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    Robert Bok, MD, PhD

    TitleAssistant Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentRadiology
    Address1700 4th Street
    San Francisco CA 94158
    Phone415-514-4873

       Biography 
       Awards and Honors
      UCSF Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center2011Executive Committee Member
      Prostate Cancer Foundation2006Research Award
      University of Illinois, Urbana1980Fellowship Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      Robert Bok, MD, PhD, is an Assistant Adjunct Professor in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and the Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Bok obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1984, and he earned his MD in Medicine from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore in 1989. He completed his residency in Internal Medicine from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1992, followed by a fellowship in Hematology-Oncology from UCSF in 1996.

      At the UCSF Mission Bay Surbeck Laboratory, Dr. Bok provides physician coverage for research on MRI/MRSI scans performed on patients. Dr. Bok’s research activities focuses on the development of better molecular imaging methods for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer. His primary interest is on the use of pre-clinical animal models to improve recent advances in MRSI for prostate cancer. This includes hyperpolarized carbon-13 techniques, high-resolution magic angle spectroscopy, and the use of novel nanoparticles. Dr. Bok and his colleagues are also investigating the use of hyperpolarized 13C-pryuvate in a transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer known as Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP).

      Dr. Bok is a current member of the American Association of Cancer Research, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Association of North California Oncologists, and the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. He has 49 published articles and he has written 53 peer-reviewed articles and 62 abstracts.

      Expertise:
      Oncology

      Specialty:
      Prostate cancer, TRAMP, nanoparticles

      Professional Interests:
      Prostate cancer, urologic oncology, molecular imaging, hyperpolarized carbon-13 spectroscopy, high-resolution magic-angle spin spectroscopy, transgenic cancer models, extracellular proteases, metastases, molecular biomarkers

      Education and Training:
      • Medical School: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore - Medicine
      • Internship: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
      • Residency: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
      • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Hematology-Oncology
      • Doctor of Philosophy: University of Illinois, Urbana - Biochemistry
      • Medical License, State of California
      • ABIM, Board Certification in Internal Medicine
      • ABIM, Board Certification in Medical Oncology
      • ACLS Certification

       Interests
      Prostate cancer, urologic oncology, molecular imaging, hyperpolarized carbon-13 spectroscopy, high-resolution magic-angle spin spectroscopy, transgenic cancer models, extracellular proteases, metastases, molecular biomarkers.

