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Robert Bok, MD, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentRadiology
Address1700 4th St
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-514-4873
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    UCSF Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center2011Executive Committee Member
    Prostate Cancer Foundation2006Research Award
    University of Illinois, Urbana1980Fellowship Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Robert Bok, MD, PhD, is an Associate Adjunct Professor in the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and the Hyperpolarized MRI Technology Resource Center at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Bok obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1984, and he earned his MD in Medicine from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore in 1989. He completed his residency in Internal Medicine from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis in 1992, followed by a fellowship in Hematology-Oncology from UCSF in 1996.

    At the UCSF Mission Bay Surbeck Laboratory, Dr. Bok provides physician coverage for research on MRI/MRSI scans performed on patients. Dr. Bok’s research activities focuses on the development of better molecular imaging methods for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer. His primary interest is on the use of pre-clinical animal models to improve recent advances in MRSI for prostate cancer. This includes hyperpolarized carbon-13 techniques, high-resolution magic angle spectroscopy, and the use of novel nanoparticles. Dr. Bok and his colleagues are also investigating the use of hyperpolarized 13C-pryuvate in a transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer known as Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP).

    Dr. Bok is a current member of the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, the CALGB, the Association of Northern California Oncologists, the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and the World Molecular Imaging Society. He has 60 published science articles and he has written 53 peer-reviewed articles and 90 abstracts.

    Expertise:
    Oncology

    Specialty:
    Prostate cancer, TRAMP, nanoparticles

    Professional Interests:
    Prostate cancer, urologic oncology, molecular imaging, hyperpolarized carbon-13 spectroscopy, high-resolution magic-angle spin spectroscopy, transgenic cancer models, extracellular proteases, metastases, molecular biomarkers

    Education and Training:
    • Medical School: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore - Medicine
    • Internship: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
    • Residency: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis - Internal Medicine
    • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Hematology-Oncology
    • Doctor of Philosophy: University of Illinois, Urbana - Biochemistry
    • Medical License, State of California
    • ABIM, Board Certification in Internal Medicine
    • ABIM, Board Certification in Medical Oncology
    • ACLS Certification


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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Taglang C, Korenchan DE, von Morze C, Yu J, Najac C, Wang S, Blecha JE, Subramaniam S, Bok R, VanBrocklin HF, Vigneron DB, Ronen SM, Sriram R, Kurhanewicz J, Wilson DM, Flavell RR. Late-stage deuteration of 13C-enriched substrates for T1 prolongation in hyperpolarized 13C MRI. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018 May 17; 54(41):5233-5236. PMID: 29726563.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Chen HY, Larson PEZ, Gordon JW, Bok R, Ferrone M, van Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Cao P, Pauly JM, Kerr AB, Park I, Slater JB, Nelson SJ, Munster PN, Aggarwal R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer. Magn Reson Med. 2018 Mar 25. PMID: 29575178.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Park I, Larson PEZ, Gordon JW, Carvajal L, Chen HY, Bok R, Van Criekinge M, Ferrone M, Slater JB, Xu D, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Chang S, Nelson SJ. Development of methods and feasibility of using hyperpolarized carbon-13 imaging data for evaluating brain metabolism in patient studies. Magn Reson Med. 2018 Jan 10. PMID: 29322616.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Shin PJ, Zhu Z, Camarda R, Bok R, Zhou AY, Kurhanewicz J, Goga A, Vigneron DB. Cancer recurrence monitoring using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolic imaging in murine breast cancer model. Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Nov; 43:105-109. PMID: 28716678.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Chen HY, Larson PEZ, Bok R, von Morze C, Sriram R, Delos Santos R, Delos Santos J, Gordon JW, Bahrami N, Ferrone M, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Assessing Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness with Hyperpolarized Dual-Agent 3D Dynamic Imaging of Metabolism and Perfusion. Cancer Res. 2017 06 15; 77(12):3207-3216. PMID: 28428273.