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    Michael Geschwind, MD, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurology
    Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-2900

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Geschwind received his M.D.and Ph.D. in neuroscience through the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. He completed his internship in internal medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, his neurology residency at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore and his fellowship in behavioral neurology at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center (MAC). He is now on faculty in the UCSF Department of Neurology where he is an Associate Professor of Neurology at the Memory and Aging Center (MAC).

      Dr. Geschwind evaluates new patients in the MAC clinic and participates in the continued management and care for these patients in the continuity clinic. He is active in the training of medical students, residents and neurobehavior fellows at UCSF. Dr. Geschwind teaches national courses, and lectures both nationally and internationally, on dementia including rapidly progressive dementias, such as prion diseases. He recently edited the recent American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Continuum Dementia edition and is on the AAN’s committee for dementia criteria.
      Dr. Geschwind’s primary research interest is the assessment and treatment of rapidly progressive dementias, including prion diseases such as Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (CJD). Dr. Geschwind helped establish an inpatient hospital program for the assessment of rapidly progressive dementias at UCSF, the first of its kind in the country. He helped to run the first ever U.S. treatment study for CJD. He also has an active research interest in cognitive dysfunction in movement disorders, such as Huntington’s Disease, Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), other parkinsonian dementias, and neurogenetic disorders.

      Dr. Geschwind is currently the site primary investigator for two clinical Huntington’s disease studies sponsored by the Huntington’s Study Group (HSG) - PREDICT-HD and DIMOND-HD. PREDICT-HD is a 10-year plus NIH-funded study in which we are following “pre-symptomatic patients” who are at-risk for HD to try to identify neurologic, neurocognitive, serological and imaging markers of early HD. HORIZON-HD is a Phase III study assessing the efficacy of Dimebon on cognitive function in manifest HD. Dr. Geschwind was the site PI for TETRA-HD, which resulted in the first FDA-approved drug, tetrabenazine, for use in HD. He also was a site PI for TREND-HD (studying the efficacy of Ethyl-EPA), DIMOND-HD (dimebon phase 2) and the first ever study on the treatment of cognitive impairment in patients with Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Zhang X, Lee SJ, Young KZ, Josephson DA, Geschwind MD, Wang MM. Latent NOTCH3 epitopes unmasked in CADASIL and regulated by protein redox state. Brain Res. 2014 Oct 2; 1583:230-6.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Bettcher BM, Gelfand JM, Irani SR, Neuhaus J, Forner S, Hess CP, Geschwind MD. More than memory impairment in voltage-gated potassium channel complex encephalopathy. Eur J Neurol. 2014 Jul 1.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Irani SR, Gelfand JM, Bettcher BM, Singhal NS, Geschwind MD. Effect of Rituximab in Patients With Leucine-Rich, Glioma-Inactivated 1 Antibody-Associated Encephalopathy. JAMA Neurol. 2014 May 19.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Apple AC, Possin KL, Satris G, Johnson E, Lupo JM, Jakary A, Wong K, Kelley DA, Kang GA, Sha SJ, Kramer JH, Geschwind MD, Nelson SJ, Hess CP. Quantitative 7T Phase Imaging in Premanifest Huntington Disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Sep; 35(9):1707-13.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Uflacker A, Doraiswamy PM, Rechitsky S, See T, Geschwind M, Tur-Kaspa I. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) for Genetic Prion Disorder Due to F198S Mutation in the PRNP Gene. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Apr 1; 71(4):484-6.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Li Y, Chen JA, Sears RL, Gao F, Klein ED, Karydas A, Geschwind MD, Rosen HJ, Boxer AL, Guo W, Pellegrini M, Horvath S, Miller BL, Geschwind DH, Coppola G. An epigenetic signature in peripheral blood associated with the haplotype on 17q21.31, a risk factor for neurodegenerative tauopathy. PLoS Genet. 2014 Mar; 10(3):e1004211.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Caverzasi E, Henry RG, Vitali P, Lobach IV, Kornak J, Bastianello S, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL, Rosen HJ, Mandelli ML, Geschwind MD. Application of quantitative DTI metrics in sporadic CJD. Neuroimage Clin. 2014; 4:426-35.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Geschwind MD. Doxycycline for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a failure, but a step in the right direction. Lancet Neurol. 2014 Feb; 13(2):130-2.