       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       More Info

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Park I, Larson PE, Tropp JL, Carvajal L, Reed G, Bok R, Robb F, Bringas J, Kells A, Pivirotto P, Bankiewicz K, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Dynamic hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR metabolic imaging of nonhuman primate brain. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):19-25.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Reed GD, von Morze C, Bok R, Koelsch BL, Van Criekinge M, Smith KJ. High resolution (13)c MRI with hyperpolarized urea: in vivo t2 mapping and (15)n labeling effects. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2014 Feb; 33(2):362-71.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Larson PE, Harzstark AL, Ferrone M, van Criekinge M, Chang JW, Bok R, Park I, Reed G, Carvajal L, Small EJ, Munster P, Weinberg VK, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Chen AP, Hurd RE, Odegardstuen LI, Robb FJ, Tropp J, Murray JA. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Aug 14; 5(198):198ra108.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Swisher CL, Larson PE, Kruttwig K, Kerr AB, Hu S, Bok RA, Goga A, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Quantitative measurement of cancer metabolism using stimulated echo hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRS. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):1-11.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Ohliger MA, Larson PE, Bok RA, Shin P, Hu S, Tropp J, Robb F, Carvajal L, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Combined parallel and partial fourier MR reconstruction for accelerated 8-channel hyperpolarized carbon-13 in vivo magnetic resonance Spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep; 38(3):701-13.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Larson PE, Hurd RE, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Bok RA, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Perfusion and diffusion sensitive 13C stimulated-echo MRSI for metabolic imaging of cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Jun; 31(5):635-42.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hu S, Larson PE, Vancriekinge M, Leach AM, Park I, Leon C, Zhou J, Shin PJ, Reed G, Keselman P, von Morze C, Yoshihara H, Bok RA, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Rapid sequential injections of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in vivo using a sub-kelvin, multi-sample DNP polarizer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 May; 31(4):490-6.
        View in: PubMed
      8. von Morze C, Sukumar S, Reed GD, Larson PE, Bok RA, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Frequency-specific SSFP for hyperpolarized ¹³C metabolic imaging at 14.1 T. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Feb; 31(2):163-70.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Park I, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Ito M, Mukherjee J, Phillips JJ, James CD, Pieper RO, Ronen SM, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Evaluation of heterogeneous metabolic profile in an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model using compressed sensing hyperpolarized 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2013 Jul; 70(1):33-9.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok R, Zhou J, Zhu M, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Use of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate to probe the effects of the anticancer agent dichloroacetate on mitochondrial metabolism in vivo in the normal rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Dec; 30(10):1367-72.
        View in: PubMed
      11. von Morze C, Bok RA, Sands JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Monitoring urea transport in rat kidney in vivo using hyperpolarized ¹³C magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Jun 15; 302(12):F1658-62.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Reed GD, Larson PE, Morze Cv, Bok R, Lustig M, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. A method for simultaneous echo planar imaging of hyperpolarized ¹³C pyruvate and ¹³C lactate. J Magn Reson. 2012 Apr; 217:41-7.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Costello LC, Franklin RB, Zou J, Feng P, Bok R, Swanson MG, Kurhanewicz J. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Dec 15; 12(12):1078-84.
        View in: PubMed
      14. von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok RA, Goga A, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Vigneron DB. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized (13)C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Apr; 30(3):305-11.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Keshari KR, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Larson PE, Vigneron DB, Wilson DM. Hyperpolarized 13C dehydroascorbate as an endogenous redox sensor for in vivo metabolic imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 15; 108(46):18606-11.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Hu S, Zhu M, Yoshihara HA, Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Shin P, Reed G, von Morze C, Bok R, Larson PE, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo measurement of normal rat intracellular pyruvate and lactate levels after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]alanine. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Oct; 29(8):1035-40.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Hu S, Balakrishnan A, Bok RA, Anderton B, Larson PE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Goga A. 13C-pyruvate imaging reveals alterations in glycolysis that precede c-Myc-induced tumor formation and regression. Cell Metab. 2011 Jul 6; 14(1):131-42.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Park I, Bok R, Ozawa T, Phillips JJ, James CD, Vigneron DB, Ronen SM, Nelson SJ. Detection of early response to temozolomide treatment in brain tumors using hyperpolarized 13C MR metabolic imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Jun; 33(6):1284-90.
