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Kathy Giacomini, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Bioengineering
SchoolSchool of Pharmacy
Address1550 4th Street, Bldg 19B
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-476-1936
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Co-Director UCSF-Stanford Center of Excellence in Regulatory Sciences and Innovation


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy2018Volwiler Research Achievement Award
    Swedish Academy of Pharmaceutical Scientists2011Scheele Award
    Therapeutic Frontiers Lecture Award2010Therapeutic Frontiers Lecture Award
    Postdoctoral Scholars Association, University of California, San Francisco2009Outstanding Mentor Award
    American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics2009Rawls-Palmer Progress in Medicine Award
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science2008Invitation Fellowship Program for Research in Japan
    Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Japan2007International Woman Scientist Award
    Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress2007Research Achievement Award
    National Academy of Medicine2006Elected Member
    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists2006Distinguished Scientist Award in Drug Metabolism
    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy2005Paul Dawson Biotechnology Award
    State University of New York at Buffalo2002Distinguished Gerhard Levy Lectureship
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration2002Distinguished Bill Abram's Lectureship
    University of California, San Francisco2002Honored Celebrating Women Faculty
    University of Kentucky2000Guttman Lecturer
    International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)1999Scientist of the Year
    University of California, San Francisco1999Recognition Award for Distinguished Achievement of a Filipino at UCSF
    University of California, San Francisco1997Chancellor's Award for the Advancement of Women
    University of California, San Francisco1994Martin Luther King, Jr. Award for the Advancement of Minorities
    National Institutes of Health1992Fogarty International Fellowship
    American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics1990Leon Goldberg Young Investigator Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    The Giacomini research group focuses on expanding our understanding of membrane transporters. Membrane transporters are of great pharmacological importance, as they play a major role in drug efficacy by regulating drug disposition and distribution. Major questions addressed in the laboratory include: What is the in vivo role of membrane transporters in drug disposition and response? How does genetic variation in membrane transporters affect clinical drug response? What is the endogenous role of membrane transporters? And, what are the structural determinants of specificity?

    Dr. Kathy Giacomini is leading an effort to deorphan transporters in the Solute Carrier Superfamily, and to determine the clinical implications of specific genetic variants in membrane transporters. Research ventures, ranging from basic discovery to clinical studies, have demonstrated that common variants of membrane transporters contribute to differences in drug response in ethnically diverse populations. Ultimately, these studies will increase our knowledge of the genetic basis underlying drug response, and will contribute to advancing the era of personalized medicine. Furthermore, our studies will elucidate the genetic mechanisms of decreased drug response and, ultimately, contribute to improving drug design for safe and effective treatments of subgroups of patients who do not respond to standard treatments.

    Research in the laboratory focuses on drugs used in the treatment of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. We are particularly interested in two key therapeutic agents, allopurinol, first-line medical therapy for gout and high uric acid levels, and the anti-diabetic drug, metformin, one of the world’s most widely prescribed drugs. In particular, our research focuses on discovering functional genetic variants that underlie variation in response to these drugs in large ethnically diverse patient populations. As a co-leader of the international MetGen consortium with over 10,000 patients from Europe and the U.S. on metformin, Giacomini and her collaborators are seeking to discover genetic factors that contribute to poor response to metformin. Importantly, her group is interested in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for metformin’s pharmacologic action. For allopurinol, we have discovered that genetic variants in membrane transporters contribute to variation in response to allopurinol. We are now seeking to understand the mechanisms through which the variants act on allopurinol response.

