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    Neal Benowitz, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 30
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-206-8324

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine - Internal Medicine

       Overview 
       Overview
      Neal Benowitz has been conducting research at SFGH since 1973. His research focus is on the human pharmacology of nicotine in relation to pathogenesis of and individual differences in vulnerability to tobacco-related disease, and the use of pharmacologic data as a basis for public health policies to prevent and reduce such disease. He has served on a number of national and international committees addressing issues in tobacco-related diseases and smoking cessation, including several sponsored by the Institute of Medicine. He has authored over 500 publications, including a state-of-the-art review on nicotine addiction in the New England Journal of Medicine in June 2010.


       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       In The News
       Awarded Grants
       Global Health

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Genetic and phenotypic variation in UGT2B17, a testosterone-metabolizing enzyme, is associated with BMI in males. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 May; 25(5):263-9.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Whitsel LP, Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A, Bullen C, Goldstein F, Matthias-Gray L, Grossmeier J, Harris J, Isaac F, Loeppke R, Manley M, Moseley K, Niemiec T, O'Brien V, Palma-Davis L, Pronk N, Pshock J, Stave GM, Terry P. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Mar; 57(3):334-43.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz S. Response to letter regarding article, "Electronic cigarettes: a scientific review". Circulation. 2015 Feb 10; 131(6):e342.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Lerman C, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Wileyto EP, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Heitjan DF, Tyndale RF. Use of the nicotine metabolite ratio as a genetically informed biomarker of response to nicotine patch or varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Feb; 3(2):131-8.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Japuntich SJ, Eilers MA, Shenhav S, Park ER, Winickoff JP, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among hospitalized nonsmokers with coronary heart disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan 1; 175(1):133-6.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Hatsukami DK, Donny EC, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL. Compensatory smoking from gradual and immediate reduction in cigarette nicotine content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):472-6.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):331-5.
        View in: PubMed
      8. St Helen G, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey DA, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec; 23(12):2774-82.
        View in: PubMed PMC4257856
      9. Al-Abri S, Meier KH, Colby JM, Smollin CG, Benowitz NL. Cardiogenic shock after use of fluoroamphetamine confirmed with serum and urine levels. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Dec; 52(10):1292-5.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Wassenaar CA, Conti DV, Das S, Chen P, Cook EH, Ratain MJ, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. UGT1A and UGT2B Genetic Variation Alters Nicotine and Nitrosamine Glucuronidation in European and African American Smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Jan; 24(1):94-104.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Nov; 42(11):1971-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC4201132
      12. Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2058-68.
        View in: PubMed PMC4134734
      13. Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Ribisl KM, Bullen C, Chaloupka F, Piano MR, Robertson RM, McAuley T, Goff D, Benowitz N. Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014 Oct 14; 130(16):1418-36.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Krasnow R, Michel M, Nishita D, Conti DV, Edlund CK, Kwok PY, McClure JB, Kim RB, Hall SM, Tyndale RF, Baker TB, Benowitz NL, Swan GE. Organic cation transporter variation and response to smoking cessation therapies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Dec; 16(12):1638-46.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Hajek P, Etter JF, Benowitz N, Eissenberg T, McRobbie H. Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit. Addiction. 2014 Nov; 109(11):1801-10.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Sved AF, Tidey JW, Cassidy RN. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation. Prev Med. 2014 Nov; 68:17-22.
        View in: PubMed
      17. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jun; 23(6):1055-66.
        View in: PubMed PMC4047652
      18. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes: a scientific review. Circulation. 2014 May 13; 129(19):1972-86.
        View in: PubMed PMC4018182
      19. Grana RA, Ling PM, Benowitz N, Glantz S. Electronic cigarettes. Cardiology patient page. Circulation. 2014 May 13; 129(19):e490-2.
        View in: PubMed PMC4074376
      20. Shiffman S, Dunbar MS, Benowitz NL. A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jul; 23(7):1264-72.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, David SP, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 SNP rs2036527 with smoking cessation therapy response in African-American smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Aug; 96(2):256-65.
        View in: PubMed PMC4111775
      22. Kassem NO, Daffa RM, Liles S, Jackson SR, Kassem NO, Younis MA, Mehta S, Chen M, Jacob P, Carmella SG, Chatfield DA, Benowitz NL, Matt GE, Hecht SS, Hovell MF. Children's exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke carcinogens and toxicants in homes of hookah smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jul; 16(7):961-75.
        View in: PubMed PMC4072898
      23. Chenoweth MJ, Zhu AZ, Sanderson Cox L, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014 Mar; 24(3):172-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3985268
      24. Benowitz NL. Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Feb; 11(2):231-5.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Piliguian M, Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L, Tyndale RF. Novel CYP2A6 variants identified in African Americans are associated with slow nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014 Feb; 24(2):118-28.
        View in: PubMed PMC3931261
      26. Martins-Green M, Adhami N, Frankos M, Valdez M, Goodwin B, Lyubovitsky J, Dhall S, Garcia M, Egiebor I, Martinez B, Green HW, Havel C, Yu L, Liles S, Matt G, Destaillats H, Sleiman M, Gundel LA, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Hovell M, Winickoff JP, Curras-Collazo M. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86391.
        View in: PubMed PMC3906039
      27. Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Delucchi K, Young-Wolff KC, Benowitz NL, Hall S, Bonas T, Hall SM. Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change. Health Psychol. 2014 Dec; 33(12):1518-29.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Hendricks PS, Delucchi KL, Benowitz NL, Hall SM. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May; 16(5):615-20.
        View in: PubMed PMC3977489
      29. Khariwala SS, Scheuermann TS, Berg CJ, Hayes RB, Nollen NL, Thomas JL, Guo H, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May; 16(5):600-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3988430
      30. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Faseru B, Buchanan TS, Cox LS. Factors associated with discontinuation of bupropion and counseling among African American light smokers in a randomized clinical trial. Ann Behav Med. 2013 Dec; 46(3):336-48.
        View in: PubMed PMC3815499
      31. Al-Abri SA, Orengo JP, Hayashi S, Thoren KL, Benowitz NL, Olson KR. Delayed bupropion cardiotoxicity associated with elevated serum concentrations of bupropion but not hydroxybupropion. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013 Dec; 51(10):1230-4.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Jacob P, Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Schick SF, Benowitz NL. Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Nov 18; 26(11):1615-31.
        View in: PubMed PMC3929594
      33. Yang J, Pearl M, Jacob P, DeLorenze GN, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Havel C, Kharrazi M. Levels of cotinine in dried blood specimens from newborns as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec 1; 178(11):1648-54.
        View in: PubMed PMC3842901
      34. David SP, Strong DR, Leventhal AM, Lancaster MA, McGeary JE, Munafò MR, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Conti DV, Brown RA, Lerman C, Niaura R. Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion. Addiction. 2013 Dec; 108(12):2202-11.
        View in: PubMed PMC3834197
      35. Prochaska JJ, Grossman W, Young-Wolff KC, Benowitz NL. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure. Tob Control. 2015 Jan; 24(1):48-53.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Prochaska JJ, Das S, Benowitz NL. Cytisine, the world's oldest smoking cessation aid. BMJ. 2013; 347:f5198.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Benowitz NL, Goniewicz ML. The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes. JAMA. 2013 Aug 21; 310(7):685-6.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Dec; 94(6):687-94.
        View in: PubMed PMC3834081
      39. Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Variation in trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronidation does not alter the nicotine metabolite ratio or nicotine intake. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70938.
        View in: PubMed PMC3732272
      40. Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska Native tobacco users. Addiction. 2013 Oct; 108(10):1818-28.
        View in: PubMed PMC3775934
      41. Dempsey DA, Sambol NC, Jacob P, Hoffmann E, Tyndale RF, Fuentes-Afflick E, Benowitz NL. CYP2A6 genotype but not age determines cotinine half-life in infants and children. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Sep; 94(3):400-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3820275
      42. St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov; 15(11):1939-42.
        View in: PubMed PMC3790625
      43. Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive. Tob Control. 2013 May; 22 Suppl 1:i14-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3632983
      44. Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kosmider L, Sobczak A, Kurek J, Prokopowicz A, Jablonska-Czapla M, Rosik-Dulewska C, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014 Mar; 23(2):133-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC4154473
      45. Jacob P, Abu Raddaha AH, Dempsey D, Havel C, Peng M, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May; 22(5):765-72.
        View in: PubMed PMC3650103
      46. Benowitz NL, Zhu AZ, Tyndale RF, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013 Mar; 23(3):135-41.
        View in: PubMed PMC3763712
      47. Benowitz NL, Prochaska JJ. Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Feb 5; 61(5):533-5.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Krasnow R, Nishita D, Michel M, Conti DV, Liu J, Lee W, Edlund CK, Hall S, Kwok PY, Benowitz NL, Baker TB, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Swan GE. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variation and response to smoking cessation therapies. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013 Feb; 23(2):94-103.
        View in: PubMed PMC3563676
      49. Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. The ability of plasma cotinine to predict nicotine and carcinogen exposure is altered by differences in CYP2A6: the influence of genetics, race, and sex. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr; 22(4):708-18.
        View in: PubMed PMC3617060
      50. Jones IA, St Helen G, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DA, Havel C, Jacob P, Northcross A, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles. Tob Control. 2014 Jan; 23(1):51-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3670969
      51. Benowitz NL, Dempsey D, Tyndale RF, St Helen G, Jacob P. Dose-independent kinetics with low level exposure to nicotine and cotinine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jan; 75(1):277-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3555070
      52. Rubinstein ML, Shiffman S, Rait MA, Benowitz NL. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jul; 15(7):1311-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3682846
      53. Bergen AW, Javitz HS, Su L, He Y, Conti DV, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Swan GE. The DRD4 exon III VNTR, bupropion, and associations with prospective abstinence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jul; 15(7):1190-200.
        View in: PubMed PMC3682839
      54. Faseru B, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Krebill R, Choi WS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L. Predictors of cessation in African American light smokers enrolled in a bupropion clinical trial. Addict Behav. 2013 Mar; 38(3):1796-803.
        View in: PubMed PMC3558614
      55. Northcross AL, Trinh M, Kim J, Jones IA, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DD, Benowitz NL, Hammond SK. Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle. Tob Control. 2014 Jan; 23(1):14-20.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Nollen N, Faseru B, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. CYP2B6 and bupropion's smoking-cessation pharmacology: the role of hydroxybupropion. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Dec; 92(6):771-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3729209
      57. Repace J, Zhang B, Bondy SJ, Benowitz N, Ferrence R. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers. Indoor Air. 2013 Apr; 23(2):93-104.
        View in: PubMed
      58. St Helen G, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure. Addiction. 2013 Mar; 108(3):607-17.
        View in: PubMed PMC3553231
      59. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny E, Henningfield J, Zeller M. Nicotine reduction: strategic research plan. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jun; 15(6):1003-13.
        View in: PubMed PMC3646645
      60. Rubinstein ML, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB, Rait MA, Sen S, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers. Addiction. 2013 Feb; 108(2):406-12.
        View in: PubMed PMC3504133
      61. Zhu AZ, Binnington MJ, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Hatsukami DK, Stepanov I, Watson CH, Sosnoff CS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Alaska Native smokers and smokeless tobacco users with slower CYP2A6 activity have lower tobacco consumption, lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine bioactivation. Carcinogenesis. 2013 Jan; 34(1):93-101.