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Wilson DM, Di Gialleonardo V, Wang ZJ, Carroll V, Von Morze C, Taylor A, Sai V, VanCriekinge M, Bok R, Ohliger MA, Keshari KR. Hyperpolarized 13C Spectroscopic Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in a Rodent Model of Steatohepatitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 20; 7:46014. PMID: 28425467.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Marco-Rius I, Gordon JW, Mattis AN, Bok R, Delos Santos R, Sukumar S, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB, Ohliger MA. Diffusion-weighted imaging of hyperpolarized [13 C]urea in mouse liver. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Jan; 47(1):141-151. PMID: 28419644.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Milshteyn E, von Morze C, Reed GD, Shang H, Shin PJ, Zhu Z, Chen HY, Bok R, Goga A, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PE, Vigneron DB. Development of high resolution 3D hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR molecular imaging techniques. Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 05; 38:152-162. PMID: 28077268.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Marco-Rius I, von Morze C, Sriram R, Cao P, Chang GY, Milshteyn E, Bok R, Ohliger MA, Pearce D, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PE, Vigneron DB, Merritt M. Monitoring acute metabolic changes in the liver and kidneys induced by fructose and glucose using hyperpolarized [2-13 C]dihydroxyacetone. Magn Reson Med. 2017 Jan; 77(1):65-73. PMID: 27859575.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Shang H, Sukumar S, von Morze C, Bok R, Marco-Rius I, Kerr A, Reed GD, Milshteyn E, Ohliger MA, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ, Pauly JM, Vigneron DB. Spectrally selective three-dimensional dynamic balanced steady-state free precession for hyperpolarized C-13 metabolic imaging with spectrally selective radiofrequency pulses. Magn Reson Med. 2017 Sep; 78(3):963-975. PMID: 27770458.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ohliger MA, von Morze C, Marco-Rius I, Gordon J, Larson PEZ, Bok R, Chen HY, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron D. Combining hyperpolarized 13 C MRI with a liver-specific gadolinium contrast agent for selective assessment of hepatocyte metabolism. Magn Reson Med. 2017 Jun; 77(6):2356-2363. PMID: 27298073.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Reed GD, von Morze C, Verkman AS, Koelsch BL, Chaumeil MM, Lustig M, Ronen SM, Bok R, Sands JM, Larson PE, Wang ZJ, Larsen JH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry. Tomography. 2016 Jun; 2(2):125-135. PMID: 27570835.
      View in: PubMed
    13. von Morze C, Chang GY, Larson PE, Shang H, Allu PK, Bok R, Crane JC, Olson MP, Tan CT, Marco-Rius I, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Pearce D, Vigneron DB. Detection of localized changes in the metabolism of hyperpolarized gluconeogenic precursors 13 C-lactate and 13 C-pyruvate in kidney and liver. Magn Reson Med. 2017 Apr; 77(4):1429-1437. PMID: 27098724.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Chen Y, Kim H, Bok R, Sukumar S, Mu X, Sheldon RA, Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM, Xu D. Pyruvate to Lactate Metabolic Changes during Neurodevelopment Measured Dynamically Using Hyperpolarized 13C Imaging in Juvenile Murine Brain. Dev Neurosci. 2016; 38(1):34-40. PMID: 26550989; PMCID: PMC4732911 [Available on 01/01/17].
    15. Flavell RR, von Morze C, Blecha JE, Korenchan DE, Van Criekinge M, Sriram R, Gordon JW, Chen HY, Subramaniam S, Bok R, Wang ZJ, Vigneron DB, Larson PE, Kurhanewicz J, Wilson DM. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C MRI. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Sep 25; 51(74):14119-22. PMID: 26257040; PMCID: PMC4854286.
    16. von Morze C, Bok R, Ohliger MA, Zhu Z, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized [(13)C]ketobutyrate, a molecular analog of pyruvate with modified specificity for LDH isoforms. Magn Reson Med. 2016 May; 75(5):1894-900. PMID: 26059096; PMCID: PMC4868134 [Available on 05/01/17].
    17. Koelsch BL, Reed GD, Keshari KR, Chaumeil MM, Bok R, Ronen SM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ. Rapid in vivo apparent diffusion coefficient mapping of hyperpolarized (13) C metabolites. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Sep; 74(3):622-633. PMID: 25213126; PMCID: PMC4362805.
    18. Keshari KR, Wilson DM, Sai V, Bok R, Jen KY, Larson P, Van Criekinge M, Kurhanewicz J, Wang ZJ. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress and response to therapy using hyperpolarized 13C dehydroascorbate magnetic resonance. Diabetes. 2015 Feb; 64(2):344-52. PMID: 25187363; PMCID: PMC4303960.