    Finally, Kathy Giacomini and her collaborator, Russ Altman of Stanford University are the Co-PIs of the UCSF–Stanford Center of Excellence in Regulatory Sciences and Innovation (CERSI) funded by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Established in 2014, the UCSF-Stanford CERSI aims to advance the field of regulatory sciences and improve the development and evaluation of diagnostics, therapeutics and medical devices. The UCSF-Stanford CERSI is the first FDA funded CERSI on the west coast and seeks to address key challenges related to education and research that will advance the discovery and development of medical products.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    UCSF-Stanford Center of Excellence in Regulatory Science
    NIH U01FD005978Sep 15, 2016 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Discovery of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers for Metformin Response
    NIH R01GM117163Sep 25, 2015 - Aug 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PGRN Administrative Coordination Hub, ACH (PGRN)
    NIH/NIGMS U24GM115370Jul 15, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of ABCG2 in the disposition and anti-hyperuricemic effects of allopurinol
    NIH R01DK103729Sep 20, 2014 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF-Stanford Center of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation
    NIH U01FD004979Apr 15, 2014 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Center for Structure of Membrane Proteins
    NIH/NIGMS U54GM094625Sep 30, 2010 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator
    A Comprehensive Platform for Transporter Mediated Drug-Drug Interaction Studies
    NIH R44GM086970Feb 1, 2009 - Sep 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacogenomics of Membrane Transporters
    NIH U19GM061390Apr 1, 2000 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacogenetics of Membrane Transporters
    NIH U01GM061390Apr 1, 2000 - Jul 14, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MOLECULAR BASIS OF DRUG TRANSPORT IN THE INTESTINE
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM057656Aug 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF DRUG TRANSPORT
    NIH F06TW001776Jan 1, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF DRUG TRANSPORT IN CHOROID PLEXUS
    NIH R01GM042230Jan 1, 1991 - Dec 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cellular Mechanisms of Drug Elimination
    NIH R01GM036780Apr 4, 1986 - May 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    STEREOSELECTIVE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DRUGS IN THE KIDNEY
    NIH R01GM031254Mar 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARMACOKINETICS/PHARMACODYNAMICS
    NIH/NIGMS P50GM026691Aug 1, 1979 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics
    NIH/NCRR P41RR001081Jun 1, 1976 - Sep 14, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000079Dec 1, 1974 - Sep 29, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000083Oct 1, 1974 - Sep 29, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Academic Senate

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Deorphaning a solute carrier 22 family member, SLC22A15, through functional genomic studies. FASEB J. 2020 Oct 30. Yee SW, Buitrago D, Stecula A, Ngo HX, Chien HC, Zou L, Koleske ML, Giacomini KM. PMID: 33124720.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. A tribute to Professor Per Artursson - Scientist, Explorer, Mentor, Innovator, and Giant in Pharmaceutical Research. J Pharm Sci. 2020 Oct 20. Matsson P, Baranczewski P, Giacomini KM, Andersson TB, Palm J, Palm K, Charman WN, Bergström CAS. PMID: 33096136.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Drug Metabolites Potently Inhibit Renal Organic Anion Transporters, OAT1 and OAT3. J Pharm Sci. 2020 Sep 07. Zou L, Matsson P, Stecula A, Ngo HX, Zur AA, Giacomini KM. PMID: 32910949.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Scientific considerations for global drug development. Sci Transl Med. 2020 Jul 29; 12(554). Wilson JL, Cheung KWK, Lin L, Green EAE, Porrás AI, Zou L, Mukanga D, Akpa PA, Darko DM, Yuan R, Ding S, Johnson WCN, Lee HA, Cooke E, Peck CC, Kern SE, Hartman D, Hayashi Y, Marks PW, Altman RB, Lumpkin MM, Giacomini KM, Blaschke TF. PMID: 32727913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. The activities of drug inactive ingredients on biological targets. Science. 2020 07 24; 369(6502):403-413. Pottel J, Armstrong D, Zou L, Fekete A, Huang XP, Torosyan H, Bednarczyk D, Whitebread S, Bhhatarai B, Liang G, Jin H, Ghaemi SN, Slocum S, Lukacs KV, Irwin JJ, Berg EL, Giacomini KM, Roth BL, Shoichet BK, Urban L. PMID: 32703874.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    6. Neural production of kynurenic acid in Caenorhabditis elegans requires the AAT-1 transporter. Genes Dev. 2020 Aug 01; 34(15-16):1033-1038. Lin L, Lemieux GA, Enogieru OJ, Giacomini KM, Ashrafi K. PMID: 32675325.