        View in: PubMed PMC3534190
      62. Renner CC, Lanier AP, Lindgren B, Jensen J, Patten CA, Parascandola M, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Hatsukami DK. Tobacco use among southwestern Alaska Native people. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb; 15(2):401-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3612002
      63. Avila-Tang E, Al-Delaimy WK, Ashley DL, Benowitz N, Bernert JT, Kim S, Samet JM, Hecht SS. Assessing secondhand smoke using biological markers. Tob Control. 2013 May; 22(3):164-71.
        View in: PubMed PMC3639350
      64. Dempsey DA, Meyers MJ, Oh SS, Nguyen EA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Wu AH, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Determination of tobacco smoke exposure by plasma cotinine levels in infants and children attending urban public hospital clinics. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Sep 1; 166(9):851-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3997061
      65. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL. Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012 Sep; 14(6):618-27.
        View in: PubMed PMC3641517
      66. Mozaffarian D, Afshin A, Benowitz NL, Bittner V, Daniels SR, Franch HA, Jacobs DR, Kraus WE, Kris-Etherton PM, Krummel DA, Popkin BM, Whitsel LP, Zakai NA. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012 Sep 18; 126(12):1514-63.
        View in: PubMed PMC3881293
      67. Lee W, Ray R, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Thomas P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Conti DV. DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Jul; 22(7):551-4.
        View in: PubMed PMC3376177
      68. Binnington MJ, Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Jun; 22(6):429-40.
        View in: PubMed PMC3349071
      69. Frey PF, Ganz P, Hsue PY, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Balmes JR, Schick SF. The exposure-dependent effects of aged secondhand smoke on endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 May 22; 59(21):1908-13.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Leone FT, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. High dose transdermal nicotine for fast metabolizers of nicotine: a proof of concept placebo-controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb; 15(2):348-54.
        View in: PubMed PMC3545715
      71. St Helen G, Novalen M, Heitjan DF, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Aziziyeh A, Wing VC, George TP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Jul; 21(7):1105-14.
        View in: PubMed PMC3392523
      72. Benowitz NL, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Tyndale RF, Hatsukami DK, Lindgren B, Stepanov I, Watson CH, Sosnoff CS, Jacob P. Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Jun; 21(6):934-42.
        View in: PubMed PMC3444141
      73. St Helen G, Goniewicz ML, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Apr 16; 25(4):952-64.
        View in: PubMed PMC3330130
      74. Buchanan TS, Berg CJ, Cox LS, Nazir N, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Yturralde O, Jacob P, Choi WS, Ahluwalia JS, Nollen NL. Adherence to varenicline among African American smokers: an exploratory analysis comparing plasma concentration, pill count, and self-report. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Sep; 14(9):1083-91.
        View in: PubMed PMC3432278
      75. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 May; 21(5):761-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3348427
      76. Okuyemi KS, Faseru B, Reed GA, Cox LS, Bronars CA, Opole I, Whembolua GL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL. Effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion among Black smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jun; 14(6):688-93.
        View in: PubMed PMC3356293
      77. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan; 15(1):262-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3524052
      78. Cox LS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Choi WS, Faseru B, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS. Bupropion for smoking cessation in African American light smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Feb 22; 104(4):290-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3283533
      79. Benowitz NL. Chronic disease management approach to treating tobacco addiction: comment on "Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit". Arch Intern Med. 2011 Nov 28; 171(21):1907-9.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Hamidovic A, Goodloe RJ, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL, Styn MA, Kasberger JL, Choquet H, Young TR, Meng Y, Palmer C, Pletcher M, Kertesz S, Hitsman B, Spring B, Jorgenson E. Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Mar; 37(4):968-74.
        View in: PubMed PMC3280653
      81. Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL. Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Dec; 90(6):844-51.
        View in: PubMed
      82. King DP, Paciga S, Pickering E, Benowitz NL, Bierut LJ, Conti DV, Kaprio J, Lerman C, Park PW. Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Feb; 37(3):641-50.
        View in: PubMed PMC3260990
      83. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz NL. Effect of nicotine on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Nov; 72(5):836-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3243019
      84. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Hudmon KS, Grossman W. Cardiology Rx for Change: improving clinical attention to tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in cardiology. Clin Cardiol. 2011 Dec; 34(12):738-43.
        View in: PubMed
      85. Jacob P, Abu Raddaha AH, Dempsey D, Havel C, Peng M, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure after a single use of a water pipe. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Nov; 20(11):2345-53.
        View in: PubMed PMC3210932
      86. Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL. Sodium oxybate: updates and correction to previously published safety data. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Aug 15; 7(4):415-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC3161779
      87. Benowitz NL. Smokeless tobacco as a nicotine delivery device: harm or harm reduction? Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Oct; 90(4):491-3.
        View in: PubMed
      88. Lee W, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Li D, Liu J, Thomas P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Conti DV. Gender-stratified gene and gene-treatment interactions in smoking cessation. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012 Dec; 12(6):521-32.
        View in: PubMed PMC3208134
      89. Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jul; 90(1):164-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3195407
      90. Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Sleiman M, Singer BC, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Winickoff JP, Rehan V, Talbot P, Schick S, Samet J, Wang Y, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Pankow JF, Hovell MF. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Sep; 119(9):1218-26.
        View in: PubMed PMC3230406
      91. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Steinberg ML, Cottler B, Benowitz NL. Shorter interpuff interval is associated with higher nicotine intake in smokers with schizophrenia. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Nov 1; 118(2-3):313-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3655704
      92. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P. Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Sep; 13(9):772-83.
        View in: PubMed PMC3168241
      93. Benowitz NL, Samet JM. The threat of menthol cigarettes to U.S. public health. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 9; 364(23):2179-81.
        View in: PubMed
      94. Pérez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL. Do biological differences help explain tobacco-related disparities? Am J Health Promot. 2011 May-Jun; 25(5 Suppl):S8-10.
        View in: PubMed
      95. Ahmed B, Jacob P, Allen F, Benowitz N. Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2011 Apr-Jun; 43(2):146-52.
        View in: PubMed
      96. Hamidovic A, Kasberger JL, Young TR, Goodloe RJ, Redline S, Buxbaum SG, Benowitz NL, Bergen AW, Butler KR, Franceschini N, Gharib SA, Hitsman B, Levy D, Meng Y, Papanicolaou GJ, Preis SR, Spring B, Styn MA, Tong EK, White WB, Wiggins KL, Jorgenson E. Genetic variability of smoking persistence in African Americans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 May; 4(5):729-34.
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      97. Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, Benowitz N, Call M, Pittet JF, Cohen MJ. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun 15; 183(12):1660-5.
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      98. Falcone M, Jepson C, Benowitz N, Bergen AW, Pinto A, Wileyto EP, Baldwin D, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Ray R. Association of the nicotine metabolite ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 polymorphisms with smoking rate among treatment-seeking smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Jun; 13(6):498-503.
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      99. Cox LS, Faseru B, Mayo MS, Krebill R, Snow TS, Bronars CA, Nollen NL, Choi WS, Okuyemi KS, Salzman GA, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Ahluwalia JS. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data. Trials. 2011; 12:22.
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      100. Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Mar; 13(3):202-8.
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      101. Polosa R, Benowitz NL. Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011 May; 32(5):281-9.
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      102. Strasser AA, Benowitz NL, Pinto AG, Tang KZ, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Tyndale RF, Lerman CE. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Feb; 20(2):234-8.
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      103. Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee CS. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1):40-5.
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      104. Jacob P, Yu L, Duan M, Ramos L, Yturralde O, Benowitz NL. Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 activity. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 Feb 1; 879(3-4):267-76.
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      105. Zapawa LM, Hughes JR, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA, Shiffman S. Cautions and warnings on the US OTC label for nicotine replacement: what's a doctor to do? Addict Behav. 2011 Apr; 36(4):327-32.
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      106. Frey P, Waters DD, DeMicco DA, Breazna A, Samuels L, Pipe A, Wun CC, Benowitz NL. Impact of smoking on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease receiving contemporary medical therapy (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] and the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trials). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 15; 107(2):145-50.
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      107. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Havel C, Wilson M, Jacob P. Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Dec; 19(12):3013-9.
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      108. Hatsukami DK, Perkins KA, Lesage MG, Ashley DL, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Backinger CL, Zeller M. Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):e1-10.
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      109. Piano MR, Benowitz NL, Fitzgerald GA, Corbridge S, Heath J, Hahn E, Pechacek TF, Howard G. Impact of smokeless tobacco products on cardiovascular disease: implications for policy, prevention, and treatment: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Oct 12; 122(15):1520-44.
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      110. Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P. Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov; 19(11):2795-800.
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      111. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Benowitz NL. Carbamazepine but not valproate induces CYP2A6 activity in smokers with mental illness. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct; 19(10):2582-9.
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      112. Mumenthaler MS, Benowitz NL, Taylor JL, Friedman L, Noda A, Yesavage JA. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010 Jul; 81(7):660-4.
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      113. Aquilina NJ, Delgado-Saborit JM, Meddings C, Baker S, Harrison RM, Jacob P, Wilson M, Yu L, Duan M, Benowitz NL. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population. Environ Int. 2010 Oct; 36(7):763-71.
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      114. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Shen J, Foulds J, Kipen H, Benowitz NL. Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Aug; 12(8):855-9.
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      115. Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17; 362(24):2295-303.
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      116. Gan Q, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA. Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):374-9.
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      117. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Yu L, Jacob P. Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 May; 19(5):1160-6.
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      118. Foianini A, Joseph Wiegand T, Benowitz N. What is the role of lidocaine or phenytoin in tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity? Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May; 48(4):325-30.
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      119. Lerman C, Jepson C, Wileyto EP, Patterson F, Schnoll R, Mroziewicz M, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF. Genetic variation in nicotine metabolism predicts the efficacy of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 May; 87(5):553-7.
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      120. Gandhi KK, Williams JM, Menza M, Galazyn M, Benowitz NL. Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jul 1; 110(1-2):151-5.
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      121. Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Benowitz NL. Varenicline and pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 2; 152(5):335-6.
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      122. Benowitz NL. Secondhand smoke and infectious disease in adults: A global women's health concern: Comment on "Passive Smoking and Tuberculosis". Arch Intern Med. 2010 Feb 8; 170(3):292-3.
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      123. Mwenifumbo JC, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Feb; 11(2):189-98.
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      124. Hukkanen J, Jacob Iii P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz NL. Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb; 69(2):152-9.
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      125. Rigotti NA, Pipe AL, Benowitz NL, Arteaga C, Garza D, Tonstad S. Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. Circulation. 2010 Jan 19; 121(2):221-9.
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      126. Gan Q, Yang J, Yang G, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA. Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3497-501.
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      127. Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Peng MW, Jacob P, Dempsey D, Yu L, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Czogala J, Sobczak A, Benowitz NL. Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3421-5.
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      128. Ho MK, Faseru B, Choi WS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Thomas JL, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3426-34.
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      129. Bernert JT, Jacob P, Holiday DB, Benowitz NL, Sosnoff CS, Doig MV, Feyerabend C, Aldous KM, Sharifi M, Kellogg MD, Langman LJ. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1458-66.
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      130. Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Matt GE, Liles S, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Larson SN, Benowitz NL. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1383-94.
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      131. Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Swan GE. Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2009 Oct; 12(5):507-13.
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      132. Benowitz NL, Schultz KE, Haller CA, Wu AH, Dains KM, Jacob P. Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 1; 170(7):885-91.
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      133. Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL. Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Aug 15; 5(4):365-71.