        View in: PubMed
      9. You SC, Geschwind MD, Sha SJ, Apple A, Satris G, Wood KA, Johnson ET, Gooblar J, Feuerstein JS, Finkbeiner S, Kang GA, Miller BL, Hess CP, Kramer JH, Possin KL. Executive functions in premanifest Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Mar; 29 Suppl 3:405-9.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Kim MO, Cali I, Oehler A, Fong JC, Wong K, See T, Katz JS, Gambetti P, Bettcher BM, Dearmond SJ, Geschwind MD. Genetic CJD with a novel E200G mutation in the prion protein gene and comparison with E200K mutation cases. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2013; 1(1):80.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Takada LT, Geschwind MD. Prion diseases. Semin Neurol. 2013 Sep; 33(4):348-56.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Ashizawa T, Figueroa KP, Perlman SL, Gomez CM, Wilmot GR, Schmahmann JD, Ying SH, Zesiewicz TA, Paulson HL, Shakkottai VG, Bushara KO, Kuo SH, Geschwind MD, Xia G, Mazzoni P, Krischer JP, Cuthbertson D, Holbert AR, Ferguson JH, Pulst SM, Subramony Sh. Clinical characteristics of patients with spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 3 and 6 in the US; a prospective observational study. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013; 8:177.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Geschwind MD, Kuo AL, Wong KS, Haman A, Devereux G, Raudabaugh BJ, Johnson DY, Torres-Chae CC, Finley R, Garcia P, Thai JN, Cheng HQ, Neuhaus JM, Forner SA, Duncan JL, Possin KL, Dearmond SJ, Prusiner SB, Miller BL. Quinacrine treatment trial for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurology. 2013 Dec 3; 81(23):2015-23.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Lee SE, Tartaglia MC, Yener G, Genç S, Seeley WW, Sanchez-Juan P, Moreno F, Mendez MF, Klein E, Rademakers R, Munain AL, Combarros O, Kramer JH, Kenet RO, Boxer AL, Geschwind MD, Gorno-Tempini ML, Karydas AM, Rabinovici GD, Coppola G, Geschwind DH, Miller BL. Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotypes in Carriers of MAPT p.A152T, A Risk Factor for Frontotemporal Dementia Spectrum Disorders and Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2013 Oct-Dec; 27(4):302-9.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Vossel KA, Beagle AJ, Rabinovici GD, Shu H, Lee SE, Naasan G, Hegde M, Cornes SB, Henry ML, Nelson AB, Seeley WW, Geschwind MD, Gorno-Tempini ML, Shih T, Kirsch HE, Garcia PA, Miller BL, Mucke L. Seizures and epileptiform activity in the early stages of Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol. 2013 Sep 1; 70(9):1158-66.
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      16. Bechtel K, Geschwind MD. Ethics in prion disease. Prog Neurobiol. 2013 Nov; 110:29-44.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Biglan KM, Zhang Y, Long JD, Geschwind M, Kang GA, Killoran A, Lu W, McCusker E, Mills JA, Raymond LA, Testa C, Wojcieszek J, Paulsen JS. Refining the diagnosis of Huntington disease: the PREDICT-HD study. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013; 5:12.
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      18. Johnson DY, Dunkelberger DL, Henry M, Haman A, Greicius MD, Wong K, DeArmond SJ, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML, Geschwind MD. Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease presenting as primary progressive aphasia. JAMA Neurol. 2013 Feb; 70(2):254-7.
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      19. Paterson RW, Torres-Chae CC, Kuo AL, Ando T, Nguyen EA, Wong K, Dearmond SJ, Haman A, Garcia P, Johnson DY, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. Differential diagnosis of jakob-creutzfeldt disease. Arch Neurol. 2012 Dec; 69(12):1578-82.
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      20. Almeida S, Zhang Z, Coppola G, Mao W, Futai K, Karydas A, Geschwind MD, Tartaglia MC, Gao F, Gianni D, Sena-Esteves M, Geschwind DH, Miller BL, Farese RV, Gao FB. Induced pluripotent stem cell models of progranulin-deficient frontotemporal dementia uncover specific reversible neuronal defects. Cell Rep. 2012 Oct 25; 2(4):789-98.