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. COVID-19: A Defining Moment for Clinical Pharmacology? Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 07; 108(1):11-15. van der Graaf PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 32350861.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    8. Bacterial metabolism rescues the inhibition of intestinal drug absorption by food and drug additives. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 07 07; 117(27):16009-16018. Zou L, Spanogiannopoulos P, Pieper LM, Chien HC, Cai W, Khuri N, Pottel J, Vora B, Ni Z, Tsakalozou E, Zhang W, Shoichet BK, Giacomini KM, Turnbaugh PJ. PMID: 32571913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Oral Anticoagulants and Precision Medicine: Something Old, Something New. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Jun; 107(6):1273-1277. Shahin MH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 32390146.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    10. Novel Technologies Enable Mechanistic Understanding and Modeling of Drug Exposure and Response. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 May; 107(5):1045-1047. Giacomini KM. PMID: 32304600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    11. GenEpi: gene-based epistasis discovery using machine learning. BMC Bioinformatics. 2020 Feb 24; 21(1):68. Chang YC, Wu JT, Hong MY, Tung YA, Hsieh PH, Yee SW, Giacomini KM, Oyang YJ, Chen CY. PMID: 32093643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Interactions of Oral Molecular Excipients with Breast Cancer Resistance Protein, BCRP. Mol Pharm. 2020 03 02; 17(3):748-756. Zou L, Pottel J, Khuri N, Ngo HX, Ni Z, Tsakalozou E, Warren MS, Huang Y, Shoichet BK, Giacomini KM. PMID: 31990564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    13. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2030. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 01; 107(1):13-16. van der Graaf PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 31863685.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Drug-nutrient interactions: discovering prescription drug inhibitors of the thiamine transporter ThTR-2 (SLC19A3). Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 01 01; 111(1):110-121. Vora B, Green EAE, Khuri N, Ballgren F, Sirota M, Giacomini KM. PMID: 31764942.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    15. Expanding Precompetitive Multisector Collaborations to Advance Drug Development and Pharmacogenomics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 01; 107(1):96-101. Yee SW, Do TP, Huang SM, Krauss RM, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y, Unadkat JD, Giacomini KM. PMID: 31774556.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Global Pharmacogenomics Within Precision Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 01; 107(1):57-61. Chenoweth MJ, Giacomini KM, Pirmohamed M, Hill SL, van Schaik RHN, Schwab M, Shuldiner AR, Relling MV, Tyndale RF. PMID: 31696505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Unraveling the functional role of the orphan solute carrier, SLC22A24 in the transport of steroid conjugates through metabolomic and genome-wide association studies. PLoS Genet. 2019 09; 15(9):e1008208. Yee SW, Stecula A, Chien HC, Zou L, Feofanova EV, van Borselen M, Cheung KWK, Yousri NA, Suhre K, Kinchen JM, Boerwinkle E, Irannejad R, Yu B, Giacomini KM. PMID: 31553721.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    18. A conserved role of the insulin-like signaling pathway in diet-dependent uric acid pathologies in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2019 08; 15(8):e1008318. Lang S, Hilsabeck TA, Wilson KA, Sharma A, Bose N, Brackman DJ, Beck JN, Chen L, Watson MA, Killilea DW, Ho S, Kahn A, Giacomini K, Stoller ML, Chi T, Kapahi P. PMID: 31415568.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Ontogeny of Renal Drug Transporters: mRNA Analyses, Quantitative Proteomics, and Localization. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 11; 106(5):1083-1092. Cheung KWK, van Groen BD, Spaans E, van Borselen MD, de Bruijn ACJM, Simons-Oosterhuis Y, Tibboel D, Samsom JN, Verdijk RM, Smeets B, Zhang L, Huang SM, Giacomini KM, de Wildt SN. PMID: 31127606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. l-Type amino acid transporter 1 activity of 1,2,3-triazolyl analogs of l-histidine and l-tryptophan. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019 08 15; 29(16):2254-2258. Hall C, Wolfe H, Wells A, Chien HC, Colas C, Schlessinger A, Giacomini KM, Thomas AA. PMID: 31248771.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Genome-Wide Association and Functional Studies Reveal Novel Pharmacological Mechanisms for Allopurinol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 09; 106(3):623-631. Brackman DJ, Yee SW, Enogieru OJ, Shaffer C, Ranatunga D, Denny JC, Wei WQ, Kamatani Y, Kubo M, Roden DM, Jorgenson E, Giacomini KM. PMID: 30924126.