyte telomere length predicts incidence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 May; 6(5):414-27.
        View in: PubMed PMC4069268
      15. Zalli A, Carvalho LA, Lin J, Hamer M, Erusalimsky JD, Blackburn EH, Steptoe A. Shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity are associated with raised allostatic load and impoverished psychosocial resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 25; 111(12):4519-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC3970484
      16. Zhao J, Zhu Y, Uppal K, Tran VT, Yu T, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Jones D, Lee ET, Howard BV. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 Mar; 6(3):176-86.
        View in: PubMed PMC4012935
      17. Rehkopf DH, Dow WH, Rosero-Bixby L, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn EH. Seasonal variation of peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica: A population-based observational study. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 26(3):367-75.
        View in: PubMed PMC4136920
      18. Chae DH, Nuru-Jeter AM, Adler NE, Brody GH, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Discrimination, racial bias, and telomere length in African-American men. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Feb; 46(2):103-11.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Buss J, Havel PJ, Epel E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Daubenmier J. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity? Appetite. 2014 May; 76:84-94.
        View in: PubMed PMC4170078
      20. Chen B, Gilbert LA, Cimini BA, Schnitzbauer J, Zhang W, Li GW, Park J, Blackburn EH, Weissman JS, Qi LS, Huang B. Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system. Cell. 2013 Dec 19; 155(7):1479-91.
        View in: PubMed PMC3918502
      21. Blackburn E. Q&A: Elizabeth Blackburn on telomerase and tumors. Cancer Discov. 2013 Dec; 3(12):1323.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Listerman I, Gazzaniga FS, Blackburn EH. An investigation of the effects of the core protein telomerase reverse transcriptase on Wnt signaling in breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Jan; 34(2):280-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3911296
      23. Ornish D, Lin J, Chan JM, Epel E, Kemp C, Weidner G, Marlin R, Frenda SJ, Magbanua MJ, Daubenmier J, Estay I, Hills NK, Chainani-Wu N, Carroll PR, Blackburn EH. Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer: 5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Oct; 14(11):1112-20.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Zhu Y, Voruganti VS, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Best LG, Lee ET, MacCluer JW, Cole SA, Zhao J. QTL mapping of leukocyte telomere length in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2013 Sep; 5(9):704-16.
        View in: PubMed PMC3808702
      25. Rehkopf DH, Dow WH, Rosero-Bixby L, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn EH. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula: a population-based study. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Nov; 48(11):1266-73.
        View in: PubMed PMC3819141
      26. Zhao J, Zhu Y, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Zhang Y, Cole SA, Best LG, Lee ET, Howard BV. Short leukocyte telomere length predicts risk of diabetes in american indians: the strong heart family study. Diabetes. 2014 Jan; 63(1):354-62.
        View in: PubMed PMC3868043
      27. Puterman E, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Gross JJ, Whooley MA, Cohen BE. Multisystem resiliency moderates the major depression-telomere length association: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Oct; 33:65-73.
        View in: PubMed PMC3855878
      28. Listerman I, Sun J, Gazzaniga FS, Lukas JL, Blackburn EH. The major reverse transcriptase-incompetent splice variant of the human telomerase protein inhibits telomerase activity but protects from apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2013 May 1; 73(9):2817-28.
        View in: PubMed PMC3643995
      29. Blackburn E, Chang J, Hücker M, Holmes AT, Christensen NB, Liang R, Bonn DA, Hardy WN, Rütt U, Gutowski O, von Zimmermann M, Forgan EM, Hayden SM. X-ray diffraction observations of a charge-density-wave order in superconducting ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals in zero magnetic field. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Mar 29; 110(13):137004.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Belin BJ, Cimini BA, Blackburn EH, Mullins RD. Visualization of actin filaments and monomers in somatic cell nuclei. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Apr; 24(7):982-94.
        View in: PubMed PMC3608506
      31. Needham BL, Adler N, Gregorich S, Rehkopf D, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Socioeconomic status, health behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Soc Sci Med. 2013 May; 85:1-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3666871
      32. Jacobs EG, Kroenke C, Lin J, Epel ES, Kenna HA, Blackburn EH, Rasgon NL. Accelerated cell aging in female APOE-e4 carriers: implications for hormone therapy use. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54713.
        View in: PubMed PMC3572118
      33. Dowd JB, Bosch JA, Steptoe A, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Rees-Clayton E, Aiello AE. Cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced telomerase activity in the Whitehall II cohort. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Apr; 48(4):385-90.
        View in: PubMed PMC3626117
      34. Entringer S, Epel ES, Lin J, Buss C, Shahbaba B, Blackburn EH, Simhan HN, Wadhwa PD. Maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with newborn leukocyte telomere length. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb; 208(2):134.e1-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3612534
      35. Bansal N, Whooley MA, Regan M, McCulloch CE, Ix JH, Epel E, Blackburn E, Lin J, Hsu CY. Association between kidney function and telomere length: the heart and soul study. Am J Nephrol. 2012; 36(5):405-11.