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      134. Eisner MD, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Balmes J, Blanc PD. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):945-53.
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      135. Thomas PD, Mi H, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF, Bergen AW, Conti DV. A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 Jul; 19(7):538-51.
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      136. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Herrera B, Yu L, Jacob P. Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):954-60.
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      137. He Y, Bergen AW, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Webster C, Benowitz N, Swan GE. Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Jun 5; 150B(4):554-9.
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      138. Bergen AW, Conti DV, Van Den Berg D, Lee W, Liu J, Li D, Guo N, Mi H, Thomas PD, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow R, He Y, Nishita D, Jiang R, McClure JB, Tildesley E, Hops H, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Swan GE. Dopamine genes and nicotine dependence in treatment-seeking and community smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Sep; 34(10):2252-64.
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      139. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Pickett KE, Benowitz NL, Wakschlag LS. Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jun; 6(6):1744-59.
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      140. Bondy SJ, Zhang B, Kreiger N, Selby P, Benowitz N, Travis H, Florescu A, Greenspan NR, Ferrence R. Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke. J Occup Environ Med. 2009 May; 51(5):612-9.
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      141. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Bergen AW, He Y, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 May; 19(5):388-98.
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      142. Ho MK, Mwenifumbo JC, Al Koudsi N, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jun; 85(6):635-43.
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      143. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar; 18(3):876-83.
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      144. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Feb; 11(2):185-9.
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      145. Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 49:57-71.
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      146. Benowitz NL, Hukkanen J, Jacob P. Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009; (192):29-60.
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      147. Benowitz NL, Bernert JT, Caraballo RS, Holiday DB, Wang J. Optimal serum cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15; 169(2):236-48.
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      148. Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Mar; 92(1):6-11.
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      149. Jacob P, Havel C, Lee DH, Yu L, Eisner MD, Benowitz NL. Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2008 Nov 1; 80(21):8115-21.
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      150. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Coddington S, Jetton C, Karelitz JL, Wilson A, Jennings JR, Ferrell R, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL. Gene and gene by sex associations with initial sensitivity to nicotine in nonsmokers. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):630-40.
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      151. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Grottenthaler A, Ciccocioppo MM, Milanak M, Conklin CA, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):641-9.
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      152. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e643-7.
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      153. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e595-600.
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      154. Sohn M, Benowitz N, Stotts N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Smoking behavior in men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease in Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive study. Heart Lung. 2008 Sep-Oct; 37(5):366-79.
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      155. Benowitz NL. Nicotine and postoperative management of pain. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):739-41.
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      156. Tutka P, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Kroetz DL. Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Aug; 10(8):1385-90.
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      157. Xing J, Chen M, Wood CG, Lin J, Spitz MR, Ma J, Amos CI, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, de Andrade M, Swan GE, Wu X. Mitochondrial DNA content: its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Aug 6; 100(15):1104-12.
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      158. Conti DV, Lee W, Li D, Liu J, Van Den Berg D, Thomas PD, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Sep 15; 17(18):2834-48.
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      159. Weiss ST, McLeod HL, Flockhart DA, Dolan ME, Benowitz NL, Johnson JA, Ratain MJ, Giacomini KM. Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008 Jul; 7(7):568-74.
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      160. Haller C, Kearney T, Bent S, Ko R, Benowitz N, Olson K. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project. J Med Toxicol. 2008 Jun; 4(2):84-92.
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      161. Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1009-20.
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      162. Triche EW, Grosso LM, Belanger K, Darefsky AS, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia. Epidemiology. 2008 May; 19(3):459-64.
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      163. Patterson F, Schnoll RA, Wileyto EP, Pinto A, Epstein LH, Shields PG, Hawk LW, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Toward personalized therapy for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial of bupropion. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Sep; 84(3):320-5.
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      164. Benowitz NL, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE. Genetic influences in the variation in renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug; 84(2):243-7.
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      165. Benowitz NL. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. Am J Med. 2008 Apr; 121(4 Suppl 1):S3-10.
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      166. Haller CA, Duan M, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jun; 65(6):833-40.
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      167. Grosso LM, Triche E, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB. Prenatal caffeine assessment: fetal and maternal biomarkers or self-reported intake? Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Mar; 18(3):172-8.
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      168. Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine: implications for understanding, preventing, and treating tobacco addiction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr; 83(4):531-41.
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      169. Figueiredo VC, Szklo M, Szklo AS, Benowitz N, Lozana JA, Casado L, Masson E, Samet J. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2007 Dec; 41(6):954-62.
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      170. Ring HZ, Valdes AM, Nishita DM, Prasad S, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Swan GE, Benowitz NL. Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Dec; 17(12):1007-15.
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      171. Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov; 16(11):2479-85.
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      172. Lazcano-Ponce E, Benowitz N, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Barbosa-Sanchez L, Valdes-Salgado R, Jacob P, Diaz R, Hernandez-Avila M. Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Oct; 9(10):1021-6.
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      173. Lin J, Swan GE, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, Amos CI, de Andrade M, Spitz MR, Wu X. Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: genotype-phenotype correlation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Oct; 16(10):2065-71.
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      174. Etter JF, Lukas RJ, Benowitz NL, West R, Dresler CM. Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Jan 1; 92(1-3):3-8.
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      175. Lerman C, LeSage MG, Perkins KA, O'Malley SS, Siegel SJ, Benowitz NL, Corrigall WA. Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007 Sep; 6(9):746-62.
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      176. Hutchison KE, Allen DL, Filbey FM, Jepson C, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Stitzel J, Bryan A, McGeary J, Haughey HM. CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 64(9):1078-86.
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      177. Sohn M, Stotts NA, Benowitz N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung. 2007 Sep-Oct; 36(5):339-47.
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      178. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Ziedonis DM, Benowitz NL. Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Aug; 9(8):873-81.
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      179. Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Lindgren B, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jul; 16(7):1382-6.
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      180. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and the personalization of irinotecan therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 1; 25(19):2646-7.
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      181. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow RE, Wilhelmsen KC, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1057-64.
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      182. Lee AM, Jepson C, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF. CYP2B6 genotype does not alter nicotine metabolism, plasma levels, or abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1312-4.
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      183. Mwenifumbo JC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Zhou Q, Krasnow RE, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Identification of novel CYP2A6*1B variants: the CYP2A6*1B allele is associated with faster in vivo nicotine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan; 83(1):115-21.
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      184. Altman RB, Benowitz N, Gurwitz D, Lunshof J, Relling M, Lamba J, Wieben E, Mooney S, Giacomini K, Weiss S, Johnson JA, McLeod H, Flockhart D, Weinshilboum R, Shuldiner AR, Roden D, Krauss RM, Ratain M. Genetic nondiscrimination legislation: a critical prerequisite for pharmacogenomics data sharing. Pharmacogenomics. 2007 May; 8(5):519.
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      185. Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Nov; 82(5):572-8.
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      186. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Benowitz N, Hans S, Wakschlag L. Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Apr; 9(4):453-65.
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      187. Giacomini KM, Brett CM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Dolan ME, Flockhart DA, Johnson JA, Hayes DF, Klein T, Krauss RM, Kroetz DL, McLeod HL, Nguyen AT, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Reus V, Roden DM, Schaefer CA, Shuldiner AR, Skaar T, Tantisira K, Tyndale RF, Wang L, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST, Zineh I. The pharmacogenetics research network: from SNP discovery to clinical drug response. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Mar; 81(3):328-45.
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      188. Kandel DB, Hu MC, Schaffran C, Udry JR, Benowitz NL. Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr 15; 165(8):901-10.
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      189. Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007 Jan 15; 79(2):587-98.
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      190. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB. Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):5-21.
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      191. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB. Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):23-34.
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      192. Mabry PL, Tooze JA, Moser RP, Augustson EM, Malcolm RJ, Benowitz NL. Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):65-82.
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      193. Matt GE, Hovell MF, Quintana PJ, Zakarian J, Liles S, Meltzer SB, Benowitz NL. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):83-92.
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      194. Rubinstein ML, Thompson PJ, Benowitz NL, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB. Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):129-35.
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      195. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Herrera B. Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec; 80(6):703-14.
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      196. Roden DM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Flockhart DA, Giacomini KM, Johnson JA, Krauss RM, McLeod HL, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Ring HZ, Shuldiner AR, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST. Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Nov 21; 145(10):749-57.
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      197. Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Liles S, Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Evaluation of urinary trans-3'-hydroxycotinine as a biomarker of children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Biomarkers. 2006 Nov-Dec; 11(6):507-23.
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      198. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):522-30.
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      199. Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Jacob P, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):457-67.
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      200. Blackford AL, Yang G, Hernandez-Avila M, Przewozniak K, Zatonski W, Figueiredo V, Avila-Tang E, Ma J, Benowitz NL, Samet JM. Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct; 15(10):1799-804.
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      201. Repace J, Hughes E, Benowitz N. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Oct; 8(5):701-11.
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      202. Thai D, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Haller CA. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 26(5):524-9.
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      203. Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A, Jacob R, Hinks L, Day I, Murphy M, Walton R. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Oct; 80(4):319-30.
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      204. Pletcher MJ, Hulley BJ, Houston T, Kiefe CI, Benowitz N, Sidney S. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25; 166(17):1915-22.
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      205. Murphy NG, Albin C, Tai W, Benowitz NL. Anabasine toxicity from a topical folk remedy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Sep; 45(7):669-71.
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      206. Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, Craig CR, Collins AC, Damaj MI, Donny EC, Gardiner PS, Grady SR, Heberlein U, Leonard SS, Levin ED, Lukas RJ, Markou A, Marks MJ, McCallum SE, Parameswaran N, Perkins KA, Picciotto MR, Quik M, Rose JE, Rothenfluh A, Schafer WR, Stolerman IP, Tyndale RF, Wehner JM, Zirger JM. Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Feb; 190(3):269-319.
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      207. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):600-22.
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      208. Kandel DB, Schaffran C, Griesler PC, Hu MC, Davies M, Benowitz N. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):525-37.
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      209. Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus E, Jensen C, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Packer L. Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers. Epidemiology. 2006 Jul; 17(4):404-12.
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      210. Lea RA, Dickson S, Benowitz NL. Within-subject variation of the salivary 3HC/COT ratio in regular daily smokers: prospects for estimating CYP2A6 enzyme activity in large-scale surveys of nicotine metabolic rate. J Anal Toxicol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 30(6):386-9.
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      211. Wu X, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Lin J, Shao L, Gu J, de Andrade M, Benowitz NL, Shields PG, Swan GE. Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: evidence from a twin study. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 15; 66(12):5993-6.
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      212. Eisner MD, Balmes J, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Hammond SK, Benowitz N, Blanc PD. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes. BMC Pulm Med. 2006; 6:12.
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      213. Swan GE, Hops H, Wilhelmsen KC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Cheng LS, Hudmon KS, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz N. A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006 Jun 5; 141B(4):354-60.
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      214. Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, Benowitz N. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jun; 79(6):600-8.
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      215. Benowitz NL, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE, Jacob P. Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May; 79(5):480-8.
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      216. Le Houezec J, Benowitz NL. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 107(5):1166; author reply 1168.
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      217. Al Koudsi N, Mwenifumbo JC, Sellers EM, Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Tyndale RF. Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Jun; 62(6):481-4.
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      218. Grosso LM, Triche EW, Belanger K, Benowitz NL, Holford TR, Bracken MB. Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity, and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 1; 163(11):1035-41.