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Functional and structural analysis of rare SLC2A2 variants associated with Fanconi-Bickel syndrome and metabolic traits. Hum Mutat. 2019 07; 40(7):983-995. Enogieru OJ, Ung PMU, Yee SW, Schlessinger A, Giacomini KM. PMID: 30950137.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Organic Anion Transporter Polypeptide 1B1 Polymorphism Modulates the Extent of Drug-Drug Interaction and Associated Biomarker Levels in Healthy Volunteers. Clin Transl Sci. 2019 07; 12(4):388-399. Yee SW, Giacomini MM, Shen H, Humphreys WG, Horng H, Brian W, Lai Y, Kroetz DL, Giacomini KM. PMID: 30982223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Research Projects Supported by the University of California, San Francisco-Stanford Center of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 04; 105(4):815-818. Giacomini KM, Lin L, Altman RB. PMID: 30773618.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Impact of Pharmaceutical Excipients on Oral Drug Absorption: A Focus on Intestinal Drug Transporters. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 02; 105(2):323-325. Zou L, Ni Z, Tsakalozou E, Giacomini KM. PMID: 30663035.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    26. Organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) is a distinct catecholamines clearance route in adipocytes mediating the beiging of white adipose tissue. PLoS Biol. 2019 01; 17(1):e2006571. Song W, Luo Q, Zhang Y, Zhou L, Liu Y, Ma Z, Guo J, Huang Y, Cheng L, Meng Z, Li Z, Zhang B, Li S, Yee SW, Fan H, Li P, Giacomini KM, Chen L. PMID: 30653498.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. The International Transporter Consortium: Summarizing Advances in the Role of Transporters in Drug Development. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 11; 104(5):766-771. Giacomini KM, Galetin A, Huang SM. PMID: 30137696.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Clinical Probes and Endogenous Biomarkers as Substrates for Transporter Drug-Drug Interaction Evaluation: Perspectives From the International Transporter Consortium. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 11; 104(5):836-864. Chu X, Liao M, Shen H, Yoshida K, Zur AA, Arya V, Galetin A, Giacomini KM, Hanna I, Kusuhara H, Lai Y, Rodrigues D, Sugiyama Y, Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Zhang L. PMID: 30347454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    29. Reevaluating the Substrate Specificity of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter (LAT1). J Med Chem. 2018 08 23; 61(16):7358-7373. Chien HC, Colas C, Finke K, Springer S, Stoner L, Zur AA, Venteicher B, Campbell J, Hall C, Flint A, Augustyn E, Hernandez C, Heeren N, Hansen L, Anthony A, Bauer J, Fotiadis D, Schlessinger A, Giacomini KM, Thomas AA. PMID: 30048132.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Transporters in Drug Development: 2018 ITC Recommendations for Transporters of Emerging Clinical Importance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 11; 104(5):890-899. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Taub ME, Chothe PP, Chu X, Giacomini KM, Kim RB, Ray AS, Stocker SL, Unadkat JD, Wittwer MB, Xia C, Yee SW, Zhang L, Zhang Y. PMID: 30091177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    31. Influence of Transporter Polymorphisms on Drug Disposition and Response: A Perspective From the International Transporter Consortium. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 11; 104(5):803-817. Yee SW, Brackman DJ, Ennis EA, Sugiyama Y, Kamdem LK, Blanchard R, Galetin A, Zhang L, Giacomini KM. PMID: 29679469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. ITC Commentary on Metformin Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Study Design That Enables an Efficacy- and Safety-Based Dose Adjustment Decision. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 11; 104(5):781-784. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Chu X, Cook JA, Custodio JM, Galetin A, Giacomini KM, Lee CA, Paine MF, Ray AS, Ware JA, Wittwer MB, Zhang L. PMID: 29761830.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    33. Pharmacogenetics of Antidiabetic Drugs. Adv Pharmacol. 2018; 83:361-389. Srinivasan S, Yee SW, Giacomini KM. PMID: 29801583.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Molecular Mechanisms for Species Differences in Organic Anion Transporter 1, OAT1: Implications for Renal Drug Toxicity. Mol Pharmacol. 2018 07; 94(1):689-699. Zou L, Stecula A, Gupta A, Prasad B, Chien HC, Yee SW, Wang L, Unadkat JD, Stahl SH, Fenner KS, Giacomini KM. PMID: 29720497.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) modulates multiple cardiometabolic traits through effects on hepatic thiamine content. PLoS Biol. 2018 04; 16(4):e2002907. Liang X, Yee SW, Chien HC, Chen EC, Luo Q, Zou L, Piao M, Mifune A, Chen L, Calvert ME, King S, Norheim F, Abad J, Krauss RM, Giacomini KM. PMID: 29659562.