        View in: PubMed PMC3552638
      36. Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Telomeres and adversity: Too toxic to ignore. Nature. 2012 Oct 11; 490(7419):169-71.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Beery AK, Lin J, Biddle JS, Francis DD, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Chronic stress elevates telomerase activity in rats. Biol Lett. 2012 Dec 23; 8(6):1063-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3497144
      38. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Epel ES, Belury MA, Andridge R, Lin J, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Hwang BS, Blackburn E. Omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, and leukocyte telomere length: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Feb; 28:16-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC3545053
      39. Armanios M, Blackburn EH. The telomere syndromes. Nat Rev Genet. 2012 Oct; 13(10):693-704.
        View in: PubMed PMC3548426
      40. Adler N, Pantell MS, O'Donovan A, Blackburn E, Cawthon R, Koster A, Opresko P, Newman A, Harris TB, Epel E. Educational attainment and late life telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Jan; 27(1):15-21.
        View in: PubMed PMC3543785
      41. Needham BL, Fernandez JR, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn EH. Socioeconomic status and cell aging in children. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Jun; 74(12):1948-51.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Lavretsky H, Epel ES, Siddarth P, Nazarian N, Cyr NS, Khalsa DS, Lin J, Blackburn E, Irwin MR. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Jan; 28(1):57-65.
        View in: PubMed PMC3423469
      43. O'Donovan A, Tomiyama AJ, Lin J, Puterman E, Adler NE, Kemeny M, Wolkowitz OM, Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Stress appraisals and cellular aging: a key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length. Brain Behav Immun. 2012 May; 26(4):573-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3322317
      44. Daubenmier J, Lin J, Blackburn E, Hecht FM, Kristeller J, Maninger N, Kuwata M, Bacchetti P, Havel PJ, Epel E. Changes in stress, eating, and metabolic factors are related to changes in telomerase activity in a randomized mindfulness intervention pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Jul; 37(7):917-28.
        View in: PubMed PMC3384690
      45. Tomiyama AJ, O'Donovan A, Lin J, Puterman E, Lazaro A, Chan J, Dhabhar FS, Wolkowitz O, Kirschbaum C, Blackburn E, Epel E. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis? An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length. Physiol Behav. 2012 Apr 12; 106(1):40-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3361080
      46. Krauss J, Farzaneh-Far R, Puterman E, Na B, Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Physical fitness and telomere length in patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26983.
        View in: PubMed PMC3212515
      47. Kroenke CH, Pletcher MJ, Lin J, Blackburn E, Adler N, Matthews K, Epel E. Telomerase, telomere length, and coronary artery calcium in black and white men in the CARDIA study. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb; 220(2):506-12.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Prather AA, Puterman E, Lin J, O'Donovan A, Krauss J, Tomiyama AJ, Epel ES, Blackburn EH. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in midlife women with poor sleep quality. J Aging Res. 2011; 2011:721390.
        View in: PubMed PMC3199186
      49. Njajou OT, Cawthon RM, Blackburn EH, Harris TB, Li R, Sanders JL, Newman AB, Nalls M, Cummings SR, Hsueh WC. Shorter telomeres are associated with obesity and weight gain in the elderly. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Sep; 36(9):1176-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3408817
      50. Brydon L, Lin J, Butcher L, Hamer M, Erusalimsky JD, Blackburn EH, Steptoe A. Hostility and cellular aging in men from the Whitehall II cohort. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 May 1; 71(9):767-73.
        View in: PubMed PMC3657139
      51. Blackburn EH. Actuary of the cell. Interview by Thea Singer. Sci Am. 2011 Oct; 305(4):84-7.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Kroenke CH, Epel E, Adler N, Bush NR, Obradovic J, Lin J, Blackburn E, Stamperdahl JL, Boyce WT. Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity and buccal cell telomere length in kindergarten children. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep; 73(7):533-40.
        View in: PubMed PMC3212037
      53. Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging. Mutat Res. 2012 Feb 1; 730(1-2):85-9.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Aviv A, Hunt SC, Lin J, Cao X, Kimura M, Blackburn E. Impartial comparative analysis of measurement of leukocyte telomere length/DNA content by Southern blots and qPCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Nov 1; 39(20):e134.
        View in: PubMed PMC3203599
      55. Entringer S, Epel ES, Kumsta R, Lin J, Hellhammer DH, Blackburn EH, Wüst S, Wadhwa PD. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16; 108(33):E513-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3158153
      56. Blackburn EH. Cancer interception. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jun; 4(6):787-92.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Hoen PW, de Jonge P, Na BY, Farzaneh-Far R, Epel E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Depression and leukocyte telomere length in patients with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep; 73(7):541-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3161173
      58. O'Donovan A, Pantell MS, Puterman E, Dhabhar FS, Blackburn EH, Yaffe K, Cawthon RM, Opresko PL, Hsueh WC, Satterfield S, Newman AB, Ayonayon HN, Rubin SM, Harris TB, Epel ES. Cumulative inflammatory load is associated with short leukocyte telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19687.
        View in: PubMed PMC3094351
      59. Blackburn EH, Collins K. Telomerase: an RNP enzyme synthesizes DNA. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 May; 3(5).