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      21. Coppola G, Chinnathambi S, Lee JJ, Dombroski BA, Baker MC, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Lee SE, Klein E, Huang AY, Sears R, Lane JR, Karydas AM, Kenet RO, Biernat J, Wang LS, Cotman CW, Decarli CS, Levey AI, Ringman JM, Mendez MF, Chui HC, Le Ber I, Brice A, Lupton MK, Preza E, Lovestone S, Powell J, Graff-Radford N, Petersen RC, Boeve BF, Lippa CF, Bigio EH, Mackenzie I, Finger E, Kertesz A, Caselli RJ, Gearing M, Juncos JL, Ghetti B, Spina S, Bordelon YM, Tourtellotte WW, Frosch MP, Vonsattel JP, Zarow C, Beach TG, Albin RL, Lieberman AP, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Van Deerlin VM, Bird TD, Galasko DR, Masliah E, White CL, Troncoso JC, Hannequin D, Boxer AL, Geschwind MD, Kumar S, Mandelkow EM, Wszolek ZK, Uitti RJ, Dickson DW, Haines JL, Mayeux R, Pericak-Vance MA, Farrer LA. Evidence for a role of the rare p.A152T variant in MAPT in increasing the risk for FTD-spectrum and Alzheimer's diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Aug 1; 21(15):3500-12.
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      22. Tartaglia MC, Johnson DY, Thai JN, Cattaruzza T, Wong K, Garcia P, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. Clinical overlap between Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease and Lewy body disease. Can J Neurol Sci. 2012 May; 39(3):304-10.
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      23. Kim EJ, Cho SS, Jeong BH, Kim YS, Seo SW, Na DL, Geschwind MD, Jeong Y. Glucose metabolism in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a statistical parametric mapping analysis of (18) F-FDG PET. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Mar; 19(3):488-93.
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      24. Perry DC, Geschwind MD. Thorough work-up and new diagnostic criteria needed for CJD. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011 Sep; 7(9):479-80.
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      25. Sloan JL, Johnston JJ, Manoli I, Chandler RJ, Krause C, Carrillo-Carrasco N, Chandrasekaran SD, Sysol JR, O'Brien K, Hauser NS, Sapp JC, Dorward HM, Huizing M. Exome sequencing identifies ACSF3 as a cause of combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep; 43(9):883-6.
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      26. Lee SE, Rabinovici GD, Mayo MC, Wilson SM, Seeley WW, DeArmond SJ, Huang EJ, Trojanowski JQ, Growdon ME, Jang JY, Sidhu M, See TM, Karydas AM, Gorno-Tempini ML, Boxer AL, Weiner MW, Geschwind MD, Rankin KP, Miller BL. Clinicopathological correlations in corticobasal degeneration. Ann Neurol. 2011 Aug; 70(2):327-40.
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      27. Vitali P, Maccagnano E, Caverzasi E, Henry RG, Haman A, Torres-Chae C, Johnson DY, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. Diffusion-weighted MRI hyperintensity patterns differentiate CJD from other rapid dementias. Neurology. 2011 May 17; 76(20):1711-9.
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      28. Tartaglia MC, Thai JN, See T, Kuo A, Harbaugh R, Raudabaugh B, Cali I, Sattavat M, Sanchez H, DeArmond SJ, Geschwind MD. Pathologic evidence that the T188R mutation in PRNP is associated with prion disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010 Dec; 69(12):1220-7.
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      29. Zou WQ, Puoti G, Xiao X, Yuan J, Qing L, Cali I, Shimoji M, Langeveld JP, Castellani R, Notari S, Crain B, Schmidt RE, Geschwind M, Dearmond SJ, Cairns NJ, Dickson D, Honig L, Torres JM, Mastrianni J, Capellari S, Giaccone G, Belay ED, Schonberger LB, Cohen M, Perry G, Kong Q, Parchi P, Tagliavini F, Gambetti P. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy: a new sporadic disease of the prion protein. Ann Neurol. 2010 Aug; 68(2):162-72.
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      30. Benetti F, Geschwind MD, Legname G. De novo prions. F1000 Biol Rep. 2010; 2.
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      31. Yang TI, Jung DS, Ahn BY, Jeong BH, Cho HJ, Kim YS, Na DL, Geschwind MD, Kim EJ. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with V180I mutation. J Korean Med Sci. 2010 Jul; 25(7):1097-100.
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      32. Geschwind MD. Are you related to "the Geschwind?". Neuropsychol Rev. 2010 Jun; 20(2):123-5.
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      33. Geschwind MD. Rapidly progressive dementia: prion diseases and other rapid dementias. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2010 Apr; 16(2 Dementia):31-56.
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      34. Kieburtz K, McDermott MP, Voss TS, Corey-Bloom J, Deuel LM, Dorsey ER, Factor S, Geschwind MD, Hodgeman K, Kayson E, Noonberg S, Pourfar M, Rabinowitz K, Ravina B, Sanchez-Ramos J, Seely L, Walker F, Feigin A. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of latrepirdine in Huntington disease. Arch Neurol. 2010 Feb; 67(2):154-60.