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      219. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Apr; 8(2):169-91.
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      220. Malaiyandi V, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Jepson C, Patterson F, Tyndale RF. Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy. Mol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr; 11(4):400-9.
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      221. Lea R, Benowitz N, Green M, Fowles J, Vishvanath A, Dickson S, Lea M, Woodward A, Chambers G, Phillips D. Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders. N Z Med J. 2005 Dec 16; 118(1227):U1773.
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      222. Wilhelmsen KC, Swan GE, Cheng LS, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Hudmon KS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz NL, Hops H. Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2108-15.
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      223. Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med. 2005 Sep; 118(9):998-1003.
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      224. Hukkanen J, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 60(2):224-6.
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      225. Williams JM, Ziedonis DM, Abanyie F, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Benowitz NL. Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect. Schizophr Res. 2005 Nov 15; 79(2-3):323-35.
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      226. Gray N, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Connolly GN, Dresler C, Fagerstrom K, Jarvis MJ, Boyle P. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy. Tob Control. 2005 Jun; 14(3):161-5.
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      227. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Bernert JT, Wilson M, Wang L, Allen F, Dempsey D. Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jun; 14(6):1376-83.
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      228. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun; 77(6):560-71.
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      229. Hukkanen J, Gourlay SG, Kenkare S, Benowitz NL. Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar; 77(3):159-69.
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      230. Csajka C, Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Verotta D. Mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling of ephedrine, norephedrine and caffeine in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar; 59(3):335-45.
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      231. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev. 2005 Mar; 57(1):79-115.
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      232. Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Lessov CN, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K. Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Feb; 15(2):115-25.
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      233. Vukovich MD, Schoorman R, Heilman C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 32(1-2):47-53.
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      234. Gelal A, Balkan D, Ozzeybek D, Kaplan YC, Gurler S, Guven H, Benowitz NL. Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan; 60(11):785-90.
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      235. Campuzano JC, Hernandez-Avila M, Jaakkola MS, Lazcano Ponce E, Kuri Morales P, Bautista P, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Blackford A, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Dec; 6(6):997-1008.
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      236. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 8; 164(20):2206-16.
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      237. Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Lessov CN, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K, Krasnow RE, McElroy MR, Moore SE, Wambach M. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures. Twin Res. 2004 Oct; 7(5):435-48.
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      238. Hughes JR, Benowitz N, Hatsukami D, Mermelstein RJ, Shiffman S. Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Oct; 6(5):863-4.
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      239. Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob P, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul; 76(1):64-72.
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      240. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Connolly GN, Davis RM, Gray N, Myers ML, Zeller M. Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation. Tob Control. 2004 Jun; 13(2):132-5.
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      241. Benowitz NL, Herrera B, Jacob P. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3):1208-15.
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      242. Haller CA, Duan M, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):145-51.
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      243. Jacob P, Haller CA, Duan M, Yu L, Peng M, Benowitz NL. Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):152-9.
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      244. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr; 75(4):259-73.
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      245. Benowitz N, Dempsey D. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Apr; 6 Suppl 2:S189-202.
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      246. Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Perkins K, Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Mar 16; 140(6):426-33.
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      247. Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Barenboim D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Bupropion in breast milk: an exposure assessment for potential treatment to prevent post-partum tobacco use. Tob Control. 2004 Mar; 13(1):52-6.
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      248. Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Miller NH, Christopherson DJ, Martin K, Parker KM, Amonetti M, Lin Z, Sohn M, Benowitz N, Taylor CB, Bacchetti P. High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS). Circulation. 2004 Feb 10; 109(5):587-93.
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      249. Benowitz NL. Smoking less as a treatment goal for those who cannot stop smoking. Am J Med. 2004 Feb 1; 116(3):203-5.
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      250. Lerman C, Wileyto EP, Patterson F, Rukstalis M, Audrain-McGovern J, Restine S, Shields PG, Kaufmann V, Redden D, Benowitz N, Berrettini WH. The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004; 4(3):184-92.
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      251. Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL. Clonidine for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (3):CD000058.
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      252. Miao FJ, Green PG, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Central terminals of nociceptors are targets for nicotine suppression of inflammation. Neuroscience. 2004; 123(3):777-84.
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      253. Sohn M, Hartley C, Froelicher ES, Benowitz NL. Tobacco use and dependence. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):250-60.
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      254. Benowitz NL, Peng M, Jacob P. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Nov; 74(5):468-74.
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      255. Benowitz NL, Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Jacob P. Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Oct; 5(5):621-4.
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      256. Swan GE, Hudmon KS, Jack LM, Hemberger K, Carmelli D, Khroyan TV, Ring HZ, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, McBride D, Benowitz N, Webster C, Wilhelmsen KC, Feiler HS, Koenig B, Caron L, Illes J, Cheng LS. Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Oct; 12(10):994-1005.
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      257. Miao FJ, Green P, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Oct; 45(5):605-11.
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      258. Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 19; 139(4):258-66.
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      259. Gelal A, Guven H, Balkan D, Artok L, Benowitz NL. Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Sep; 59(5-6):417-22.
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      260. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003 Jul-Aug; 46(1):91-111.
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      261. Patterson F, Benowitz N, Shields P, Kaufmann V, Jepson C, Wileyto P, Kucharski S, Lerman C. Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 May; 12(5):468-71.
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      262. Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med. 2003 Mar; 36(3):282-90.
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      263. Winston L, Benowitz N. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: how much monitoring is truly required? Am J Med. 2003 Feb 15; 114(3):239-40.
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      264. Benowitz NL. Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Feb 5; 41(3):497-8.
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      265. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Ahijevych K, Garrett BE, Connolly GN, Wayne GF. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Feb; 5(1):9-11.
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      266. Dietrich M, Block G, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Jacob P, Norkus EP, Packer L. Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Nutr Cancer. 2003; 45(2):176-84.
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      267. Jacob P, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Dec; 11(12):1668-73.
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      268. Mahrer-Imhof R, Froelicher ES, Li WW, Parker KM, Benowitz N. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy. Heart Lung. 2002 Sep-Oct; 31(5):368-73.
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      269. Pitsiu M, Gries JM, Benowitz N, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Modeling nicotine arterial-venous differences to predict arterial concentrations and input based on venous measurements: application to smokeless tobacco and nicotine gum. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Aug; 29(4):383-402.
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      270. Benowitz NL. Smoking cessation trials targeted to racial and economic minority groups. JAMA. 2002 Jul 24-31; 288(4):497-9.
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      271. Wakschlag LS, Pickett KE, Cook E, Benowitz NL, Leventhal BL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jun; 92(6):966-74.
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      272. Benowitz NL, Hansson A, Jacob P. Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking. Hypertension. 2002 Jun; 39(6):1107-12.
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      273. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun; 71(6):421-32.
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      274. Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 May; 301(2):594-8.
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      275. Campbell BJ, Rowbotham M, Davies PS, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster. J Pharm Sci. 2002 May; 91(5):1343-50.
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      276. Hsue PY, Salinas CL, Bolger AF, Benowitz NL, Waters DD. Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine. Circulation. 2002 Apr 2; 105(13):1592-5.
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      277. Kosel BW, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Shade SB, Hilton JF, Lizak PS, Abrams DI. The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir. AIDS. 2002 Mar 8; 16(4):543-50.
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      278. Schaedeli F, Pitsiu M, Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Feb; 29(1):49-66.
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      279. Benowitz NL, Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jan 16; 94(2):108-15.
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      280. Hatsukami DK, Slade J, Benowitz NL, Giovino GA, Gritz ER, Leischow S, Warner KE. Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002; 4 Suppl 2:S89-101.
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      281. Benowitz NL, Griffin C, Tyndale R. Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine continued. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Dec; 70(6):567.
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      282. Zevin S, Saunders S, Gourlay SG, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Cardiovascular effects of carbon monoxide and cigarette smoking. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15; 38(6):1633-8.
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      283. Sekhon HS, Keller JA, Benowitz NL, Spindel ER. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters pulmonary function in newborn rhesus monkeys. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Sep 15; 164(6):989-94.
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      284. Mannino DM, Caraballo R, Benowitz N, Repace J. Predictors of cotinine levels in US children: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chest. 2001 Sep; 120(3):718-24.
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      285. Benowitz NL. Safety of nicotine in smokers with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2001 Jul; 14(7 Pt 1):731-2.
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      286. D'Alessandro A, Benowitz NL, Muzi G, Eisner MD, Filiberto S, Fantozzi P, Montanari L, Abbritti G. Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters. Arch Environ Health. 2001 May-Jun; 56(3):257-63.
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      287. Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Levine JD. Endogenous opioids suppress activation of nociceptors by sub-nanomolar nicotine. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 May; 133(1):23-8.
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      288. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine: disposition kinetics, effects and plasma levels during cigarette smoking. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan; 51(1):53-9.
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      289. Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy. Drug Saf. 2001; 24(4):277-322.
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      290. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 21; 343(25):1833-8.
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      291. Jacob P, Wu S, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2000 Sep; 23(4):653-61.
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      292. Zevin S, Jacob P, Geppetti P, Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of oral cotinine. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000 Jul 1; 60(1):13-8.
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      293. Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D. Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jul; 56(4):305-10.
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      294. Jarvik ME, Madsen DC, Olmstead RE, Iwamoto-Schaap PN, Elins JL, Benowitz NL. Nicotine blood levels and subjective craving for cigarettes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Jul; 66(3):553-8.
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      295. Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Nicotine-mecamylamine interactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jul; 68(1):58-66.
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      296. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on nicotine and cotinine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun; 67(6):653-9.
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      297. Drey EA, Thomas LJ, Benowitz NL, Goldschlager N, Darney PD. Safety of intra-amniotic digoxin administration before late second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 May; 182(5):1063-6.
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      298. Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolism and elimination kinetics in newborns. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 May; 67(5):458-65.
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      299. Chalon S, Moreno H, Benowitz NL, Hoffman BB, Blaschke TF. Nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in human veins in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Apr; 67(4):391-7.
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      300. Balfour D, Benowitz N, Fagerström K, Kunze M, Keil U. Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy. A status report. Eur Heart J. 2000 Mar; 21(6):438-45.
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      301. Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL. Clonidine for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; (2):CD000058.
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      302. Arciero PJ, Bougopoulos CL, Nindl BC, Benowitz NL. Influence of age on the thermic response to caffeine in women. Metabolism. 2000 Jan; 49(1):101-7.
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      303. Benowitz NL, Dempsey DA, Goldenberg RL, Hughes JR, Dolan-Mullen P, Ogburn PL, Oncken C, Orleans CT, Slotkin TA, Whiteside HP, Yaffe S. The use of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Tob Control. 2000; 9 Suppl 3:III91-4.
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      304. Benowitz NL, Perez-Stable EJ, Fong I, Modin G, Herrera B, Jacob P. Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Dec; 291(3):1196-203.
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      305. Benowitz NL. Snuff, nicotine and cardiovascular disease: implications for tobacco control. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Nov 15; 34(6):1791-3.
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      306. Sharp DS, Everhart JE, Benowitz NL. Coffee, alcohol, and the liver. Ann Epidemiol. 1999 Oct; 9(7):391-3.
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      307. Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. Prim Care. 1999 Sep; 26(3):611-31.
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      308. Gelal A, Jacob P, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Aug; 66(2):128-35.
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      309. Zevin S, Benowitz NL. Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1999 Jun; 36(6):425-38.
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      310. Jacob P, Yu L, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes. Am J Public Health. 1999 May; 89(5):731-6.