        View in: PubMed PMC3101848
      60. Steptoe A, Hamer M, Butcher L, Lin J, Brydon L, Kivimäki M, Marmot M, Blackburn E, Erusalimsky JD. Educational attainment but not measures of current socioeconomic circumstances are associated with leukocyte telomere length in healthy older men and women. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Oct; 25(7):1292-8.
        View in: PubMed
      61. O'Donovan A, Epel E, Lin J, Wolkowitz O, Cohen B, Maguen S, Metzler T, Lenoci M, Blackburn E, Neylan TC. Childhood trauma associated with short leukocyte telomere length in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 1; 70(5):465-71.
        View in: PubMed PMC3152637
      62. Blackburn EH. Walking the walk from genes through telomere maintenance to cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Apr; 4(4):473-5.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Su Y, Reus VI, Rosser R, Burke HM, Kupferman E, Compagnone M, Nelson JC, Blackburn EH. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings. PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e17837.
        View in: PubMed PMC3063175
      64. Humphreys J, Epel ES, Cooper BA, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Lee KA. Telomere shortening in formerly abused and never abused women. Biol Res Nurs. 2012 Apr; 14(2):115-23.
        View in: PubMed PMC3207021
      65. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Lin J, Reus VI, Rosser R, Burke H, Compagnone M, Nelson JC, Dhabhar FS, Blackburn EH. Resting leukocyte telomerase activity is elevated in major depression and predicts treatment response. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Feb; 17(2):164-72.
        View in: PubMed PMC3130817
      66. Jacobs TL, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Wolkowitz OM, Bridwell DA, Zanesco AP, Aichele SR, Sahdra BK, MacLean KA, King BG, Shaver PR, Rosenberg EL, Ferrer E, Wallace BA, Saron CD. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Jun; 36(5):664-81.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Lin J, Kroenke CH, Epel E, Kenna HA, Wolkowitz OM, Blackburn E, Rasgon NL. Greater endogenous estrogen exposure is associated with longer telomeres in postmenopausal women at risk for cognitive decline. Brain Res. 2011 Mar 16; 1379:224-31.
        View in: PubMed PMC3057451
      68. Blackburn EH. Telomeres and telomerase: the means to the end (Nobel lecture). Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010 Oct 4; 49(41):7405-21.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Njajou OT, Blackburn EH, Pawlikowska L, Mangino M, Damcott CM, Kwok PY, Spector TD, Newman AB, Harris TB, Cummings SR, Cawthon RM, Shuldiner AR, Valdes AM, Hsueh WC. A common variant in the telomerase RNA component is associated with short telomere length. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e13048.
        View in: PubMed PMC2946401
      70. Fraser JA, Madhumalar A, Blackburn E, Bramham J, Walkinshaw MD, Verma C, Hupp TR. A novel p53 phosphorylation site within the MDM2 ubiquitination signal: II. a model in which phosphorylation at SER269 induces a mutant conformation to p53. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 26; 285(48):37773-86.
        View in: PubMed PMC2988382
      71. Williams TL, Levy DL, Maki-Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Blackburn EH. Characterization of the yeast telomere nucleoprotein core: Rap1 binds independently to each recognition site. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 12; 285(46):35814-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC2975205
      72. Stohr BA, Xu L, Blackburn EH. The terminal telomeric DNA sequence determines the mechanism of dysfunctional telomere fusion. Mol Cell. 2010 Jul 30; 39(2):307-14.
        View in: PubMed PMC2920734
      73. Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn E, O'Donovan A, Adler N, Epel E. The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10837.
        View in: PubMed PMC2877102
      74. Gleick PH, Adams RM, Amasino RM, Anders E, Anderson DJ, Anderson WW, Anselin LE, Arroyo MK, Asfaw B, Ayala FJ, Bax A, Bebbington AJ, Bell G, Bennett MV, Bennetzen JL, Berenbaum MR, Berlin OB, Bjorkman PJ, Blackburn E, Blamont JE, Botchan MR, Boyer JS, Boyle EA, Branton D, Briggs SP, Briggs WR, Brill WJ, Britten RJ, Broecker WS, Brown JH, Brown PO, Brunger AT, Cairns J, Canfield DE, Carpenter SR, Carrington JC, Cashmore AR, Castilla JC, Cazenave A, Chapin FS, Ciechanover AJ, Clapham DE, Clark WC, Clayton RN, Coe MD, Conwell EM, Cowling EB, Cowling RM, Cox CS, Croteau RB, Crothers DM, Crutzen PJ, Daily GC, Dalrymple GB, Dangl JL, Darst SA, Davies DR, Davis MB, De Camilli PV, Dean C, DeFries RS, Deisenhofer J, Delmer DP, DeLong EF, DeRosier DJ, Diener TO, Dirzo R, Dixon JE, Donoghue MJ, Doolittle RF, Dunne T, Ehrlich PR, Eisenstadt SN, Eisner T, Emanuel KA, Englander SW, Ernst WG, Falkowski PG, Feher G, Ferejohn JA, Fersht A, Fischer EH, Fischer R, Flannery KV, Frank J, Frey PA, Fridovich I, Frieden C, Futuyma DJ, Gardner WR, Garrett CJ, Gilbert W, Goldberg RB, Goodenough WH, Goodman CS, Goodman M, Greengard P, Hake S, Hammel G, Hanson S, Harrison SC, Hart SR, Hartl DL, Haselkorn R, Hawkes K, Hayes JM, Hille B, Hökfelt T, House JS, Hout