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Genetic Variants in CPA6 and PRPF31 Are Associated With Variation in Response to Metformin in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes. 2018 07; 67(7):1428-1440. Rotroff DM, Yee SW, Zhou K, Marvel SW, Shah HS, Jack JR, Havener TM, Hedderson MM, Kubo M, Herman MA, Gao H, Mychaleckyi JC, McLeod HL, Doria A, Giacomini KM, Pearson ER, Wagner MJ, Buse JB, Motsinger-Reif AA. PMID: 29650774.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Emerging Clinical Importance of Hepatic Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) in Drug Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, Pharmacogenetic Variability, and Drug Interactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 05; 103(5):758-760. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Giacomini KM, Zhang L. PMID: 29193038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Reverse Translational Research of ABCG2 (BCRP) in Human Disease and Drug Response. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 02; 103(2):233-242. Brackman DJ, Giacomini KM. PMID: 29023674.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    39. PharmGKB summary: very important pharmacogene information for ABCG2. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017 11; 27(11):420-427. Fohner AE, Brackman DJ, Giacomini KM, Altman RB, Klein TE. PMID: 28858993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. New Pharmacogenomics Research Network: An Open Community Catalyzing Research and Translation in Precision Medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Dec; 102(6):897-902. Relling MV, Krauss RM, Roden DM, Klein TE, Fowler DM, Terada N, Lin L, Riel-Mehan M, Do TP, Kubo M, Yee SW, Johnson GT, Giacomini KM. PMID: 28795399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. PBPK Modeling of the Effect of Reduced Kidney Function on the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Excreted Renally by Organic Anion Transporters. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 03; 103(3):485-492. Hsueh CH, Hsu V, Zhao P, Zhang L, Giacomini KM, Huang SM. PMID: 28738449.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 3 (hCNT3, SLC28A3) Forms a Cyclic Homotrimer. Biochemistry. 2017 07 11; 56(27):3475-3483. Stecula A, Schlessinger A, Giacomini KM, Sali A. PMID: 28661652.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Computational Discovery and Experimental Validation of Inhibitors of the Human Intestinal Transporter OATP2B1. J Chem Inf Model. 2017 06 26; 57(6):1402-1413. Khuri N, Zur AA, Wittwer MB, Lin L, Yee SW, Sali A, Giacomini KM. PMID: 28562037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Transporters Involved in Metformin Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Response. J Pharm Sci. 2017 09; 106(9):2245-2250. Liang X, Giacomini KM. PMID: 28495567.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    45. The Effect of Uremic Solutes on the Organic Cation Transporter 2. J Pharm Sci. 2017 09; 106(9):2551-2557. Cheung KWK, Hsueh CH, Zhao P, Meyer TW, Zhang L, Huang SM, Giacomini KM. PMID: 28483424.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. Discovery of Competitive and Noncompetitive Ligands of the Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1; SLC22A1). J Med Chem. 2017 04 13; 60(7):2685-2696. Chen EC, Khuri N, Liang X, Stecula A, Chien HC, Yee SW, Huang Y, Sali A, Giacomini KM. PMID: 28230985.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    47. Variants in Pharmacokinetic Transporters and Glycemic Response to Metformin: A Metgen Meta-Analysis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Jun; 101(6):763-772. Dujic T, Zhou K, Yee SW, van Leeuwen N, de Keyser CE, Javorský M, Goswami S, Zaharenko L, Hougaard Christensen MM, Out M, Tavendale R, Kubo M, Hedderson MM, van der Heijden AA, Klimcáková L, Pirags V, Kooy A, Brøsen K, Klovins J, Semiz S, Tkác I, Stricker BH, Palmer C, 't Hart LM, Giacomini KM, Pearson ER. PMID: 27859023.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Genomic Characterization of Metformin Hepatic Response. PLoS Genet. 2016 Nov; 12(11):e1006449. Luizon MR, Eckalbar WL, Wang Y, Jones SL, Smith RP, Laurance M, Lin L, Gallins PJ, Etheridge AS, Wright F, Zhou Y, Molony C, Innocenti F, Yee SW, Giacomini KM, Ahituv N. PMID: 27902686.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. Genome-wide association studies of drug response and toxicity: an opportunity for genome medicine. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2017 Jan; 16(1):1. Giacomini KM, Yee SW, Mushiroda T, Weinshilboum RM, Ratain MJ, Kubo M. PMID: 27885282.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. The use of drug transporters as therapeutic targets. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016 Nov; 14(11):869-871. Giacomini KM. PMID: 27930637.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    51. A Molecular Basis for Innovation in Drug Excipients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 03; 101(3):320-323. Irwin JJ, Pottel J, Zou L, Wen H, Zuk S, Zhang X, Sterling T, Shoichet BK, Lionberger R, Giacomini KM. PMID: 27557422.