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      311. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 May; 107 Suppl 2:349-55.
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      312. Fenster L, Quale C, Waller K, Windham GC, Elkin EP, Benowitz N, Swan SH. Caffeine consumption and menstrual function. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Mar 15; 149(6):550-7.
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      313. Elkin EP, Windham GC, Benowitz NL, Swan SH. Occasional smoking in a study of premenopausal women. Am J Public Health. 1999 Mar; 89(3):420-1.
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      314. Benowitz NL. The biology of nicotine dependence: from the 1988 Surgeon General's Report to the present and into the future. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999; 1 Suppl 2:S159-63.
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      315. Benowitz NL, Zevin S, Jacob P. Suppression of nicotine intake during ad libitum cigarette smoking by high-dose transdermal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Dec; 287(3):958-62.
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      316. Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Benowitz NL, Poehlman ET. Relationship of blood pressure, heart rate and behavioral mood state to norepinephrine kinetics in younger and older men following caffeine ingestion. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov; 52(11):805-12.
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      317. Zevin S, Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine. Clin Dermatol. 1998 Sep-Oct; 16(5):557-64.
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      318. Bernstein GA, Carroll ME, Dean NW, Crosby RD, Perwien AR, Benowitz NL. Caffeine withdrawal in normal school-age children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998 Aug; 37(8):858-65.
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      319. Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolism and intake in black and white smokers. JAMA. 1998 Jul 8; 280(2):152-6.
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      320. Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Dose-related cardiovascular and endocrine effects of transdermal nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jul; 64(1):87-95.
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      321. Winders SE, Grunberg NE, Benowitz NL, Alvares AP. Effects of stress on circulating nicotine and cotinine levels and in vitro nicotine metabolism in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Jun; 137(4):383-90.
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      322. Gries JM, Benowitz N, Verotta D. Importance of chronopharmacokinetics in design and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systems. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 May; 285(2):457-63.
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      323. Fenster L, Quale C, Hiatt RA, Wilson M, Windham GC, Benowitz NL. Rate of caffeine metabolism and risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Mar 1; 147(5):503-10.
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      324. Denaro CP, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic methods used to estimate caffeine clearance and comparison with a Bayesian forecasting method. Ther Drug Monit. 1998 Feb; 20(1):78-87.
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      325. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Slade J, Houston TP, Davis RM, Deitchman SD. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Tob Control. 1998; 7(3):281-93.
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      326. Herzig KE, Callaway E, Halliday R, Naylor H, Benowitz NL. Effects of cotinine on information processing in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Jan; 135(2):127-32.
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      327. Benowitz NL. Birthing of clinical pharmacologists. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Dec; 62(6):587-91.
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      328. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Slade J, Yu L. Nicotine content of the eclipse nicotine delivery device. Am J Public Health. 1997 Nov; 87(11):1865-6.
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      329. Benowitz NL. Treating tobacco addiction--nicotine or no nicotine? N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 23; 337(17):1230-1.
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      330. Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. Arteriovenous differences in plasma concentration of nicotine and catecholamines and related cardiovascular effects after smoking, nicotine nasal spray, and intravenous nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Oct; 62(4):453-63.
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      331. Benowitz NL. Systemic absorption and effects of nicotine from smokeless tobacco. Adv Dent Res. 1997 Sep; 11(3):336-41.
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      332. Fenster L, Hubbard AE, Swan SH, Windham GC, Waller K, Hiatt RA, Benowitz N. Caffeinated beverages, decaffeinated coffee, and spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology. 1997 Sep; 8(5):515-23.
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      333. Mahmarian JJ, Moyé LA, Nasser GA, Nagueh SF, Bloom MF, Benowitz NL, Verani MS, Byrd WG, Pratt CM. Nicotine patch therapy in smoking cessation reduces the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Jul; 30(1):125-30.
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      334. Zieman M, Fong SK, Benowitz NL, Banskter D, Darney PD. Absorption kinetics of misoprostol with oral or vaginal administration. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Jul; 90(1):88-92.
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      335. Benowitz NL. The role of nicotine in smoking-related cardiovascular disease. Prev Med. 1997 Jul-Aug; 26(4):412-7.
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      336. Zevin S, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Cotinine effects on nicotine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Jun; 61(6):649-54.
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      337. Fattinger K, Verotta D, Benowitz NL. Pharmacodynamics of acute tolerance to multiple nicotinic effects in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun; 281(3):1238-46.
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      338. Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Jun; 29(7):1422-31.
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      339. Heishman SJ, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Hatsukami DK, Lindstrom JM, Ockene JK. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Addiction. 1997 May; 92(5):615-33.
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      340. Benowitz NL, Zevin S, Jacob P. Sources of variability in nicotine and cotinine levels with use of nicotine nasal spray, transdermal nicotine, and cigarette smoking. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Mar; 43(3):259-67.
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      341. Schneider NG, Jacob P, Nilsson F, Leischow SJ, Benowitz NL, Olmstead RE. Saliva cotinine levels as a function of collection method. Addiction. 1997 Mar; 92(3):347-51.
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      342. Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Heller PH, Levine JD. Contribution of adrenal hormones to nicotine-induced inhibition of synovial plasma extravasation in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jan; 120(2):298-304.
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      343. Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL, Forbes A, McNeil JJ. Determinants of plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine during cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine treatment. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 51(5):407-14.
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      344. Burns D, Benowitz N, N'Connolly GN, Cummings KM, Davis RM, Henningfield JE, Shopland DR, Warner KE. What should be the elements of any settlement with the tobacco industry? Tob Control. 1997; 6(1):1-4.
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      345. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Individual differences in nicotine kinetics and metabolism in humans. NIDA Res Monogr. 1997; 173:48-64.
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      346. Gries JM, Benowitz N, Verotta D. Chronopharmacokinetics of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Oct; 60(4):385-95.
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      347. Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. The benefits of stopping smoking and the role of nicotine replacement therapy in older patients. Drugs Aging. 1996 Jul; 9(1):8-23.
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      348. Benowitz NL, Zevin S, Carlsen S, Wright J, Schambelan M, Cheitlin M. Orthostatic hypertension due to vascular adrenergic hypersensitivity. Hypertension. 1996 Jul; 28(1):42-6.
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      349. Denaro CP, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. The effect of liver disease on urine caffeine metabolite ratios. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Jun; 59(6):624-35.
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      350. Miao FJ, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Neural and endocrine circuits mediating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by subcutaneous and spinal-intrathecal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jun; 277(3):1510-6.
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      351. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Perez-Stable E. CYP2D6 phenotype and the metabolism of nicotine and cotinine. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Jun; 6(3):239-42.
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      352. Sachs DP, Benowitz NL. Individualizing medical treatment for tobacco dependence. Eur Respir J. 1996 Apr; 9(4):629-31.
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      353. Hussain TF, Heidenreich PA, Benowitz N. Recurrent non-Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with toluene abuse. Am Heart J. 1996 Mar; 131(3):615-6.
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      354. Denaro CP, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Validation of urine caffeine metabolite ratios with use of stable isotope-labeled caffeine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Mar; 59(3):284-96.
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      355. Perkins KA, Benowitz N, Henningfield J, Newhouse P, Pomerleau O, Swan G. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Addiction. 1996 Jan; 91(1):129-44.
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      356. Benowitz NL. Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Epidemiol Rev. 1996; 18(2):188-204.
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      357. Walter FG, Bey TA, Ruschke DS, Benowitz NL. Marijuana and hyperthermia. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996; 34(2):217-21.
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      358. Shusterman D, Alexeeff G, Hargis C, Kaplan J, Sato R, Gelb A, Becker C, Benowitz N, Gillen M, Thollaug S, Balmes J. Predictors of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996; 34(1):61-71.
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      359. Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction and therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996; 36:597-613.
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      360. Mumford GK, Benowitz NL, Evans SM, Kaminski BJ, Preston KL, Sannerud CA, Silverman K, Griffiths RR. Absorption rate of methylxanthines following capsules, cola and chocolate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996; 51(3-4):319-25.
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      361. Kimmel SE, Benowitz N. Smoking cessation and the nicotine patch: much more to be done. J Gen Intern Med. 1995 Dec; 10(12):697-8.
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      362. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Mayan H, Denaro C. Sympathomimetic effects of paraxanthine and caffeine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995 Dec; 58(6):684-91.
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      363. Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. Is clonidine an effective smoking cessation therapy? Drugs. 1995 Aug; 50(2):197-207.
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      364. Sharp DS, Benowitz NL, Bath PM, Martin JF, Beswick AD, Elwood PC. Cigarette smoking sensitizes and desensitizes impedance-measured ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Aug; 74(2):730-5.
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      365. Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Calles-Escandon J, Benowitz NL, Poehlman ET. Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jun; 268(6 Pt 1):E1192-8.
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      366. Benowitz NL. Nicotine patches. BMJ. 1995 May 27; 310(6991):1409-10.
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      367. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Sachs DP. Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995 May; 57(5):590-4.
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      368. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL. Cigarettes and addiction. BMJ. 1995 Apr 29; 310(6987):1082-3.
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      369. Pérez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL, Marín G. Is serum cotinine a better measure of cigarette smoking than self-report? Prev Med. 1995 Mar; 24(2):171-9.
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      370. Sharp DS, Benowitz NL. Re: "Alcohol, smoking, coffee, and cirrhosis" and "coffee and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: a study of self-defense officials in Japan". Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Mar 1; 141(5):480-2.
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      371. Neese RA, Benowitz NL, Hoh R, Faix D, LaBua A, Pun K, Hellerstein MK. Metabolic interactions between surplus dietary energy intake and cigarette smoking or its cessation. Am J Physiol. 1994 Dec; 267(6 Pt 1):E1023-34.
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      372. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Metabolism of nicotine to cotinine studied by a dual stable isotope method. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Nov; 56(5):483-93.
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      373. Sharp DS, Benowitz NL. Re: "Inconsistent associations of caffeine-containing beverages with blood pressure and with lipoproteins: the CARDIA Study". Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Oct 1; 140(7):665-7.
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      374. Chou TM, Benowitz NL. Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1994 Oct; 109(2):173-89.
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      375. Miao FJ, Jänig W, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Heller PH, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Role of vagal afferents and spinal pathways modulating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine. J Neurophysiol. 1994 Sep; 72(3):1199-207.
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      376. Henningfield JE, Kozlowski LT, Benowitz NL. A proposal to develop meaningful labeling for cigarettes. JAMA. 1994 Jul 27; 272(4):312-4.
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      377. Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE. Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction. The implications for tobacco regulation. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 14; 331(2):123-5.
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      378. Arcavi L, Jacob P, Hellerstein M, Benowitz NL. Divergent tolerance to metabolic and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in smokers with low and high levels of cigarette consumption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Jul; 56(1):55-64.
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      379. Benowitz NL, Leistikow B. Environmental tobacco smoke hazards and benefits of work-site nonsmoking programs. West J Med. 1994 Jun; 160(6):562-3.
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      380. Olson KR, Kearney TE, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Blanc PD. Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose. Am J Emerg Med. 1994 May; 12(3):392-5.
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      381. Le Houezec J, Halliday R, Benowitz NL, Callaway E, Naylor H, Herzig K. A low dose of subcutaneous nicotine improves information processing in non-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May; 114(4):628-34.
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      382. Bernstein GA, Carroll ME, Crosby RD, Perwien AR, Go FS, Benowitz NL. Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994 Mar-Apr; 33(3):407-15.