M, Hunten DM, Izquierdo IA, Jagendorf AT, Janzen DH, Jeanloz R, Jencks CS, Jury WA, Kaback HR, Kailath T, Kay P, Kay SA, Kennedy D, Kerr A, Kessler RC, Khush GS, Kieffer SW, Kirch PV, Kirk K, Kivelson MG, Klinman JP, Klug A, Knopoff L, Kornberg H, Kutzbach JE, Lagarias JC, Lambeck K, Landy A, Langmuir CH, Larkins BA, Le Pichon XT, Lenski RE, Leopold EB, Levin SA, Levitt M, Likens GE, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Lorand L, Lovejoy CO, Lynch M, Mabogunje AL, Malone TF, Manabe S, Marcus J, Massey DS, McWilliams JC, Medina E, Melosh HJ, Meltzer DJ, Michener CD, Miles EL, Mooney HA, Moore PB, Morel FM, Mosley-Thompson ES, Moss B, Munk WH, Myers N, Nair GB, Nathans J, Nester EW, Nicoll RA, Novick RP, O'Connell JF, Olsen PE, Opdyke ND, Oster GF, Ostrom E, Pace NR, Paine RT, Palmiter RD, Pedlosky J, Petsko GA, Pettengill GH, Philander SG, Piperno DR, Pollard TD, Price PB, Reichard PA, Reskin BF, Ricklefs RE, Rivest RL, Roberts JD, Romney AK, Rossmann MG, Russell DW, Rutter WJ, Sabloff JA, Sagdeev RZ, Sahlins MD, Salmond A, Sanes JR, Schekman R, Schellnhuber J, Schindler DW, Schmitt J, Schneider SH, Schramm VL, Sederoff RR, Shatz CJ, Sherman F, Sidman RL, Sieh K, Simons EL, Singer BH, Singer MF, Skyrms B, Sleep NH, Smith BD, Snyder SH, Sokal RR, Spencer CS, Steitz TA, Strier KB, Südhof TC, Taylor SS, Terborgh J, Thomas DH, Thompson LG, Tjian RT, Turner MG, Uyeda S, Valentine JW, Valentine JS, Van Etten JL, van Holde KE, Vaughan M, Verba S, von Hippel PH, Wake DB, Walker A, Walker JE, Watson EB, Watson PJ, Weigel D, Wessler SR, West-Eberhard MJ, White TD, Wilson WJ, Wolfenden RV, Wood JA, Woodwell GM, Wright HE, Wu C, Wunsch C, Zoback ML. Climate change and the integrity of science. Science. 2010 May 7; 328(5979):689-90.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Blackburn EH, Tlsty TD, Lippman SM. Unprecedented opportunities and promise for cancer prevention research. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Apr; 3(4):394-402.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Blackburn EH. Highlighting the science of cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Apr; 3(4):393.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Worrall EG, Worrall L, Blackburn E, Walkinshaw M, Hupp TR. The effects of phosphomimetic lid mutation on the thermostability of the N-terminal domain of MDM2. J Mol Biol. 2010 May 7; 398(3):414-28.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, Epel ES, Harris WS, Blackburn EH, Whooley MA. Association of marine omega-3 fatty acid levels with telomeric aging in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2010 Jan 20; 303(3):250-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC2819264
      79. Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, Epel E, Lapham K, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Telomere length trajectory and its determinants in persons with coronary artery disease: longitudinal findings from the heart and soul study. PLoS One. 2010; 5(1):e8612.
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      100. Makovets S, Williams TL, Blackburn EH. The telotype defines the telomere state in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is inherited as a dominant non-Mendelian characteristic in cells lacking telomerase. Genetics. 2008 Jan; 178(1):245-57.
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      103. Hsu M, McEachern MJ, Dandjinou AT, Tzfati Y, Orr E, Blackburn EH, Lue NF. Telomerase core components protect Candida telomeres from aberrant overhang accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11682-7.
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      106. Goldkorn A, Blackburn EH. Assembly of mutant-template telomerase RNA into catalytically active telomerase ribonucleoprotein that can act on telomeres is required for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 1; 66(11):5763-71.
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      109. Blackburn EH. Telomerase and Cancer: Kirk A. Landon--AACR prize for basic cancer research lecture. Mol Cancer Res. 2005 Sep; 3(9):477-82.
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      118. Levy DL, Blackburn EH. Counting of Rif1p and Rif2p on Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres regulates telomere length. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec; 24(24):10857-67.
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      119. Rivera MA, Blackburn EH. Processive utilization of the human telomerase template: lack of a requirement for template switching. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 17; 279(51):53770-81.
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      120. Lin J, Ly H, Hussain A, Abraham M, Pearl S, Tzfati Y, Parslow TG, Blackburn EH. A universal telomerase RNA core structure includes structured motifs required for binding the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Oct 12; 101(41):14713-8.
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      121. Nosrati M, Li S, Bagheri S, Ginzinger D, Blackburn EH, Debs RJ, Kashani-Sabet M. Antitumor activity of systemically delivered ribozymes targeting murine telomerase RNA. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1; 10(15):4983-90.
