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    Steve Finkbeiner, MD, PhD

    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    Address1650 Owens St
    San Francisco CA 94107
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      Areas of Investigation: Research in our laboratory focuses on molecular mechanisms of plasticity and neurodegeneration. A long-term goal of our research is to understand how neuronal activity elicits changes in gene expression that are important for learning and memory. We also aim to understand how an inherited genetic mutation leads to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD).

      Significance: To convert brief experiences into long-term memories, new gene expression is needed. Understanding how brief neuronal activity regulates gene expression could help us understand how memories are formed. We may also develop new strategies to help people with cognitive disturbances such as those seen in HD. HD is the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder and belongs to a family of 12 neurological diseases, which are caused by the same type of mutation an abnormal expansion of a homomeric polyglutamine stretch within the affected protein.

      We use cellular, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plasticity and neurodegeneration. We have developed primary culture models of activity-dependent gene transcription and of HD. These models faithfully recapitulate critical features of these processes and allow us to test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms. Selected findings are evaluated further in genetically modified mice.

      Contributions: We have contributed to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity and neurodegeneration in several ways. We found that proteins bound to the cytoplasmic portion of one subtype of glutamate receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, play a critical role coupling local Ca2+ influx through the channel to elicit adaptive gene transcription in neurons. This may be a general mechanism by which diverse Ca2+ channels achieve specific and distinct neuronal responses. We developed a neuronal model that faithfully recapitulates key features of HD. We showed that the nucleus is a critical subcellular site in which mutant huntingtin (the affected protein in HD) induces neurodegeneration. However, mutant huntingtin need not aggregate into inclusions to induce neurodegeneration. Recently, we developed a new automated imaging system that we call a robotic microscope. The instrument enables us to track living neurons over long time periods and to, quantify quickly the adaptive or maladaptive responses of thousands of neurons. Along with special statistical methods, we now have the ability to determine whether and to what extent a variable that is observed on one day can predict the fate of that neuron on another day. This ability will enable us to unravel confounding cause-and-effect mechanisms.

      Questions Addressed in Ongoing Studies

      - How does the C-terminus of the NMDA receptor couple Ca2+ influx to gene expression?
      - What are the gene targets of the NMDA receptor and to what extent do they differ from gene targets of other neuronal - Ca2+ channels?
      - What role does subsynaptic protein translation play in synapse-specific gene expression, learning, and memory?
      - How does the polyglutamine expansion induce selective degeneration in certain types of neurons?
      - What roles do ubiquitination and proteasome function play in neurodegeneration?
      - What is the normal function of huntingtin?
      - Which is a better predictor of neurodegeneration inclusion body formation or more soluble but malfolded versions of huntingtin?