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    270. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the enantiomers of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents in biological fluids. II. Studies with atenolol. J Chromatogr. 1989 Apr 14; 489(2):438-45. Chin SK, Hui AC, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2568994.
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    271. The effect of probenecid on the renal elimination of cimetidine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Apr; 45(4):444-52. Gisclon LG, Boyd RA, Williams RL, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2702802.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    272. The pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of atenolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Apr; 45(4):403-10. Boyd RA, Chin SK, Don-Pedro O, Williams RL, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2702798.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    273. Species differences in the negative inotropic response of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in myocardium. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988 Dec; 12(6):650-7. Boyd RA, Giacomini JC, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2467082.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    274. Cimetidine elimination from the cerebrospinal fluid of the rat. Pharm Res. 1988 Oct; 5(10):628-33. Whittico MT, Giacomini KM. PMID: 3244614.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    275. Renal transport of drugs: an overview of methodology with application to cimetidine. Pharm Res. 1988 Aug; 5(8):465-71. Giacomini KM, Hsyu PH, Gisclon LG. PMID: 3072557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    276. The effect of pindolol on the transport of L-lysine in renal brush border membrane vesicles. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 May-Jun; 16(3):503-5. Hsyu PH, Wong FM, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2900748.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    277. Stereoselective binding of disopyramide to plasma proteins. Pharm Res. 1988 May; 5(5):316-8. Valdivieso L, Giacomini KM, Nelson WL, Pershe R, Blaschke TF. PMID: 3244643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    278. Inhibition of cimetidine transport by creatinine in luminal membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 Mar-Apr; 16(2):331-2. Gisclon LG, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2898357.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    279. Interactions of organic anions with the organic cation transporter in renal BBMV. Am J Physiol. 1988 Jan; 254(1 Pt 2):F56-61. Hsyu PH, Gisclon LG, Hui AC, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2962517.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    280. Comparison of binding affinities and negative inotropic potencies of the 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in rabbit myocardium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Oct; 243(1):118-25. Boyd RA, Giacomini JC, Wong FM, Nelson WL, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2822893.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    281. Cimetidine transport in isolated luminal membrane vesicles from rabbit kidney. Am J Physiol. 1987 Jul; 253(1 Pt 2):F141-50. Gisclon L, Wong FM, Giacomini KM. PMID: 3605344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    282. Essential tyrosine residues in transport of organic cations in renal BBMV. Am J Physiol. 1987 Jun; 252(6 Pt 2):F1065-72. Hsyu PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2954470.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    283. The pH gradient-dependent transport of organic cations in the renal brush border membrane. Studies with acridine orange. J Biol Chem. 1987 Mar 25; 262(9):3964-8. Hsyu PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2951380.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    284. The interaction of phenylalkylamine calcium channel blockers with the 1,4-dihydropyridine binding site. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1986 Sep; 18(9):963-74. Zobrist RH, Giacomini KM, Nelson WL, Giacomini JC. PMID: 3783730.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    285. Studies on Ca2+ channel antagonists. 5-[(3,4-Dimethoxyphenethyl)methylamino]-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2- isopropylpentyl isothiocyanate, a chemoaffinity ligand derived from verapamil. J Med Chem. 1986 Sep; 29(9):1789-92. Theodore LJ, Nelson WL, Zobrist RH, Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC. PMID: 2427721.