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      122. Li S, Rosenberg JE, Donjacour AA, Botchkina IL, Hom YK, Cunha GR, Blackburn EH. Rapid inhibition of cancer cell growth induced by lentiviral delivery and expression of mutant-template telomerase RNA and anti-telomerase short-interfering RNA. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 15; 64(14):4833-40.
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      123. Makovets S, Herskowitz I, Blackburn EH. Anatomy and dynamics of DNA replication fork movement in yeast telomeric regions. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 May; 24(9):4019-31.
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      127. Lin J, Blackburn EH. Nucleolar protein PinX1p regulates telomerase by sequestering its protein catalytic subunit in an inactive complex lacking telomerase RNA. Genes Dev. 2004 Feb 15; 18(4):387-96.
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      129. Greider CW, Blackburn EH. Tracking telomerase. Cell. 2004 Jan 23; 116(2 Suppl):S83-6, 1 p following S86.
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      130. Lin J, Smith DL, Blackburn EH. Mutant telomere sequences lead to impaired chromosome separation and a unique checkpoint response. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Apr; 15(4):1623-34.
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      131. Seto AG, Umansky K, Tzfati Y, Zaug AJ, Blackburn EH, Cech TR. A template-proximal RNA paired element contributes to Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase activity. RNA. 2003 Nov; 9(11):1323-32.
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      133. Kim M, Xu L, Blackburn EH. Catalytically active human telomerase mutants with allele-specific biological properties. Exp Cell Res. 2003 Aug 15; 288(2):277-87.
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      134. Tzfati Y, Knight Z, Roy J, Blackburn EH. A novel pseudoknot element is essential for the action of a yeast telomerase. Genes Dev. 2003 Jul 15; 17(14):1779-88.
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      135. Chan SW, Blackburn EH. Telomerase and ATM/Tel1p protect telomeres from nonhomologous end joining. Mol Cell. 2003 May; 11(5):1379-87.
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      136. Ly H, Xu L, Rivera MA, Parslow TG, Blackburn EH. A role for a novel 'trans-pseudoknot' RNA-RNA interaction in the functional dimerization of human telomerase. Genes Dev. 2003 May 1; 17(9):1078-83.
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      137. Smith CD, Smith DL, DeRisi JL, Blackburn EH. Telomeric protein distributions and remodeling through the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Feb; 14(2):556-70.
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      138. Comolli LR, Smirnov I, Xu L, Blackburn EH, James TL. A molecular switch underlies a human telomerase disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24; 99(26):16998-7003.
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      139. Seto AG, Livengood AJ, Tzfati Y, Blackburn EH, Cech TR. A bulged stem tethers Est1p to telomerase RNA in budding yeast. Genes Dev. 2002 Nov 1; 16(21):2800-12.
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      140. Rowley JD, Blackburn E, Gazzaniga MS, Foster DW. Harmful moratorium on stem cell research. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589):1957.
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      141. Nautiyal S, DeRisi JL, Blackburn EH. The genome-wide expression response to telomerase deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 9; 99(14):9316-21.
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      142. Chan SW, Blackburn EH. New ways not to make ends meet: telomerase, DNA damage proteins and heterochromatin. Oncogene. 2002 Jan 21; 21(4):553-63.
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      143. McEachern MJ, Underwood DH, Blackburn EH. Dynamics of telomeric DNA turnover in yeast. Genetics. 2002 Jan; 160(1):63-73.
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      144. Cano MI, Blake JJ, Blackburn EH, Agabian N. A Trypanosoma brucei protein complex that binds G-overhangs and co-purifies with telomerase activity. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 11; 277(2):896-906.
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      145. Blackburn EH. Switching and signaling at the telomere. Cell. 2001 Sep 21; 106(6):661-73.
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      146. Chan SW, Chang J, Prescott J, Blackburn EH. Altering telomere structure allows telomerase to act in yeast lacking ATM kinases. Curr Biol. 2001 Aug 21; 11(16):1240-50.
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      147. Kim MM, Rivera MA, Botchkina IL, Shalaby R, Thor AD, Blackburn EH. A low threshold level of expression of mutant-template telomerase RNA inhibits human tumor cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 3; 98(14):7982-7.
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      148. Blackburn EH. Telomere states and cell fates. Nature. 2000 Nov 2; 408(6808):53-6.
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      149. McEachern MJ, Iyer S, Fulton TB, Blackburn EH. Telomere fusions caused by mutating the terminal region of telomeric DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 10; 97(21):11409-14.
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      151. Ware TL, Wang H, Blackburn EH. Three telomerases with completely non-telomeric template replacements are catalytically active. EMBO J. 2000 Jun 15; 19(12):3119-31.
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      155. McEachern MJ, Krauskopf A, Blackburn EH. Telomeres and their control. Annu Rev Genet. 2000; 34:331-358.
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      157. Blackburn E, Gilley D, Ware T, Bhattacharyya A, Kirk K, Wang H. Studying the telomerase RNA in Tetrahymena. Methods Cell Biol. 2000; 62:417-32.