    19. Tang S, Jiang W, Chen HY, Bok R, Vigneron DB, Larson PE. A 2DRF pulse sequence for bolus tracking in hyperpolarized 13C imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Aug; 74(2):506-12. PMID: 25154961; PMCID: PMC4336852.
    20. von Morze C, Bok R, Reed GD, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Simultaneous multiagent hyperpolarized (13)C perfusion imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Dec; 72(6):1599-609. PMID: 24382698; PMCID: PMC4077988.
    21. Park I, Larson PE, Tropp JL, Carvajal L, Reed G, Bok R, Robb F, Bringas J, Kells A, Pivirotto P, Bankiewicz K, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Dynamic hyperpolarized carbon-13 MR metabolic imaging of nonhuman primate brain. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):19-25. PMID: 24346964; PMCID: PMC4041734.
    22. Reed GD, von Morze C, Bok R, Koelsch BL, Van Criekinge M, Smith KJ. High resolution (13)C MRI with hyperpolarized urea: in vivo T(2) mapping and (15)N labeling effects. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2014 Feb; 33(2):362-71. PMID: 24235273; PMCID: PMC4011557.
    23. Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Larson PE, Harzstark AL, Ferrone M, van Criekinge M, Chang JW, Bok R, Park I, Reed G, Carvajal L, Small EJ, Munster P, Weinberg VK, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Chen AP, Hurd RE, Odegardstuen LI, Robb FJ, Tropp J, Murray JA. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Aug 14; 5(198):198ra108. PMID: 23946197.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Swisher CL, Larson PE, Kruttwig K, Kerr AB, Hu S, Bok R, Goga A, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Quantitative measurement of cancer metabolism using stimulated echo hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRS. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jan; 71(1):1-11. PMID: 23412881; PMCID: PMC3659200.
    25. Ohliger MA, Larson PE, Bok R, Shin P, Hu S, Tropp J, Robb F, Carvajal L, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Combined parallel and partial fourier MR reconstruction for accelerated 8-channel hyperpolarized carbon-13 in vivo magnetic resonance Spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep; 38(3):701-13. PMID: 23293097; PMCID: PMC3759833.
    26. Larson PE, Hurd RE, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Perfusion and diffusion sensitive 13C stimulated-echo MRSI for metabolic imaging of cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Jun; 31(5):635-42. PMID: 23260391; PMCID: PMC3626756.
    27. Hu S, Larson PE, Vancriekinge M, Leach AM, Park I, Leon C, Zhou J, Shin PJ, Reed G, Keselman P, von Morze C, Yoshihara H, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Rapid sequential injections of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in vivo using a sub-kelvin, multi-sample DNP polarizer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 May; 31(4):490-6. PMID: 23107275; PMCID: PMC3625683.
    28. von Morze C, Sukumar S, Reed GD, Larson PE, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Frequency-specific SSFP for hyperpolarized ¹³C metabolic imaging at 14.1 T. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Feb; 31(2):163-70. PMID: 22898680; PMCID: PMC3651030.
    29. Park I, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Ito M, Mukherjee J, Phillips JJ, James CD, Pieper RO, Ronen SM, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Evaluation of heterogeneous metabolic profile in an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model using compressed sensing hyperpolarized 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2013 Jul; 70(1):33-9. PMID: 22851374; PMCID: PMC3630274.
    30. Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok R, Zhou J, Zhu M, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Use of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate to probe the effects of the anticancer agent dichloroacetate on mitochondrial metabolism in vivo in the normal rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Dec; 30(10):1367-72. PMID: 22819176; PMCID: PMC3480972.
    31. von Morze C, Bok R, Sands JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Monitoring urea transport in rat kidney in vivo using hyperpolarized ¹³C magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 Jun 15; 302(12):F1658-62. PMID: 22492940; PMCID: PMC3378100.
    32. Reed GD, Larson PE, Morze Cv, Bok R, Lustig M, Kerr AB, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. A method for simultaneous echo planar imaging of hyperpolarized ¹³C pyruvate and ¹³C lactate. J Magn Reson. 2012 Apr; 217:41-7. PMID: 22405760; PMCID: PMC3326401.
    33. Costello LC, Franklin RB, Zou J, Feng P, Bok R, Swanson MG, Kurhanewicz J. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Dec 15; 12(12):1078-84. PMID: 22156800; PMCID: PMC3335941.