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      383. Hellerstein MK, Benowitz NL, Neese RA, Schwartz JM, Hoh R, Jacob P, Hsieh J, Faix D. Effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in heavy smokers. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jan; 93(1):265-72.
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      384. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Fong I, Gupta S. Nicotine metabolic profile in man: comparison of cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan; 268(1):296-303.
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      385. Olson KR, Kearney TE, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Blanc PD. Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose. Am J Emerg Med. 1993 Nov; 11(6):565-8.
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      386. Park SB, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Cashman JR. Stereoselective metabolism of (S)-(-)-nicotine in humans: formation of trans-(S)-(-)-nicotine N-1'-oxide. Chem Res Toxicol. 1993 Nov-Dec; 6(6):880-8.
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      387. Benowitz NL, Fitzgerald GA, Wilson M, Zhang Q. Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Oct; 22(4):1159-67.
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      388. Rose JE, Levin ED, Benowitz N. Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users. Ther Drug Monit. 1993 Oct; 15(5):431-5.
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      389. Jacob P, Yu L, Liang G, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for determination of anabasine, anatabine and other tobacco alkaloids in urine of smokers and smokeless tobacco users. J Chromatogr. 1993 Sep 8; 619(1):49-61.
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      390. Gupta SK, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rolf CN, Gorsline J. Bioavailability and absorption kinetics of nicotine following application of a transdermal system. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Sep; 36(3):221-7.
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      391. Benowitz NL. Smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction: implications for therapeutic use of nicotine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep; 22(3):648-9.
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      392. Henningfield JE, Stapleton JM, Benowitz NL, Grayson RF, London ED. Higher levels of nicotine in arterial than in venous blood after cigarette smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1993 Jun; 33(1):23-9.
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      393. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Clinical significance of genetic influences on cardiovascular drug metabolism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1993 Jun; 7(3):311-24.
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      394. Lee BL, Wong D, Benowitz NL, Sullam PM. Altered patterns of drug metabolism in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993 May; 53(5):529-35.
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      395. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Nicotine and cotinine elimination pharmacokinetics in smokers and nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993 Mar; 53(3):316-23.
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      396. Roll RL, Jones TA, Benowitz NL, Morley BJ. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function. Brain Res. 1993 Feb 26; 604(1-2):260-5.
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      397. Benowitz NL. Nicotine replacement therapy. What has been accomplished--can we do better? Drugs. 1993 Feb; 45(2):157-70.
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      398. Miao FJ, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Adrenal medullary modulation of the inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Feb; 264(2):839-44.
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      399. Forsyth JC, Mueller PD, Becker CE, Osterloh J, Benowitz NL, Rumack BH, Hall AH. Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993; 31(2):277-94.
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      400. Shi J, Benowitz NL, Denaro CP, Sheiner LB. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of caffeine: tolerance to pressor effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993 Jan; 53(1):6-14.
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      401. Le Houezec J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. A clinical pharmacological study of subcutaneous nicotine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1993; 44(3):225-30.
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      402. Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993 Jan; 72(1):3-12.
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      403. Jacob P, Shulgin AT, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Determination of the nicotine metabolite trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in urine of smokers using gas chromatography with nitrogen-selective detection or selected ion monitoring. J Chromatogr. 1992 Dec 2; 583(2):145-54.
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      404. Miao FJ, Helms C, Benowitz NL, Basbaum AI, Heller PH, Levine JD. Chronically administered nicotine attenuates bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation and aggravates arthritis-induced joint injury in the rat. Neuroscience. 1992 Dec; 51(3):649-55.
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      405. Geller RJ, Benowitz NL. Orthostatic hypotension in ciguatera fish poisoning. Arch Intern Med. 1992 Oct; 152(10):2131-3.
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      406. Benowitz NL. The genetics of drug dependence: tobacco addiction. N Engl J Med. 1992 Sep 17; 327(12):881-3.
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      407. Vestal RE, Benowitz NL. Workshop on problem-based learning as a method for teaching clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in medical school. J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Sep; 32(9):779-97.
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      408. Cashman JR, Park SB, Yang ZC, Wrighton SA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Metabolism of nicotine by human liver microsomes: stereoselective formation of trans-nicotine N'-oxide. Chem Res Toxicol. 1992 Sep-Oct; 5(5):639-46.
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      409. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Olsson P, Johansson CJ. Intravenous nicotine retards transdermal absorption of nicotine: evidence of blood flow--limited percutaneous absorption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992 Sep; 52(3):223-30.
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      410. Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Sympathoadrenal contribution to nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Sep; 262(3):889-95.
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      411. Benowitz NL. Cardiotoxicity in the workplace. Occup Med. 1992 Jul-Sep; 7(3):465-78.
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      412. Siegel D, Benowitz N, Ernster VL, Grady DG, Hauck WW. Smokeless tobacco, cardiovascular risk factors, and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players. Am J Public Health. 1992 Mar; 82(3):417-21.
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      413. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. Med Clin North Am. 1992 Mar; 76(2):415-37.
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      414. Benowitz NL. How toxic is cocaine? Ciba Found Symp. 1992; 166:125-43; discussion 143-8.
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      415. Henningfield JE, Obarzanek E, Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Klesges RC, Leischow S, Levin ED, Perkins KA, Spring B, Stitzer M, et al. National working conference on smoking and body weight. Task Force 2: Methods of assessment, strategies for research. Health Psychol. 1992; 11 Suppl:10-6.
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      416. Pérez-Stable EJ, Marín G, Marín BV, Benowitz NL. Misclassification of smoking status by self-reported cigarette consumption. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Jan; 145(1):53-7.
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      417. Shiffman S, Zettler-Segal M, Kassel J, Paty J, Benowitz NL, O'Brien G. Nicotine elimination and tolerance in non-dependent cigarette smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 109(4):449-56.
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      418. Benowitz NL. Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy. JAMA. 1991 Dec 11; 266(22):3174-7.
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      419. Le Houezec J, Benowitz NL. Basic and clinical psychopharmacology of nicotine. Clin Chest Med. 1991 Dec; 12(4):681-99.
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      420. Benowitz NL. Nicotine and coronary heart disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1991 Dec; 1(8):315-21.
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      421. Pearigen PD, Benowitz NL. Poisoning due to calcium antagonists. Experience with verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine. Drug Saf. 1991 Nov-Dec; 6(6):408-30.
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      422. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Nicotine metabolism in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Oct; 50(4):462-4.
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      423. Benowitz NL, Chan K, Denaro CP, Jacob P. Stable isotope method for studying transdermal drug absorption: the nicotine patch. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Sep; 50(3):286-93.
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      424. Cheitlin MD, Byrd R, Benowitz N, Liu E, Modin G. Amiloride improves hemodynamics in patients with chronic congestive heart failure treated with chronic digoxin and diuretics. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991 Aug; 5(4):719-25.
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      425. Benowitz NL. Pharmacodynamics of nicotine: implications for rational treatment of nicotine addiction. Br J Addict. 1991 May; 86(5):495-9.
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      426. Jacob P, Yu L, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Selected ion monitoring method for determination of nicotine, cotinine and deuterium-labeled analogs: absence of an isotope effect in the clearance of (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2 in humans. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1991 May; 20(5):247-52.
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      427. Duan MJ, Yu L, Savanapridi C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine-1'-N-oxide in rabbits. Drug Metab Dispos. 1991 May-Jun; 19(3):667-72.
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      428. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Denaro C, Jenkins R. Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Mar; 49(3):270-7.
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      429. Jones CJ, Schiffman MH, Kurman R, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Elevated nicotine levels in cervical lavages from passive smokers. Am J Public Health. 1991 Mar; 81(3):378-9.
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      430. Denaro CP, Brown CR, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Effects of caffeine with repeated dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991; 40(3):273-8.
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      431. Kim SY, Benowitz NL. Poisoning due to class IA antiarrhythmic drugs. Quinidine, procainamide and disopyramide. Drug Saf. 1990 Nov-Dec; 5(6):393-420.
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      432. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Nicotine metabolism in nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Oct; 48(4):473-4.
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      433. Medina I, Mills J, Leoung G, Hopewell PC, Lee B, Modin G, Benowitz N, Wofsy CB. Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone. N Engl J Med. 1990 Sep 20; 323(12):776-82.
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      434. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Intravenous nicotine replacement suppresses nicotine intake from cigarette smoking. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Sep; 254(3):1000-5.
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      435. Pérez-Stable EJ, Marín BV, Marín G, Brody DJ, Benowitz NL. Apparent underreporting of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers. Am J Public Health. 1990 Sep; 80(9):1057-61.
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      436. Denaro CP, Brown CR, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Dose-dependency of caffeine metabolism with repeated dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Sep; 48(3):277-85.
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      437. Mueller PD, Benowitz NL, Olson KR. Cocaine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1990 Aug; 8(3):481-93.
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      438. Ernster VL, Grady DG, Greene JC, Walsh M, Robertson P, Daniels TE, Benowitz N, Siegel D, Gerbert B, Hauck WW. Smokeless tobacco use and health effects among baseball players. JAMA. 1990 Jul 11; 264(2):218-24.
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      439. Jacob P, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL. Synthesis of (3'R,5'S)-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine. Metabolic formation of 3'-hydroxycotinine in humans is highly stereoselective. J Med Chem. 1990 Jul; 33(7):1888-91.
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      440. Benowitz NL. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1990 Jun 15; 25(6):163-70, 173-4, 177.
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      441. Kirch DG, Taylor TR, Gerhardt GA, Benowitz NL, Stephen C, Wyatt RJ. Effect of chronic caffeine administration on monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in rat brain. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Jun; 29(6):599-602.
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      442. Sharp DS, Benowitz NL, Osterloh JD, Becker CE, Smith AH, Syme SL. Influence of race, tobacco use, and caffeine use on the relation between blood pressure and blood lead concentration. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 May; 131(5):845-54.
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      443. Henningfield JE, London ED, Benowitz NL. Arterial-venous differences in plasma concentrations of nicotine after cigarette smoking. JAMA. 1990 Apr 18; 263(15):2049-50.
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      444. Shiffman S, Fischer LB, Zettler-Segal M, Benowitz NL. Nicotine exposure among nondependent smokers. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Apr; 47(4):333-6.
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      445. Zhang Y, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Determination of nornicotine in smokers' urine by gas chromatography following reductive alkylation to N'-propylnornicotine. J Chromatogr. 1990 Feb 23; 525(2):349-57.
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      446. Benowitz NL. Pharmacokinetic considerations in understanding nicotine dependence. Ciba Found Symp. 1990; 152:186-200; discussion 200-9.
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      447. Sharp DS, Benowitz NL. Pharmacoepidemiology of the effect of caffeine on blood pressure. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Jan; 47(1):57-60.
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      448. Benowitz NL. Pheochromocytoma. Adv Intern Med. 1990; 35:195-219.
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      449. Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Annu Rev Med. 1990; 41:277-88.
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      450. Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of inhaled drugs of abuse: implications in understanding nicotine dependence. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 99:12-29.
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      451. Jacob P, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Shulgin AT, Lewis ER, Elias-Baker BA. Cocaine smokers excrete a pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1990; 28(1):121-5.
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      452. Denaro CP, Benowitz NL. Poisoning due to class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs. Lignocaine, mexiletine and tocainide. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1989 Nov-Dec; 4(6):412-28.
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      453. Brown CR, Benowitz NL. Caffeine and cigarette smoking: behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic interactions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Nov; 34(3):565-70.