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      158. Hsu HL, Gilley D, Blackburn EH, Chen DJ. Ku is associated with the telomere in mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26; 96(22):12454-8.
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      159. Blackburn E. The telomere and telomerase: how Do they interact? Mt Sinai J Med. 1999 Oct-Nov; 66(5-6):292-300.
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      160. Gilley D, Blackburn EH. The telomerase RNA pseudoknot is critical for the stable assembly of a catalytically active ribonucleoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 8; 96(12):6621-5.
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      161. Prescott JC, Blackburn EH. Telomerase: Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde? Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Jun; 9(3):368-73.
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      162. Smith CD, Blackburn EH. Uncapping and deregulation of telomeres lead to detrimental cellular consequences in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1999 Apr 19; 145(2):203-14.
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      163. Cano MI, Dungan JM, Agabian N, Blackburn EH. Telomerase in kinetoplastid parasitic protozoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30; 96(7):3616-21.
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      164. Zhu J, Wang H, Bishop JM, Blackburn EH. Telomerase extends the lifespan of virus-transformed human cells without net telomere lengthening. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 30; 96(7):3723-8.
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      165. Roy J, Fulton TB, Blackburn EH. Specific telomerase RNA residues distant from the template are essential for telomerase function. Genes Dev. 1998 Oct 15; 12(20):3286-300.
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      167. Fulton TB, Blackburn EH. Identification of Kluyveromyces lactis telomerase: discontinuous synthesis along the 30-nucleotide-long templating domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Sep; 18(9):4961-70.
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      168. Cohen P, Blackburn EH. Two types of telomeric chromatin in Tetrahymena thermophila. J Mol Biol. 1998 Jul 17; 280(3):327-44.
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      170. Gallagher RC, Blackburn EH. A promoter region mutation affecting replication of the Tetrahymena ribosomal DNA minichromosome. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 May; 18(5):3021-33.
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      171. Hiraoka Y, Henderson E, Blackburn EH. Not so peculiar: fission yeast telomere repeats. Trends Biochem Sci. 1998 Apr; 23(4):126.
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      172. Wang H, Gilley D, Blackburn EH. A novel specificity for the primer-template pairing requirement in Tetrahymena telomerase. EMBO J. 1998 Feb 16; 17(4):1152-60.
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      173. Cohn M, McEachern MJ, Blackburn EH. Telomeric sequence diversity within the genus Saccharomyces. Curr Genet. 1998 Feb; 33(2):83-91.
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      174. Prescott J, Blackburn EH. Functionally interacting telomerase RNAs in the yeast telomerase complex. Genes Dev. 1997 Nov 1; 11(21):2790-800.
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      175. Blackburn EH. The telomere and telomerase: nucleic acid-protein complexes acting in a telomere homeostasis system. A review. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1997 Nov; 62(11):1196-201.
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      176. Bhattacharyya A, Blackburn EH. Aspergillus nidulans maintains short telomeres throughout development. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Apr 1; 25(7):1426-31.
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      177. Bhattacharyya A, Blackburn EH. A functional telomerase RNA swap in vivo reveals the importance of nontemplate RNA domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 1; 94(7):2823-7.
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      179. Wang H, Blackburn EH. De novo telomere addition by Tetrahymena telomerase in vitro. EMBO J. 1997 Feb 17; 16(4):866-79.
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      180. Prescott J, Blackburn EH. Telomerase RNA mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alter telomerase action and reveal nonprocessivity in vivo and in vitro. Genes Dev. 1997 Feb 15; 11(4):528-40.
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      190. Pan WJ, Gallagher RC, Blackburn EH. Replication of an rRNA gene origin plasmid in the Tetrahymena thermophila macronucleus is prevented by transcription through the origin from an RNA polymerase I promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Jun; 15(6):3372-81.
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      193. Romero DP, Blackburn EH. Circular rDNA replicons persist in Tetrahymena thermophila transformants synthesizing GGGGTC telomeric repeats. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1995 Jan-Feb; 42(1):32-43.
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      200. Shippen DE, Blackburn EH, Price CM. DNA bound by the Oxytricha telomere protein is accessible to telomerase and other DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jan 4; 91(1):405-9.
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      203. Lundblad V, Blackburn EH. An alternative pathway for yeast telomere maintenance rescues est1- senescence. Cell. 1993 Apr 23; 73(2):347-60.
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      205. Lopatin DE, Blackburn E. Avidity and titer of immunoglobulin G subclasses to Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult periodontitis patients. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1992 Dec; 7(6):332-7.
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      206. Blackburn EH. Telomerases. Annu Rev Biochem. 1992; 61:113-29.
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      207. Yu GL, Blackburn EH. Developmentally programmed healing of chromosomes by telomerase in Tetrahymena. Cell. 1991 Nov 15; 67(4):823-32.
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      208. Romero DP, Blackburn EH. A conserved secondary structure for telomerase RNA. Cell. 1991 Oct 18; 67(2):343-53.
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      209. Blackburn EH. Telomeres. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991 Oct; 16(10):378-81.
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      210. Wyman C, Blackburn EH. Tel-1 transposon-like elements of Tetrahymena thermophila are associated with micronuclear genome rearrangements. Genetics. 1991 Sep; 129(1):57-67.