    34. von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Yoshihara HA, Bok R, Goga A, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Vigneron DB. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized (13)C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Apr; 30(3):305-11. PMID: 22169407; PMCID: PMC3393100.
    35. Keshari KR, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Larson PE, Vigneron DB, Wilson DM. Hyperpolarized 13C dehydroascorbate as an endogenous redox sensor for in vivo metabolic imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 15; 108(46):18606-11. PMID: 22042839; PMCID: PMC3219134.
    36. Hu S, Zhu M, Yoshihara HA, Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Shin P, Reed G, von Morze C, Bok R, Larson PE, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo measurement of normal rat intracellular pyruvate and lactate levels after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]alanine. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Oct; 29(8):1035-40. PMID: 21855243; PMCID: PMC3172390.
    37. Hu S, Balakrishnan A, Bok R, Anderton B, Larson PE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Goga A. 13C-pyruvate imaging reveals alterations in glycolysis that precede c-Myc-induced tumor formation and regression. Cell Metab. 2011 Jul 06; 14(1):131-42. PMID: 21723511; PMCID: PMC3858338.
    38. Park I, Bok R, Ozawa T, Phillips JJ, James CD, Vigneron DB, Ronen SM, Nelson SJ. Detection of early response to temozolomide treatment in brain tumors using hyperpolarized 13C MR metabolic imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Jun; 33(6):1284-90. PMID: 21590996; PMCID: PMC4983457.
    39. von Morze C, Reed G, Shin P, Larson PE, Hu S, Bok R, Vigneron DB. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. J Magn Reson. 2011 Aug; 211(2):109-13. PMID: 21596601; PMCID: PMC3143308.
    40. von Morze C, Larson PE, Hu S, Keshari K, Wilson DM, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Goga A, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Imaging of blood flow using hyperpolarized [(13)C]urea in preclinical cancer models. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Mar; 33(3):692-7. PMID: 21563254; PMCID: PMC3566235.
    41. Tropp J, Lupo JM, Chen A, Calderon P, McCune D, Grafendorfer T, Ozturk-Isik E, Larson PE, Hu S, Yen YF, Robb F, Bok R, Schulte R, Xu D, Hurd R, Vigneron D, Nelson S. Multi-channel metabolic imaging, with SENSE reconstruction, of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate in a live rat at 3.0 tesla on a clinical MR scanner. J Magn Reson. 2011 Jan; 208(1):171-7. PMID: 21130012; PMCID: PMC3387549.
    42. Hurd RE, Yen YF, Mayer D, Chen A, Wilson D, Kohler S, Bok R, Vigneron D, Kurhanewicz J, Tropp J, Spielman D, Pfefferbaum A. Metabolic imaging in the anesthetized rat brain using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate and [1-13C] ethyl pyruvate. Magn Reson Med. 2010 May; 63(5):1137-43. PMID: 20432284; PMCID: PMC2890241.
    43. Wilson DM, Keshari KR, Larson PE, Chen AP, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Multi-compound polarization by DNP allows simultaneous assessment of multiple enzymatic activities in vivo. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jul; 205(1):141-7. PMID: 20478721; PMCID: PMC2885774.
    44. Larson PE, Bok R, Kerr AB, Lustig M, Hu S, Chen AP, Nelson SJ, Pauly JM, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Investigation of tumor hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate dynamics using time-resolved multiband RF excitation echo-planar MRSI. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Mar; 63(3):582-91. PMID: 20187172; PMCID: PMC2844437.
    45. Hu S, Lustig M, Balakrishnan A, Larson PE, Bok R, Kurhanewicz J, Nelson SJ, Goga A, Pauly JM, Vigneron DB. 3D compressed sensing for highly accelerated hyperpolarized (13)C MRSI with in vivo applications to transgenic mouse models of cancer. Magn Reson Med. 2010 Feb; 63(2):312-21. PMID: 20017160; PMCID: PMC2829256.
    46. Park I, Larson PE, Zierhut ML, Hu S, Bok R, Ozawa T, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Vandenberg SR, James CD, Nelson SJ. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance metabolic imaging: application to brain tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):133-44. PMID: 20150380; PMCID: PMC2940577.