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      454. Benowitz NL, Sharp DS. Inverse relation between serum cotinine concentration and blood pressure in cigarette smokers. Circulation. 1989 Nov; 80(5):1309-12.
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      455. Matsunga SK, Plezia PM, Karol MD, Katz MD, Camilli AE, Benowitz NL. Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Oct; 46(4):399-407.
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      456. Lee BL, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Sulfonium salts as derivatizing agents. 2. Determination of theophylline in plasma by automated gas chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1989 Sep 29; 494:109-17.
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      457. Mueller PD, Benowitz NL. Toxicologic causes of acute abdominal disorders. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1989 Aug; 7(3):667-82.
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      458. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Yu L. Daily use of smokeless tobacco: systemic effects. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Jul 15; 111(2):112-6.
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      459. Lee BL, Jacob P, Jarvik ME, Benowitz NL. Food and nicotine metabolism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Jul; 33(3):621-5.
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      460. Benowitz NL. Health and public policy implications of the "low yield" cigarette. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jun 15; 320(24):1619-21.
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      461. Denaro C, Benowitz N. Diabetic patients and hepatic drug metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Jun; 45(6):695-6.
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      462. Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Modin G. Persistent increase in caffeine concentrations in people who stop smoking. BMJ. 1989 Apr 22; 298(6680):1075-6.
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      463. Lee BL, Medina I, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Wofsy CB, Mills J. Dapsone, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole plasma levels during treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence of drug interactions. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Apr 15; 110(8):606-11.
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      464. Cherek DR, Bennett RH, Kelly TH, Steinberg JL, Benowitz NL. Effects of nicotine gum and tobacco smoking on human avoidance responding. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Mar; 32(3):677-81.
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      465. Hall SM, McGee R, Tunstall C, Duffy J, Benowitz N. Changes in food intake and activity after quitting smoking. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989 Feb; 57(1):81-6.
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      466. Benowitz NL, Lee BL, Jacob P. Nicotine gum and theophylline metabolism. Biomed Pharmacother. 1989; 43(1):1-3.
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      467. Sachs DP, Benowitz N. Are smokers trying to stop and smokers not trying to stop the same experimental model? NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:366-7.
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      468. Benowitz NL, Porchet H, Jacob P. Nicotine dependence and tolerance in man: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations. Prog Brain Res. 1989; 79:279-87.
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      469. Benowitz NL. Drug therapy. Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addition. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 17; 319(20):1318-30.
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      470. Benowitz NL. Sodium intake from smokeless tobacco. N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 29; 319(13):873-4.
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      471. Benowitz NL. Nicotine and smokeless tobacco. CA Cancer J Clin. 1988 Jul-Aug; 38(4):244-7.
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      472. Benowitz NL, Porchet H, Sheiner L, Jacob P. Nicotine absorption and cardiovascular effects with smokeless tobacco use: comparison with cigarettes and nicotine gum. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Jul; 44(1):23-8.
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      473. Jarvis MJ, Russell MA, Benowitz NL, Feyerabend C. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jun; 78(6):696-8.
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      474. Wall MA, Johnson J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Cotinine in the serum, saliva, and urine of nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jun; 78(6):699-701.
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      475. Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Shulgin AT. Recent studies of nicotine metabolism in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May; 30(1):249-53.
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      476. Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Copeland JR, Risner ME, Cone EJ. Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs. J Pharm Sci. 1988 May; 77(5):396-400.
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      477. Benowitz NL. Pheochromocytoma--recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. West J Med. 1988 May; 148(5):561-7.
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      478. Brown CR, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Changes in rate and pattern of caffeine metabolism after cigarette abstinence. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 May; 43(5):488-91.
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      479. Nemeth-Coslett R, Benowitz NL, Robinson N, Henningfield JE. Nicotine gum: chew rate, subjective effects and plasma nicotine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Apr; 29(4):747-51.
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      480. Risner ME, Cone EJ, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Effects of the stereoisomers of nicotine and nornicotine on schedule-controlled responding and physiological parameters of dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Mar; 244(3):807-13.
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      481. Benowitz NL. Toxicity of nicotine: implications with regard to nicotine replacement therapy. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988; 261:187-217.
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      482. Myers MG, Benowitz NL, Dubbin JD, Haynes RB, Sole MJ. Cardiovascular effects of smoking in patients with ischemic heart disease. Chest. 1988 Jan; 93(1):14-9.
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      483. Porchet HC, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB. Pharmacodynamic model of tolerance: application to nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Jan; 244(1):231-6.
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      484. Shulgin AT, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Lau D. Identification and quantitative analysis of cotinine-N-oxide in human urine. J Chromatogr. 1987 Dec 25; 423:365-72.
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      485. Simon RP, Copeland JR, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Bronstein J. Brain phenobarbital uptake during prolonged status epilepticus. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987 Dec; 7(6):783-8.
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      486. Porchet HC, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB, Copeland JR. Apparent tolerance to the acute effect of nicotine results in part from distribution kinetics. J Clin Invest. 1987 Nov; 80(5):1466-71.
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      487. Peters RW, Benowitz NL, Valenti S, Modin G, Fisher ML. Electrophysiologic effects of cigarette smoking in patients with and without chronic beta-blocker therapy. Am J Cardiol. 1987 Nov 1; 60(13):1078-82.
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      488. Lynch CJ, Benowitz NL. Spontaneous cigarette brand switching: consequences for nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure. Am J Public Health. 1987 Sep; 77(9):1191-4.
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      489. Juenemann KP, Lue TF, Luo JA, Benowitz NL, Abozeid M, Tanagho EA. The effect of cigarette smoking on penile erection. J Urol. 1987 Aug; 138(2):438-41.
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      490. Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987 Aug; 55(4):603-5.
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      491. Jacob P, Elias-Baker BA, Jones RT, Benowitz NL. Determination of benzoylecgonine and cocaine in biologic fluids by automated gas chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1987 Jul 3; 417(2):277-86.
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      492. Benowitz NL, Lake T, Keller KH, Lee BL. Prolonged absorption with development of tolerance to toxic effects after cutaneous exposure to nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 Jul; 42(1):119-20.
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      493. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Savanapridi C. Determinants of nicotine intake while chewing nicotine polacrilex gum. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 Apr; 41(4):467-73.
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      494. Lee BL, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Cigarette abstinence, nicotine gum, and theophylline disposition. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Apr; 106(4):553-5.
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      495. Lee BL, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Influence of tobacco abstinence on the disposition kinetics and effects of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 Apr; 41(4):474-9.
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      496. Gori GB, Benowitz NL, Lynch CJ. Mouth versus deep airways absorption of nicotine in cigarette smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Dec; 25(6):1181-4.
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      497. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Kozlowski LT, Yu L. Influence of smoking fewer cigarettes on exposure to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. N Engl J Med. 1986 Nov 20; 315(21):1310-3.
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      498. Rosenberg J, Pentel P, Pond S, Benowitz N, Olson K. Hyperthermia associated with drug intoxication. Crit Care Med. 1986 Nov; 14(11):964-9.
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      499. Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Jacob P. Additive cardiovascular effects of nicotine and ethanol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Oct; 40(4):420-4.
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      500. Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Shulgin AT. Determination of nicotine N-oxide by gas chromatography following thermal conversion to 2-methyl-6-(3-pyridyl)tetrahydro-1,2-oxazine. Anal Chem. 1986 Sep; 58(11):2218-21.
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      501. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Yu L, Talcott R, Hall S, Jones RT. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes. JAMA. 1986 Jul 11; 256(2):241-6.
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      502. Pentel PR, Benowitz NL. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning. Management of arrhythmias. Med Toxicol. 1986 Mar-Apr; 1(2):101-21.
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      503. Benowitz NL, Simon RP, Copeland JR. Status epilepticus: divergence of sympathetic activity and cardiovascular response. Ann Neurol. 1986 Feb; 19(2):197-9.
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      504. Pomerleau OF, Bell CS, Benowitz NL, Best JA, Glassman A, Russell M, Russell P, Schneider NG. Nicotine and smoking relapse. Health Psychol. 1986; 5 Suppl:41-51.
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      505. Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine. Annu Rev Med. 1986; 37:21-32.
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      506. Simon RP, Benowitz N, Hedlund R, Copeland J. Influence of the blood-brain pH gradient on brain phenobarbital uptake during status epilepticus. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Sep; 234(3):830-5.
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      507. Olson KR, Benowitz NL, Woo OF, Pond SM. Theophylline overdose: acute single ingestion versus chronic repeated overmedication. Am J Emerg Med. 1985 Sep; 3(5):386-94.
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      508. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Nicotine renal excretion rate influences nicotine intake during cigarette smoking. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Jul; 234(1):153-5.
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      509. Woo OF, Benowitz NL, Bialy FW, Wengert JW. Atrioventricular conduction block caused by phenylpropanolamine. JAMA. 1985 May 10; 253(18):2646-7.
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      510. Pentel PR, Asinger RW, Benowitz NL. Propranolol antagonism of phenylpropanolamine-induced hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985 May; 37(5):488-94.
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      511. Hall SM, Tunstall C, Rugg D, Jones RT, Benowitz N. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment in smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985 Apr; 53(2):256-8.
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      512. Pond SM, Kreek MJ, Tong TG, Raghunath J, Benowitz NL. Altered methadone pharmacokinetics in methadone-maintained pregnant women. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Apr; 233(1):1-6.
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      513. Rowbotham MC, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Trazodone-oral cocaine interactions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984 Sep; 41(9):895-9.
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      514. Jacob P, Savanapridi C, Yu L, Wilson M, Shulgin AT, Benowitz NL, Elias-Baker BA, Hall SM, Herning RI, Jones RT, et al. Ion-pair extraction of thiocyanate from plasma and its gas chromatographic determination using on-column alkylation. Anal Chem. 1984 Aug; 56(9):1692-5.
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      515. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Nicotine and carbon monoxide intake from high- and low-yield cigarettes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Aug; 36(2):265-70.
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      516. Olson KR, Benowitz NL. Environmental and drug-induced hyperthermia. Pathophysiology, recognition, and management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1984 Aug; 2(3):459-74.
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      517. Hall RG, Sachs DP, Hall SM, Benowitz NL. Two-year efficacy and safety of rapid smoking therapy in patients with cardiac and pulmonary disease. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1984 Aug; 52(4):574-81.
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      518. Pentel P, Benowitz N. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in drug therapy of cardiac emergencies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984 Jul-Aug; 9(4):273-308.
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      519. Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P. Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular and hormonal effects of cigarette smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Jul; 36(1):74-81.
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      520. Pentel P, Benowitz N. Efficacy and mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of desipramine toxicity in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul; 230(1):12-9.
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      521. Hall SM, Herning RI, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Blood cotinine levels as indicators of smoking treatment outcome. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Jun; 35(6):810-4.
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      522. Inouye IK, Massie BM, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D. Antihypertensive therapy with diltiazem and comparison with hydrochlorothiazide. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jun 1; 53(11):1588-92.
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      523. Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Daily intake of nicotine during cigarette smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Apr; 35(4):499-504.
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      524. Jacob P, Elias-Baker BA, Jones RT, Benowitz NL. Determination of cocaine in plasma by automated gas chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1984 Mar 9; 306:173-81.
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      525. Simon RP, Benowitz NL, Culala S. Motor paralysis increases brain uptake of lidocaine during status epilepticus. Neurology. 1984 Mar; 34(3):384-7.