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      211. Blackburn EH. Structure and function of telomeres. Nature. 1991 Apr 18; 350(6319):569-73.
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      212. Blackburn EH. Telomeres and their synthesis. Science. 1990 Aug 3; 249(4968):489-90.
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      213. Yu GL, Blackburn EH. Amplification of tandemly repeated origin control sequences confers a replication advantage on rDNA replicons in Tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 May; 10(5):2070-80.
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      214. Blackburn EH. Telomeres: structure and synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 15; 265(11):5919-21.
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      215. Yu GL, Bradley JD, Attardi LD, Blackburn EH. In vivo alteration of telomere sequences and senescence caused by mutated Tetrahymena telomerase RNAs. Nature. 1990 Mar 8; 344(6262):126-32.
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      216. Lundblad V, Blackburn EH. RNA-dependent polymerase motifs in EST1: tentative identification of a protein component of an essential yeast telomerase. Cell. 1990 Feb 23; 60(4):529-30.
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      217. Shippen-Lentz D, Blackburn EH. Functional evidence for an RNA template in telomerase. Science. 1990 Feb 2; 247(4942):546-52.
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      218. Blackburn EH. Cell biology: telomeres sans frontières. Nature. 1990 Jan 11; 343(6254):122.
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      219. Blackburn EH. Telomeres and their synthesis. Harvey Lect. 1990-1991; 86:1-18.
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      220. Yu GL, Blackburn EH. Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila with a mutated circular ribosomal DNA plasmid vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov; 86(21):8487-91.
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      221. Robinson EK, Cohen PD, Blackburn EH. A novel DNA deletion-ligation reaction catalyzed in vitro by a developmentally controlled activity from Tetrahymena cells. Cell. 1989 Sep 8; 58(5):887-900.
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      222. Phan HL, Forney J, Blackburn EH. Analysis of Paramecium macronuclear DNA using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. J Protozool. 1989 Jul-Aug; 36(4):402-8.
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      223. Shippen-Lentz D, Blackburn EH. Telomere terminal transferase activity from Euplotes crassus adds large numbers of TTTTGGGG repeats onto telomeric primers. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Jun; 9(6):2761-4.
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      224. Shampay J, Blackburn EH. Tetrahymena micronuclear sequences that function as telomeres in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Apr 25; 17(8):3247-60.
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      225. Yaeger PC, Orias E, Shaiu WL, Larson DD, Blackburn EH. The replication advantage of a free linear rRNA gene is restored by somatic recombination in Tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Feb; 9(2):452-60.
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      226. Greider CW, Blackburn EH. A telomeric sequence in the RNA of Tetrahymena telomerase required for telomere repeat synthesis. Nature. 1989 Jan 26; 337(6205):331-7.
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      227. Blackburn EH, Greider CW, Henderson E, Lee MS, Shampay J, Shippen-Lentz D. Recognition and elongation of telomeres by telomerase. Genome. 1989; 31(2):553-60.
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      228. Henderson ER, Blackburn EH. An overhanging 3' terminus is a conserved feature of telomeres. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Jan; 9(1):345-8.
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      229. Orias E, Larson D, Hu YF, Yu GL, Karttunen J, Løvlie A, Haller B, Blackburn EH. Replacement of the macronuclear ribosomal RNA genes of a mutant Tetrahymena using electroporation. Gene. 1988 Oct 30; 70(2):295-301.
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      230. Yu GL, Hasson M, Blackburn EH. Circular ribosomal DNA plasmids transform Tetrahymena thermophila by homologous recombination with endogenous macronuclear ribosomal DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jul; 85(14):5151-5.
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      231. Spangler EA, Ryan T, Blackburn EH. Developmentally regulated telomere addition in Tetrahymena thermophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jun 24; 16(12):5569-85.
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      232. Shampay J, Blackburn EH. Generation of telomere-length heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan; 85(2):534-8.
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      233. Forney JD, Blackburn EH. Developmentally controlled telomere addition in wild-type and mutant paramecia. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan; 8(1):251-8.
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      234. Henderson E, Hardin CC, Walk SK, Tinoco I, Blackburn EH. Telomeric DNA oligonucleotides form novel intramolecular structures containing guanine-guanine base pairs. Cell. 1987 Dec 24; 51(6):899-908.
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      235. Greider CW, Blackburn EH. The telomere terminal transferase of Tetrahymena is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme with two kinds of primer specificity. Cell. 1987 Dec 24; 51(6):887-98.
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      236. Forney J, Henderson ER, Blackburn EH. Identification of the telomeric sequence of the acellular slime molds Didymium iridis and Physarum polycephalum. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Nov 25; 15(22):9143-52.
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      237. Budarf M, Blackburn E. S1 nuclease sensitivity of a double-stranded telomeric DNA sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Aug 11; 15(15):6273-92.
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      238. Larson DD, Spangler EA, Blackburn EH. Dynamics of telomere length variation in Tetrahymena thermophila. Cell. 1987 Jul 31; 50(3):477-83.
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      239. Larson DD, Blackburn EH, Yaeger PC, Orias E. Control of rDNA replication in Tetrahymena involves a cis-acting upstream repeat of a promoter element. Cell. 1986 Oct 24; 47(2):229-40.