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    286. Posttraumatic complications and inflammatory mediators. Arch Surg. 1986 Aug; 121(8):886-90. Nuytinck JK, Goris JA, Redl H, Schlag G, van Munster PJ. PMID: 3488050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    287. In vivo interaction of the enantiomers of disopyramide in human subjects. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1986 Aug; 14(4):335-56. Giacomini KM, Nelson WL, Pershe RA, Valdivieso L, Turner-Tamiyasu K, Blaschke TF. PMID: 3772736.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    288. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of the enantiomers of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents in biological fluids. I: Studies with pindolol. J Pharm Sci. 1986 Jun; 75(6):601-5. Hsyu PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2874209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    289. Stereoselective interactions of 2-[(2',6'-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl]-1,4-benzodioxane (WB-4101) with the calcium channel. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Feb 15; 35(4):716-8. Giacomini JC, Nelson WL, Wong FM, Boyd R, Zobrist RH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2868731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    290. Stereoselective renal clearance of pindolol in humans. J Clin Invest. 1985 Nov; 76(5):1720-6. Hsyu PH, Giacomini KM. PMID: 4056049.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    291. Electrophysiology of the enantiomers of disopyramide in dogs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985 Sep-Oct; 7(5):884-90. Giacomini JC, Giacomini KM, Nelson WL, Harrison DC, Blaschke TF. PMID: 2413296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    292. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of d- and dl-verapamil in rabbits. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985 May-Jun; 7(3):469-75. Giacomini JC, Nelson WL, Theodore L, Wong FM, Rood D, Giacomini KM. PMID: 2410676.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    293. Verapamil interacts stereoselectively with the muscarinic receptor. Pharm Res. 1985 Mar; 2(2):94-5. Giacomini JC, Zobrist RH, Dave B, Giacomini KM. PMID: 24272619.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    294. Decreased binding of verapamil to plasma proteins in patients with liver disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1984 Sep-Oct; 6(5):924-8. Giacomini KM, Massoud N, Wong FM, Giacomini JC. PMID: 6209501.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    295. Correction for Volume Shift during Equilibrium Dialysis by Measurement of Protein Concentration. Pharm Res. 1984 Jul; 1(4):179-81. Giacomini KM, Wong FM, Tozer TN. PMID: 24277288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    
    296. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of hypoxanthine arabinoside in plasma. J Chromatogr. 1984 May 11; 307(2):410-5. Smith GA, Giacomini KM, Smith CT, Gregory PB, Robinson WS, Merigan TC, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6203924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    297. Effect of concentration-dependent binding to plasma proteins on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of disopyramide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984 Jan; 9 Suppl 1:42-8. Giacomini KM, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6705426.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    298. Amitriptyline disposition in young and elderly normal men. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Mar; 33(3):360-6. Schulz P, Turner-Tamiyasu K, Smith G, Giacomini KM, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6825390.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    299. Effect of low doses of heparin on the plasma binding of phenytoin and prazosin in normal man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983; 25(2):211-4. Schulz P, Giacomini KM, Luttrell S, Turner-Tamiyasu K, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6628503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    300. Effect of heparin on the red blood cell-to-plasma concentration ratio of diphenylhydantoin and prazosin. Ther Drug Monit. 1983; 5(4):497-9. Schulz P, Abang A, Giacomini JC, Blaschke TF, Giacomini KM. PMID: 6659020.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    301. Calculation of drug concentration in plasma after equilibrium dialysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982 Nov; 14(5):752-4. Giacomini KM, Abang A, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7138760.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    302. The cardiac effects of d- and l-disopyramide in normal subjects: a noninvasive study. Circulation. 1982 Aug; 66(2):447-53. Pollick C, Giacomini KM, Blaschke TF, Nelson WL, Turner-Tamiyasu K, Briskin V, Popp RL. PMID: 7094252.