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      35. Barajas RF, Collins DE, Cha S, Geschwind MD. Adult-onset drug-refractory seizure disorder associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium-channel antibody. Epilepsia. 2010 Mar; 51(3):473-7.
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      36. Rosenbloom MH, Smith S, Akdal G, Geschwind MD. Immunologically mediated dementias. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009 Sep; 9(5):359-67.
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      37. Choi EM, Geschwind MD, Deering C, Pomeroy K, Kuo A, Miller BL, Safar JG, Prusiner SB. Prion proteins in subpopulations of white blood cells from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lab Invest. 2009 Jun; 89(6):624-35.
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      38. Lai M, Hughes EG, Peng X, Zhou L, Gleichman AJ, Shu H, Matà S, Kremens D, Vitaliani R, Geschwind MD, Bataller L, Kalb RG, Davis R, Graus F, Lynch DR, Balice-Gordon R, Dalmau J. AMPA receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis alter synaptic receptor location. Ann Neurol. 2009 Apr; 65(4):424-34.
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      39. Geschwind MD. Clinical trials for prion disease: difficult challenges, but hope for the future. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Apr; 8(4):304-6.
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      40. Geschwind MD, Potter CA, Sattavat M, Garcia PA, Rosen HJ, Miller BL, DeArmond SJ. Correlating DWI MRI with pathologic and other features of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009 Jan-Mar; 23(1):82-87.
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      41. Vitali P, Migliaccio R, Agosta F, Rosen HJ, Geschwind MD. Neuroimaging in dementia. Semin Neurol. 2008 Sep; 28(4):467-83.
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      42. Geschwind MD, Tan KM, Lennon VA, Barajas RF, Haman A, Klein CJ, Josephson SA, Pittock SJ. Voltage-gated potassium channel autoimmunity mimicking creutzfeldt-jakob disease. Arch Neurol. 2008 Oct; 65(10):1341-6.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Webb TE, Poulter M, Beck J, Uphill J, Adamson G, Campbell T, Linehan J, Powell C, Brandner S, Pal S, Siddique D, Wadsworth JD, Joiner S, Alner K, Petersen C, Hampson S, Rhymes C, Treacy C, Storey E, Geschwind MD, Nemeth AH, Wroe S, Collinge J, Mead S. Phenotypic heterogeneity and genetic modification of P102L inherited prion disease in an international series. Brain. 2008 Oct; 131(Pt 10):2632-46.
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      44. Maddox RA, Belay ED, Curns AT, Zou WQ, Nowicki S, Lembach RG, Geschwind MD, Haman A, Shinozaki N, Nakamura Y, Borer MJ, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in recipients of corneal transplants. Cornea. 2008 Aug; 27(7):851-4.
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      45. Geschwind MD, Shu H, Haman A, Sejvar JJ, Miller BL. Rapidly progressive dementia. Ann Neurol. 2008 Jul; 64(1):97-108.
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      46. Valcour V, Haman A, Cornes S, Lawall C, Parsa AT, Glaser C, Yagi S, Tihan T, Bhatnagar J, Geschwind M. A case of enteroviral meningoencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive dementia. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 Jul; 4(7):399-403.
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      47. Geschwind MD, Josephs KA, Parisi JE, Keegan BM. A 54-year-old man with slowness of movement and confusion. Neurology. 2007 Nov 6; 69(19):1881-7.
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      48. Geschwind MD, Haman A, Miller BL. Rapidly progressive dementia. Neurol Clin. 2007 Aug; 25(3):783-807, vii.
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      49. Boxer AL, Rabinovici GD, Kepe V, Goldman J, Furst AJ, Huang SC, Baker SL, O'neil JP, Chui H, Geschwind MD, Small GW, Barrio JR, Jagust W, Miller BL. Amyloid imaging in distinguishing atypical prion disease from Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2007 Jul 17; 69(3):283-90.
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      50. Vernino S, Geschwind M, Boeve B. Autoimmune encephalopathies. Neurologist. 2007 May; 13(3):140-7.
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      51. Josephson SA, Papanastassiou AM, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, McDermott MW, Hilton JF, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. The diagnostic utility of brain biopsy procedures in patients with rapidly deteriorating neurological conditions or dementia. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jan; 106(1):72-5.
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      52. Safar JG, Wille H, Geschwind MD, Deering C, Latawiec D, Serban A, King DJ, Legname G, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW, Miller BL, Dearmond SJ, Prusiner SB. Human prions and plasma lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 25; 103(30):11312-7.