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      240. Challoner PB, Blackburn EH. Conservation of sequences adjacent to the telomeric C4A2 repeats of ciliate macronuclear ribosomal RNA gene molecules. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 11; 14(15):6299-311.
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      241. Budarf ML, Blackburn EH. Chromatin structure of the telomeric region and 3'-nontranscribed spacer of Tetrahymena ribosomal RNA genes. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 5; 261(1):363-9.
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      242. Blackburn EH, Karrer KM. Genomic reorganization in ciliated protozoans. Annu Rev Genet. 1986; 20:501-21.
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      243. Greider CW, Blackburn EH. Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts. Cell. 1985 Dec; 43(2 Pt 1):405-13.
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      244. Cherry JM, Blackburn EH. The internally located telomeric sequences in the germ-line chromosomes of Tetrahymena are at the ends of transposon-like elements. Cell. 1985 Dec; 43(3 Pt 2):747-58.
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      245. Howard EA, Blackburn EH. Reproducible and variable genomic rearrangements occur in the developing somatic nucleus of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Aug; 5(8):2039-50.
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      246. Spangler EA, Blackburn EH. The nucleotide sequence of the 17S ribosomal RNA gene of Tetrahymena thermophila and the identification of point mutations resulting in resistance to the antibiotics paromomycin and hygromycin. J Biol Chem. 1985 May 25; 260(10):6334-40.
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      247. Bruns PJ, Katzen AL, Martin L, Blackburn EH. A drug-resistant mutation in the ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 May; 82(9):2844-6.
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      248. Challoner PB, Amin AA, Pearlman RE, Blackburn EH. Conserved arrangements of repeated DNA sequences in nontranscribed spacers of ciliate ribosomal RNA genes: evidence for molecular coevolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Apr 11; 13(7):2661-80.
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      249. Shampay J, Szostak JW, Blackburn EH. DNA sequences of telomeres maintained in yeast. Nature. 1984 Jul 12-18; 310(5973):154-7.
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      250. Blackburn EH. Telomeres: do the ends justify the means? Cell. 1984 May; 37(1):7-8.
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      251. Blackburn EH, Challoner PB. Identification of a telomeric DNA sequence in Trypanosoma brucei. Cell. 1984 Feb; 36(2):447-57.
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      252. Blackburn EH. The molecular structure of centromeres and telomeres. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984; 53:163-94.
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      253. Blackburn EH, Pan WC, Johnson CC. Methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Aug 11; 11(15):5131-45.
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      254. Blackburn EH, Budarf ML, Challoner PB, Cherry JM, Howard EA, Katzen AL, Pan WC, Ryan T. DNA termini in ciliate macronuclei. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983; 47 Pt 2:1195-207.
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      255. Szostak JW, Blackburn EH. Cloning yeast telomeres on linear plasmid vectors. Cell. 1982 May; 29(1):245-55.
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      256. Pan WC, Orias E, Flacks M, Blackburn EH. Allele-specific, selective amplification of a ribosomal RNA gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. Cell. 1982 Mar; 28(3):595-604.
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      257. Yao MC, Blackburn E, Gall J. Tandemly repeated C-C-C-C-A-A hexanucleotide of Tetrahymena rDNA is present elsewhere in the genome and may be related to the alteration of the somatic genome. J Cell Biol. 1981 Aug; 90(2):515-20.
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      258. Katzen AL, Cann GM, Blackburn EH. Sequence-specific fragmentation of macronuclear DNA in a holotrichous ciliate. Cell. 1981 May; 24(2):313-20.
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      259. Blackburn EH, Chiou SS. Non-nucleosomal packaging of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence at termini of extrachromosomal DNA coding for rRNA in Tetrahymena. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr; 78(4):2263-7.
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      260. Pan WC, Blackburn EH. Single extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA gene copies are synthesized during amplification of the rDNA in Tetrahymena. Cell. 1981 Feb; 23(2):459-66.
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      261. Yao MC, Blackburn E, Gall JG. Amplification of the rRNA genes in Tetrahymena. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979; 43 Pt 2:1293-6.
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      262. Blackburn EH, Gall JG. A tandemly repeated sequence at the termini of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena. J Mol Biol. 1978 Mar 25; 120(1):33-53.
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      263. Air GM, Blackburn EH, Coulson AR, Galibert F, Sanger F, Sedat JW, Ziff EB. Gene F of bacteriophage phiX174. Correlation of nucleotide sequences from the DNA and amino acid sequences from the gene product. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov 15; 107(4):445-58.
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      264. Blackburn EH. Transcription and sequence analysis of a fragment of bacteriophage phiX174 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov 15; 107(4):417-31.
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      265. Air GM, Blackburn EH, Sanger F, Coulson AR. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the N (5') terminal region of gene G of bacteriophage phiphiX 174. J Mol Biol. 1975 Aug 25; 96(4):703-19.
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      266. Blackburn EH. Transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase of a single-stranded fragment by bacteriophage phiX174 DNA 48 residues in length. J Mol Biol. 1975 Apr 15; 93(3):367-74.
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