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    303. High-pressure liquid chromatographic determination of amitriptyline and its major metabolites in human whole blood. J Pharm Sci. 1982 May; 71(5):581-3. Smith GA, Schulz P, Giacomini KM, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7097507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    304. Measurement of ketoconazole, a new antifungal agent, by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1982 Feb 12; 227(2):510-5. Swezey SF, Giacomini KM, Abang A, Brass C, Stevens DA, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6277970.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    305. The effect of saturable binding to plasma proteins on the pharmacokinetic properties of disopyramide. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1982 Feb; 10(1):1-14. Giacomini KM, Swezey SE, Turner-Tamiyasu K, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7069575.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    306. Synthesis and anticholinergic properties of the enantiomers of 4-(isopropylamino)-2-(2-pyridyl)-2-phenylbutyramide, the mono-N-dealkylated metabolite of disopyramide. J Med Chem. 1981 May; 24(5):614-7. Nelson WL, Sneed CK, Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Stauss J, Blaschke TF, Cox BM. PMID: 7241519.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    307. Evaluation of methods for producing renal dysfunction in rats. J Pharm Sci. 1981 Feb; 70(2):117-21. Giacomini KM, Roberts SM, Levy G. PMID: 7205211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    308. Absence of effect of heparin on the binding of prazosin and phenytoin to plasma proteins. Biochem Pharmacol. 1980 Dec; 29(24):3337-40. Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7213407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    309. The stereoselective disposition of disopyramide in the dog. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1980 Nov-Dec; 2(6):825-32. Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Swezey SE, Harrison DC, Nelson WL, Burke TR, Blaschke TF. PMID: 6160331.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    310. Comparative anticholinergic potencies of R- and S- disopyramide in longitudinal muscle strips from guinea pig ileum. Life Sci. 1980 Sep 29; 27(13):1191-7. Giacomini KM, Cox BM, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7421405.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    311. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations after oral propoxyphene in cirrhotic patients with and without surgically constructed portacaval shunt. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Sep; 28(3):417-24. Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Gibson TP, Levy G. PMID: 7408401.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    312. Administration of heparin causes in vitro release of non-esterified fatty acids in human plasma. Life Sci. 1980 Sep 01; 27(9):771-80. Giacomini KM, Swezey SE, Giacomini JC, Blaschke TF. PMID: 7412503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    313. Pharmacokinetic studies of propoxyphene I:Effect of portacaval shunt on systemic availability in dogs. J Pharm Sci. 1980 Jul; 69(7):786-9. Giacomini KM, Nakeeb SM, Levy G. PMID: 7391940.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    314. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations in the anephric patient. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 May; 27(5):665-70. Gibson TP, Giacomini KM, Briggs WA, Whitman W, Levy G. PMID: 7371364.
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    315. Effect of hemodialysis on propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene concentrations in blood of anephric patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Apr; 27(4):508-14. Giacomini KM, Gibson TP, Levy G. PMID: 7357810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    316. Phenylalanine metabolism in uremic and normal man. Kidney Int. 1978 Aug; 14(2):169-79. Jones MR, Kopple JD, Swendseid ME. PMID: 357810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    317. Rational aspirin dosage regimens. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1978 Mar; 23(3):247-52. Levy G, Giacomini KM. PMID: 627128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    318. Plasma protein binding of d-propoxyphene in normal subjects and anephric patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 1978 Feb-Mar; 18(2-3):106-9. Giacomini KM, Gibson TP, Levy G. PMID: 624774.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    319. A Convenient Method for Repetitive Blood Sampling in the Dog. J. Pharmacol. Meth. 1978; (1):259-261. Soles C, Giacomini KM, Roberts SM, Giacomini JC. Soles C, Giacomini KM, Roberts SM, Giacomini JC.
    320. [Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by indirect hemagglutination. II. Value of mixed total antigen fixation in the presence of glutaraldehyde in the early diagnosis of the disease]. Biomedicine. 1976 Jul; 25(6):212-4. Senet JM, Robert R, Mauras G. PMID: 822893.
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