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      53. Chang CC, Eggers SD, Johnson JK, Haman A, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. Anti-GAD antibody cerebellar ataxia mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007 Jan; 109(1):54-7.
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      54. Lewis AM, Yu M, DeArmond SJ, Dillon WP, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. Human growth hormone-related iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with abnormal imaging. Arch Neurol. 2006 Feb; 63(2):288-90.
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      55. Rabinovici GD, Wang PN, Levin J, Cook L, Pravdin M, Davis J, DeArmond SJ, Barbaro NM, Martindale J, Miller BL, Geschwind MD. First symptom in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurology. 2006 Jan 24; 66(2):286-7.
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      56. Boxer AL, Geschwind MD, Belfor N, Gorno-Tempini ML, Schauer GF, Miller BL, Weiner MW, Rosen HJ. Patterns of brain atrophy that differentiate corticobasal degeneration syndrome from progressive supranuclear palsy. Arch Neurol. 2006 Jan; 63(1):81-6.
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      57. Young GS, Geschwind MD, Fischbein NJ, Martindale JL, Henry RG, Liu S, Lu Y, Wong S, Liu H, Miller BL, Dillon WP. Diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Jun-Jul; 26(6):1551-62.
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      58. Safar JG, Geschwind MD, Deering C, Didorenko S, Sattavat M, Sanchez H, Serban A, Vey M, Baron H, Giles K, Miller BL, Dearmond SJ, Prusiner SB. Diagnosis of human prion disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1; 102(9):3501-6.
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      59. Goldman JS, Miller BL, Safar J, de Tourreil S, Martindale JL, Prusiner SB, Geschwind MD. When sporadic disease is not sporadic: the potential for genetic etiology. Arch Neurol. 2004 Feb; 61(2):213-6.
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      60. Geschwind MD, Martindale J, Miller D, DeArmond SJ, Uyehara-Lock J, Gaskin D, Kramer JH, Barbaro NM, Miller BL. Challenging the clinical utility of the 14-3-3 protein for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Jun; 60(6):813-6.
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      61. Martindale JL, Geschwind MD, Miller BL. Psychiatric and neuroimaging findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2003 May; 5(1):43-6.
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      62. Martindale J, Geschwind MD, De Armond S, Young G, Dillon WP, Henry R, Uyehara-Lock JH, Gaskin DA, Miller BL. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimicking variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 May; 60(5):767-70.
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      63. Greicius MD, Geschwind MD, Miller BL. Presenile dementia syndromes: an update on taxonomy and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 Jun; 72(6):691-700.
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      64. Geschwind MD, Skolasky RI, Royal WS, McArthur JC. The relative contributions of HAART and alpha-interferon for therapy of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. J Neurovirol. 2001 Aug; 7(4):353-7.
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      65. Silverman IE, Geschwind MD, Vornov JJ. Cerebellar top-of-the-basilar syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1998 Dec; 100(4):296-8.
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      66. Goodman LJ, Valverde J, Lim F, Geschwind MD, Federoff HJ, Geller AI, Hefti F. Regulated release and polarized localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996 Mar; 7(3):222-38.
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      67. Geschwind MD, Hartnick CJ, Liu W, Amat J, Van De Water TR, Federoff HJ. Defective HSV-1 vector expressing BDNF in auditory ganglia elicits neurite outgrowth: model for treatment of neuron loss following cochlear degeneration. Hum Gene Ther. 1996 Jan 20; 7(2):173-82.
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      68. Linnik MD, Zahos P, Geschwind MD, Federoff HJ. Expression of bcl-2 from a defective herpes simplex virus-1 vector limits neuronal death in focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 1995 Sep; 26(9):1670-4; discussion 1675.
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      69. Geschwind MD, Kessler JA, Geller AI, Federoff HJ. Transfer of the nerve growth factor gene into cell lines and cultured neurons using a defective herpes simplex virus vector. Transfer of the NGF gene into cells by a HSV-1 vector. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994 Jul; 24(1-4):327-35.
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      70. Casaccia-Bonnefil P, Benedikz E, Shen H, Stelzer A, Edelstein D, Geschwind M, Brownlee M, Federoff HJ, Bergold PJ. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices. J Neurosci Methods. 1993 Dec; 50(3):341-51.
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      71. Federoff HJ, Geschwind MD, Geller AI, Kessler JA. Expression of nerve growth factor in vivo from a defective herpes simplex virus 1 vector prevents effects of axotomy on sympathetic ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1; 89(5):1636-40.
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