    47. Keshari KR, Wilson DM, Chen AP, Bok R, Larson PE, Hu S, Van Criekinge M, Macdonald JM, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized [2-13C]-fructose: a hemiketal DNP substrate for in vivo metabolic imaging. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Dec 09; 131(48):17591-6. PMID: 19860409; PMCID: PMC2796621.
    48. Zierhut ML, Yen YF, Chen AP, Bok R, Albers MJ, Zhang V, Tropp J, Park I, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice. J Magn Reson. 2010 Jan; 202(1):85-92. PMID: 19884027; PMCID: PMC2833325.
    49. Lupo JM, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok R, Cunningham CH, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Nelson SJ. Analysis of hyperpolarized dynamic 13C lactate imaging in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Feb; 28(2):153-62. PMID: 19695815; PMCID: PMC3075841.
    50. Hu S, Chen AP, Zierhut ML, Bok R, Yen YF, Schroeder MA, Hurd RE, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. In vivo carbon-13 dynamic MRS and MRSI of normal and fasted rat liver with hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Mol Imaging Biol. 2009 Nov-Dec; 11(6):399-407. PMID: 19424761; PMCID: PMC2763080.
    51. Albers MJ, Bok R, Chen AP, Cunningham CH, Zierhut ML, Zhang VY, Kohler SJ, Tropp J, Hurd RE, Yen YF, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized 13C lactate, pyruvate, and alanine: noninvasive biomarkers for prostate cancer detection and grading. Cancer Res. 2008 Oct 15; 68(20):8607-15. PMID: 18922937; PMCID: PMC2829248.
    52. Chen AP, Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Xu D, Joun D, Zhang V, Nelson SJ, Hurd RE, Vigneron DB. Feasibility of using hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate as a substrate for in vivo metabolic 13C MRSI studies. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jul; 26(6):721-6. PMID: 18479878; PMCID: PMC2577896.
    53. Kurhanewicz J, Bok R, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB. Current and potential applications of clinical 13C MR spectroscopy. J Nucl Med. 2008 Mar; 49(3):341-4. PMID: 18322118; PMCID: PMC2832218.
    54. Bok R. Treatment of prostate cancer: therapeutic potential of targeted immunotherapy with APC8015. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb; 4(1):79-85. PMID: 18728723; PMCID: PMC2503669.
    55. Chen AP, Albers MJ, Cunningham CH, Kohler SJ, Yen YF, Hurd RE, Tropp J, Bok R, Pauly JM, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized C-13 spectroscopic imaging of the TRAMP mouse at 3T-initial experience. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Dec; 58(6):1099-106. PMID: 17969006.
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    56. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Dunlap S, Elchinoff A, Yu N, Bok R, Simko J, Small EJ. Maximal COX-2 immunostaining and clinical response to celecoxib and interferon alpha therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2006 Feb 01; 106(3):566-75. PMID: 16369983.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Weinberg V, Jones G, Rini BI, Derynck MK, Bok R, Smith MR, Bubley GJ, Rosen RT, DiPaola RS, Small EJ. Prospective, multicenter, randomized phase II trial of the herbal supplement, PC-SPES, and diethylstilbestrol in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Sep 15; 22(18):3705-12. PMID: 15289492.
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    58. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Shaw V, Scott J, Bok R, Park JW, Small EJ. Time to disease progression to evaluate a novel protein kinase C inhibitor, UCN-01, in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 Jul 01; 101(1):90-5. PMID: 15221993.
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    59. Evangelou AI, Winter SF, Huss WJ, Bok R, Greenberg NM. Steroid hormones, polypeptide growth factors, hormone refractory prostate cancer, and the neuroendocrine phenotype. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Mar 01; 91(4):671-83. PMID: 14991759.
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    60. Rini BI, Weinberg V, Bok R, Small EJ. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics as a measure of the biologic effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with serologic progression of prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jan 01; 21(1):99-105. PMID: 12506177.
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    61. Bok R, Small EJ. Bloodborne biomolecular markers in prostate cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Dec; 2(12):918-26. PMID: 12459730.
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    62. Harris KA, Weinberg V, Bok R, Kakefuda M, Small EJ. Low dose ketoconazole with replacement doses of hydrocortisone in patients with progressive androgen independent prostate cancer. J Urol. 2002 Aug; 168(2):542-5. PMID: 12131305.
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