        View in: PubMed
      19. von Morze C, Reed G, Shin P, Larson PE, Hu S, Bok R, Vigneron DB. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. J Magn Reson. 2011 Aug; 211(2):109-13.
        View in: PubMed
      20. von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Keshari K, Wilson DM, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Goga A, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Imaging of blood flow using hyperpolarized [(13)C]urea in preclinical cancer models. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Mar; 33(3):692-7.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Tropp J, Lupo JM, Chen A, Calderon P, McCune D, Grafendorfer T, Ozturk-Isik E, Larson PE, Hu S, Yen YF, Robb F, Bok R, Schulte R, Xu D, Hurd R, Vigneron D, Nelson S. Multi-channel metabolic imaging, with SENSE reconstruction, of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate in a live rat at 3.0 tesla on a clinical MR scanner. J Magn Reson. 2011 Jan; 208(1):171-7.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Hurd RE, Yen YF, Mayer D, Chen A, Wilson D, Kohler S, Bok R, Vigneron D, Kurhanewicz J, Tropp J, Spielman D, Pfefferbaum A. Metabolic imaging in the anesthetized rat brain using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate and [1-13C] ethyl pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2010 May; 63(5):1137-43.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Larson PE, Chen AP, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Multi-compound polarization by DNP allows simultaneous assessment of multiple enzymatic activities in vivo. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jul; 205(1):141-7.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Larson PE, Bok R, Kerr AB, Lustig M, Hu S, Chen AP, Nelson SJ, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Investigation of tumor hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate dynamics using time-resolved multiband RF excitation echo-planar MRSI. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Mar; 63(3):582-91.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Hu S, Lustig M, Balakrishnan A, Larson PE, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Nelson SJ, Goga A, Pauly JM, Vigneron DB. 3D compressed sensing for highly accelerated hyperpolarized (13)C MRSI with in vivo applications to transgenic mouse models of cancer. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Feb; 63(2):312-21.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Park I, Larson PE, Zierhut ML, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Vandenberg SR, James CD, Nelson SJ. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance metabolic imaging: application to brain tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):133-44.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Keshari KR, Wilson DM, Chen AP, Bok R, Larson PE, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized [2-13C]-fructose: a hemiketal DNP substrate for in vivo metabolic imaging. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 9; 131(48):17591-6.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Zierhut ML, Yen YF, Chen AP, Bok R, Albers MJ, Zhang V, Tropp J, Park I, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jan; 202(1):85-92.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Lupo JM, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok RA, Cunningham CH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Analysis of hyperpolarized dynamic 13C lactate imaging in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Feb; 28(2):153-62.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Yen YF, Kohler SJ, Chen AP, Tropp J, Bok R, Wolber J, Albers MJ, Gram KA, Zierhut ML, Park I, Zhang V, Hu S, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Dirven HA, Hurd RE. Imaging considerations for in vivo 13C metabolic mapping using hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2009 Jul; 62(1):1-10.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Hu S, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok R, Yen YF, Schroeder MA, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo carbon-13 dynamic MRS and MRSI of normal and fasted rat liver with hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Mol Imaging Biol. 2009 Nov-Dec; 11(6):399-407.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Albers MJ, Bok R, Chen AP, Cunningham CH, Zierhut ML, Zhang VY, Kohler SJ, Tropp J, Hurd RE, Yen YF, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized 13C lactate, pyruvate, and alanine: noninvasive biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and grading. Cancer Res. 2008 Oct 15; 68(20):8607-15.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Chen AP, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Xu D, Joun D, Zhang V, Nelson SJ, Hurd RE, Vigneron DB. Feasibility of using hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate as a substrate for in vivo metabolic 13C MRSI studies. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jul; 26(6):721-6.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB. Current and potential applications of clinical 13C MR spectroscopy. J Nucl Med. 2008 Mar; 49(3):341-4.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Bok RA. Treatment of prostate cancer: therapeutic potential of targeted immunotherapy with APC8015. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb; 4(1):79-85.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Chen AP, Albers MJ, Cunningham CH, Kohler SJ, Yen YF, Hurd RE, Tropp J, Bok R, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized C-13 spectroscopic imaging of the TRAMP mouse at 3T-initial experience. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Dec; 58(6):1099-106.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Kohler SJ, Yen Y, Wolber J, Chen AP, Albers MJ, Bok R, Zhang V, Tropp J, Nelson S, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Hurd RE. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Jul; 58(1):65-9.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Dunlap S, Elchinoff A, Yu N, Bok R, Simko J, Small EJ. Maximal COX-2 immunostaining and clinical response to celecoxib and interferon alpha therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Feb 1; 106(3):566-75.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Weinberg V, Jones G, Rini BI, Derynck MK, Bok R, Smith MR, Bubley GJ, Rosen RT, DiPaola RS, Small EJ. Prospective, multicenter, randomized phase II trial of the herbal supplement, PC-SPES, and diethylstilbestrol in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Sep 15; 22(18):3705-12.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Shaw V, Scott J, Bok R, Park JW, Small EJ. Time to disease progression to evaluate a novel protein kinase C inhibitor, UCN-01, in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Jul 1; 101(1):90-5.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Evangelou AI, Winter SF, Huss WJ, Bok RA, Greenberg NM. Steroid hormones, polypeptide growth factors, hormone refractory prostate cancer, and the neuroendocrine phenotype. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Mar 1; 91(4):671-83.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Sákra L, Siller J, Vyhnálek P, Bok R, Havlícek K, Janousek R. [Complications after ERCP and their treatment]. Rozhl Chir. 2003 Jul; 82(7):361-4.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Bok RA, Hansell EJ, Nguyen TP, Greenberg NM, McKerrow JH, Shuman MA. Patterns of protease production during prostate cancer progression: proteomic evidence for cascades in a transgenic model. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2003; 6(4):272-80.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with serologic progression of prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 1; 21(1):99-105.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Bok RA, Small EJ. Bloodborne biomolecular markers in prostate cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Dec; 2(12):918-26.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Harris KA, Weinberg V, Bok RA, Kakefuda M, Small EJ. Low dose ketoconazole with replacement doses of hydrocortisone in patients with progressive androgen independent prostate cancer. J Urol. 2002 Aug; 168(2):542-5.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Elfman F, Bok R, Conn M, Shuman M, Cunha G. Urokinase plasminogen activator amino-terminal peptides inhibit development of the rat ventral prostate. Differentiation. 2001 Dec; 69(2-3):108-20.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Small EJ, Bok R, Reese DM, Sudilovsky D, Frohlich M. Docetaxel, estramustine, plus trastuzumab in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. Semin Oncol. 2001 Aug; 28(4 Suppl 15):71-6.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Bok RA, Halabi S, Fei DT, Rodriquez CR, Hayes DF, Vogelzang NJ, Kantoff P, Shuman MA, Small EJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor urine levels as predictors of outcome in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Cancer Res. 2001 Mar 15; 61(6):2533-6.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Small EJ, Frohlich MW, Bok R, Shinohara K, Grossfeld G, Rozenblat Z, Kelly WK, Corry M, Reese DM. Prospective trial of the herbal supplement PC-SPES in patients with progressive prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Nov 1; 18(21):3595-603.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Bok RA, Small EJ. The treatment of advanced prostate cancer with ketoconazole: safety issues. Drug Saf. 1999 May; 20(5):451-8.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Small EJ, Baron A, Bok R. Simultaneous antiandrogen withdrawal and treatment with ketoconazole and hydrocortisone in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 1997 Nov 1; 80(9):1755-9.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Bok RA, Jacob HS, Balla J, Juckett M, Stella T, Shatos MA, Vercellotti GM. Herpes simplex virus decreases endothelial cell plasminogen activator inhibitor. Thromb Haemost. 1993 Mar 1; 69(3):253-8.
        View in: PubMed
      54. de Brauw LM, van de Velde CJ, Pauwels EK, Bok R, Bloem JL, Aarts JC, Hermans J. Hepatic metastases: comparative study of diagnostic ultrasound, CT, nuclear scintigraphy and laboratory tests. Neth J Surg. 1991 Aug; 43(4):92-4.
        View in: PubMed
      55. de Brauw LM, van de Velde CJ, Pauwels EK, Bok R, Bloem JL, Aarts JC, Hermans J. Prospective comparative study of ultrasound, CT-scan, scintigraphy and laboratory tests to detect hepatic metastases. J Nucl Biol Med. 1991 Jul-Sep; 35(3):131-4.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Tamargo RJ, Bok RA, Brem H. Angiogenesis inhibition by minocycline. Cancer Res. 1991 Jan 15; 51(2):672-5.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Bok RA, Mangel WF. Quantitative characterization of the binding of plasminogen to intact fibrin clots, lysine-sepharose, and fibrin cleaved by plasmin. Biochemistry. 1985 Jun 18; 24(13):3279-86.
        View in: PubMed
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