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      526. Simon RP, Aminoff MJ, Benowitz NL. Changes in plasma catecholamines after tonic-clonic seizures. Neurology. 1984 Feb; 34(2):255-7.
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      527. Inouye I, Massie B, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D, Topic N. Monotherapy in mild to moderate hypertension: comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol and prazosin. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jan 27; 53(3):24A-28A.
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      528. Meister W, Benowitz NL, Benet LZ. Unchanged absorption of digoxin tablets in patients with cardiac failure. Pharmacology. 1984; 28(2):90-4.
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      529. Woo OF, Pond SM, Benowitz NL, Olson KR. Benefit of hemoperfusion in acute theophylline intoxication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1984; 22(5):411-24.
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      530. Levine J, Gordon NC, Poole T, Benowitz N. Relationship of duration of analgesia to opioid pharmacokinetic variables. Brain Res. 1983 Dec 19; 289(1-2):391-4.
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      531. Hargreaves WA, Tyler J, Weinberg JA, Sorensen JL, Benowitz N. (--)-alpha-Acetylmethadol effects on alcohol and diazepam use, sexual function and cardiac function. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1983 Dec; 12(4):323-32.
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      532. Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P, Jones RT, Osman AL. Cotinine disposition and effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Nov; 34(5):604-11.
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      533. Olson K, Benowitz NL, Pentel P. Management of cocaine poisoning. Ann Emerg Med. 1983 Oct; 12(10):655-7.
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      534. Kirby BD, Ham J, Fairley HB, Benowitz N, Schambelan M. Normotensive pheochromocytoma. Pharmacologic, paraneoplastic and anesthetic considerations. West J Med. 1983 Aug; 139(2):221-5.
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      535. Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Herning RI, Jacob P, Jones RT, Osman AL. Smokers of low-yield cigarettes do not consume less nicotine. N Engl J Med. 1983 Jul 21; 309(3):139-42.
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      536. Olson KR, Pond SM, Benowitz NL, Becker CE. Treatment of theophylline overdose. JAMA. 1983 Jun 17; 249(23):3176.
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      537. Foliart D, Benowitz NL, Becker CE. Passive absorption of nicotine in airline flight attendants. N Engl J Med. 1983 May 5; 308(18):1105.
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      538. Pentel P, Olson KR, Becker CE, Benowitz N. Late complications of tricyclic antidepressant overdose. West J Med. 1983 Mar; 138(3):423-4.
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      539. Benowitz NL. The use of biologic fluid samples in assessing tobacco smoke consumption. NIDA Res Monogr. 1983; 48:6-26.
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      540. Herning RI, Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Mines AH. How a cigarette is smoked determines blood nicotine levels. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Jan; 33(1):84-90.
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      541. Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P. Circadian blood nicotine concentrations during cigarette smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982 Dec; 32(6):758-64.
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      542. Benowitz NL, Osterloh J, Goldschlager N, Kaysen G, Pond S, Forhan S. Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning. JAMA. 1982 Sep 3; 248(9):1097-8.
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      543. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Jones RT, Rosenberg J. Interindividual variability in the metabolism and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982 May; 221(2):368-72.
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      544. Jacob P, Rigod JF, Pond SM, Benowitz NL. Gas chromatographic analysis of meperidine and normeperidine: determination in blood after a single dose of meperidine. J Pharm Sci. 1982 Feb; 71(2):166-8.
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      545. Pond SM, Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rigod J. Lack of effect of diazepam on methadone metabolism in methadone-maintained addicts. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982 Feb; 31(2):139-43.
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      546. Simon RP, Benowitz NL, Bronstein J, Jacob P. Increased brain uptake of lidocaine during bicuculline-induced status epilepticus in rats. Neurology. 1982 Feb; 32(2):196-9.
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      547. Cogan JJ, Humphreys MH, Carlson CJ, Benowitz NL, Rapaport E. Acute vasodilator therapy increases renal clearance of digoxin in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1981 Nov; 64(5):973-6.
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      548. Jacob P, Rigod JF, Pond SM, Benowitz NL. Determination of methadone and its primary metabolite in biologic fluids using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. J Anal Toxicol. 1981 Nov-Dec; 5(6):292-5.
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      549. Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI. Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Aug-Sep; 21(8-9 Suppl):143S-152S.
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      550. Gritz ER, Baer-Weiss V, Benowitz NL, Van Vunakis H, Jarvik ME. Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations in habitual smokeless tobacco users. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Aug; 30(2):201-9.
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      551. Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Cardiovascular and metabolic considerations in prolonged cannabinoid administration in man. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Aug-Sep; 21(8-9 Suppl):214S-223S.
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      552. Pond SM, Tong T, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Rigod J. Presystemic metabolism of meperidine to normeperidine in normal and cirrhotic subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Aug; 30(2):183-8.
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      553. Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Pond S. Pharmacokinetics of drug overdose. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1981 May-Jun; 6(3):161-92.
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      554. Tong TG, Pond SM, Kreek MJ, Jaffery NF, Benowitz NL. Phenytoin-induced methadone withdrawal. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Mar; 94(3):349-51.
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      555. Fredericks AB, Benowitz NL, Savanapridi CY. The cardiovascular and autonomic effects of repeated administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol to rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1981 Feb; 216(2):247-53.
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      556. Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Improved gas chromatographic method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in biologic fluids. J Chromatogr. 1981 Jan 2; 222(1):61-70.
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      557. Peters KS, Tong TG, Kutz K, Benowitz NL. Diabetes mellitus and orthostatic hypotension resulting from ingestion of Vacor rat poison: endocrine and autonomic function studies. West J Med. 1981 Jan; 134(1):65-8.
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      558. Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Wilson KM. Disposition kinetics and effects of intravenous nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Oct; 28(4):517-22.
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      559. Pond SM, Tong T, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Enhanced bioavailability of pethidine and pentazocine in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Aust N Z J Med. 1980 Oct; 10(5):515-9.
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      560. Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Kreek MJ. Methadone-disulfiram interaction during methadone maintenance. J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Aug-Sep; 20(8-9):506-13.
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      561. Benowitz NL, Nguyen TL, Jones RT, Herning RI, Bachman J. Metabolic and psychophysiologic studies of cannabidiol-hexobarbital interaction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Jul; 28(1):115-20.
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      562. Benowitz NL, Byrd R, Schambelan M, Rosenberg J, Roizen MF. Dihydroergotamine treatment for orthostatic hypotension from Vacor rodenticide. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Mar; 92(3):387-8.
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      563. Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Pond S. Resin hemoperfusion for ethchlorvynol. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Mar; 92(3):435-6.
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      564. Benowitz N, Abolin C, Tozer T, Rosenberg J, Rogers W, Pond S, Schoenfeld P, Humphreys M. Resin hemoperfusion in ethychlorvynol overdose. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Feb; 27(2):236-42.
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      565. Fredericks AB, Benowitz NL. An abstinence syndrome following chronic administration of delta-9-terahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1980; 71(2):201-2.
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      566. Pond S, Rosenberg J, Benowitz NL, Takki S. Pharmacokinetics of haemoperfusion for drug overdose. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1979 Sep-Oct; 4(5):329-54.
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      567. Peeke SC, Prael AR, Herning RI, Rogers W, Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Effect of disulfiram on cognition, subjective response, and cortical-event-related potentials in nonalcoholic subjects. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1979 Jul; 3(3):223-9.
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      568. Pond SM, Phillips M, Benowitz NL, Galinsky RE, Tong TG, Becker CE. Diazepam kinetics in acute alcohol withdrawal. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1979 Jun; 25(6):832-6.
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      569. Rogers WK, Benowitz NL, Wilson KM, Abbott JA. Effect of disulfiram on adrenergic function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1979 Apr; 25(4):469-77.
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      570. Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Rogers W, Bachman J, Jones RT. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: autonomic nervous mechanisms. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1979 Apr; 25(4):440-6.
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      571. Bachman JA, Benowitz NL, Herning RI, Jones RT. Dissociation of autonomic and cognitive effects of THC in man. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1979 Mar 22; 61(2):171-5.
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      572. Ayus JC, Eneas JF, Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Schoenfeld PY, Hadley KL, Becker CE, Humphreys MH. Peritoneal clearance and total body elimination of vancomycin during chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1979 Mar; 11(3):129-32.
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      573. Becker CE, Benowitz NL. Hypertensive emergencies. Med Clin North Am. 1979 Jan; 63(1):127-40.
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      574. Benowitz NL, Rosenberg J, Becker CE. Cardiopulmonary catastrophes in drug-overdosed patients. Med Clin North Am. 1979 Jan; 63(1):267-96.
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      575. Benowitz NL, Meister W. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lignocaine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1978 May-Jun; 3(3):177-201.
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      576. Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on drug distribution and metabolism. Antipyrine, pentobarbital, and ethanol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Sep; 22(3):259-68.
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      577. Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Effects of sympathomimetic amines and autonomic blockades. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Mar; 21(3):336-42.
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      578. Benowitz NL, Meister W. Pharmacokinetics in patients with cardiac failure. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1976 Nov-Dec; 1(6):389-405.
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      579. Lau RJ, Tubergen DG, Barr M, Domino EF, Benowitz N, Jones RT. Phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in humans receiving delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Science. 1976 May 21; 192(4241):805-7.
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      580. Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Lerner CB. Depression of growth hormone and cortisol response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia after prolonged oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 May; 42(5):938-41.
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      581. Teramo K, Benowitz N, Heymann MA, Rudolph AM. Gestational differences in lidocaine toxicity in the fetal lamb. Anesthesiology. 1976 Feb; 44(2):133-8.
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      582. Jones RT, Benowitz N, Bachman J. Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976; 282:221-39.
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      583. Tong TG, Benowitz NL, Becker CE, Forni PJ, Boerner U. Phencyclidine poisoning. JAMA. 1975 Nov 3; 234(5):512-3.
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      584. Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975 Sep; 18(3):287-97.
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      585. Galinsky RE, Forni PJ, McGuire GG, Tong TG, Benowitz N, Becker CE. Letter: "Post hoc" and hypoprothrombinemia. Ann Intern Med. 1975 Aug; 83(2):286-7.
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      586. Benowitz N, Forsyth FP, Melmon KL, Rowland M. Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. I. Prediction by a perfusion model. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1974 Jul; 16(1):87-98.
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      587. Benowitz N, Forsyth RP, Melmon KL, Rowland M. Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. II. Effects of hemorrhage and sympathomimetic drug administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1974 Jul; 16(1):99-109.
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      588. Teramo K, Benowitz N, Heymann MA, Kahanpää K, Siimes A, Rudolph AM. Effects of lidocaine on heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocorticogram in fetal sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974 Apr 1; 118(7):935-49.
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      589. Scheinman MM, Weiss AN, Shafton E, Benowitz N, Rowland M. Electrophysiologic effects of procaine amide in patients with intraventricular conduction delay. Circulation. 1974 Mar; 49(3):522-9.
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      590. Benowitz NL. Clinical applications of the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine. Cardiovasc Clin. 1974; 6(2):77-101.
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      591. Benowitz N, Rowland M. Determination of lidocaine in blood and tissues. Anesthesiology. 1973 Dec; 39(6):639-41.
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      592. Benowitz NL, Terepka AR. Calcium binding to phosphoprotein in estrogenized rooster plasma studied by density-gradient centrifugation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1968 Oct; 129(1):46-50.
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