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Moruno Manchon JF, Uzor NE, Dabaghian Y, Furr-Stimming EE, Finkbeiner S, Tsvetkov AS. Cytoplasmic sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway modulates neuronal autophagy. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:15213.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lee JM, Kim KH, Shin A, Chao MJ, Abu Elneel K, Gillis T, Mysore JS, Kaye JA, Zahed H, Kratter IH, Daub AC, Finkbeiner S, Li H, Roach JC, Goodman N, Hood L, Myers RH, MacDonald ME, Gusella JF. Sequence-Level Analysis of the Major European Huntington Disease Haplotype. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Sep 3; 97(3):435-44.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Barmada SJ, Ju S, Arjun A, Batarse A, Archbold HC, Peisach D, Li X, Zhang Y, Tank EM, Qiu H, Huang EJ, Ringe D, Petsko GA, Finkbeiner S. Amelioration of toxicity in neuronal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by hUPF1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 23; 112(25):7821-6.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Campioni MR, Finkbeiner S. Going retro: ancient viral origins of cognition. Neuron. 2015 Apr 22; 86(2):346-8.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Finkbeiner S, Frumkin M, Kassner PD. Cell-based screening: extracting meaning from complex data. Neuron. 2015 Apr 8; 86(1):160-74.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Vieira FG, LaDow E, Moreno A, Kidd JD, Levine B, Thompson K, Gill A, Finkbeiner S, Perrin S. Dexpramipexole Is Ineffective in Two Models of ALS Related Neurodegeneration. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e91608.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Ochaba J, Lukacsovich T, Csikos G, Zheng S, Margulis J, Salazar L, Mao K, Lau AL, Yeung SY, Humbert S, Saudou F, Klionsky DJ, Finkbeiner S, Zeitlin SO, Marsh JL, Housman DE, Thompson LM, Steffan JS. Potential function for the Huntingtin protein as a scaffold for selective autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 25; 111(47):16889-94.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Mason AR, Ziemann A, Finkbeiner S. Targeting the low-hanging fruit of neurodegeneration. Neurology. 2014 Oct 14; 83(16):1470-3.
        View in: PubMed PMC4206158
      9. Sieber BA, Landis S, Koroshetz W, Bateman R, Siderowf A, Galpern WR, Dunlop J, Finkbeiner S, Sutherland M, Wang H, Lee VM, Orr HT, Gwinn K, Ludwig K, Taylor A, Torborg C, Montine TJ. Prioritized research recommendations from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Parkinson's Disease 2014 conference. Ann Neurol. 2014 Oct; 76(4):469-72.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Margulis J, Finkbeiner S. Proteostasis in striatal cells and selective neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014; 8:218.
        View in: PubMed PMC4124811
      11. Barmada SJ, Serio A, Arjun A, Bilican B, Daub A, Ando DM, Tsvetkov A, Pleiss M, Li X, Peisach D, Shaw C, Chandran S, Finkbeiner S. Autophagy induction enhances TDP43 turnover and survival in neuronal ALS models. Nat Chem Biol. 2014 Aug; 10(8):677-85.
        View in: PubMed PMC4106236
      12. Tóth G, Gardai SJ, Zago W, Bertoncini CW, Cremades N, Roy SL, Tambe MA, Rochet JC, Galvagnion C, Skibinski G, Finkbeiner S, Bova M, Regnstrom K, Chiou SS, Johnston J, Callaway K, Anderson JP, Jobling MF, Buell AK, Yednock TA, Knowles TP, Vendruscolo M, Christodoulou J, Dobson CM, Schenk D, McConlogue L. Targeting the intrinsically disordered structural ensemble of a-synuclein by small molecules as a potential therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e87133.
        View in: PubMed PMC3925190
      13. Qiu H, Lee S, Shang Y, Wang WY, Au KF, Kamiya S, Barmada SJ, Finkbeiner S, Lui H, Carlton CE, Tang AA, Oldham MC, Wang H, Shorter J, Filiano AJ, Roberson ED, Tourtellotte WG, Chen B, Tsai LH, Huang EJ. ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNA splicing defects. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar 3; 124(3):981-99.
        View in: PubMed PMC3938263
      14. Skibinski G, Nakamura K, Cookson MR, Finkbeiner S. Mutant LRRK2 toxicity in neurons depends on LRRK2 levels and synuclein but not kinase activity or inclusion bodies. J Neurosci. 2014 Jan 8; 34(2):418-33.
        View in: PubMed PMC3870929
      15. You SC, Geschwind MD, Sha SJ, Apple A, Satris G, Wood KA, Johnson ET, Gooblar J, Feuerstein JS, Finkbeiner S, Kang GA, Miller BL, Hess CP, Kramer JH, Possin KL. Executive functions in premanifest Huntington's disease. Mov Disord. 2014 Mar; 29(3):405-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC4029327
      16. Kim HJ, Raphael AR, LaDow ES, McGurk L, Weber RA, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM, Finkbeiner S, Gitler AD, Bonini NM. Therapeutic modulation of eIF2a phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models. Nat Genet. 2014 Feb; 46(2):152-60.
        View in: PubMed PMC3934366
      17. Korb E, Finkbeiner S. PML in the Brain: From Development to Degeneration. Front Oncol. 2013; 3:242.
        View in: PubMed PMC3775456
      18. Sun Y, Dong Z, Jin T, Ang KH, Huang M, Haston KM, Peng J, Zhong TP, Finkbeiner S, Weiss WA, Arkin MR, Jan LY, Guo S. Imaging-based chemical screening reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Elife. 2013; 2:e00508.
        View in: PubMed PMC3771564
      19. Finkbeiner S. Startups on the menu. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Aug; 31(8):680.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Zhang C, Lopez MS, Dar AC, Ladow E, Finkbeiner S, Yun CH, Eck MJ, Shokat KM. Structure-guided inhibitor design expands the scope of analog-sensitive kinase technology. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Sep 20; 8(9):1931-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3938192
      21. Tsvetkov AS, Arrasate M, Barmada S, Ando DM, Sharma P, Shaby BA, Finkbeiner S. Proteostasis of polyglutamine varies among neurons and predicts neurodegeneration. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Sep; 9(9):586-92.
        View in: PubMed PMC3900497
      22. Vashishtha M, Ng CW, Yildirim F, Gipson TA, Kratter IH, Bodai L, Song W, Lau A, Labadorf A, Vogel-Ciernia A, Troncosco J, Ross CA, Bates GP, Krainc D, Sadri-Vakili G, Finkbeiner S, Marsh JL, Housman DE, Fraenkel E, Thompson LM. Targeting H3K4 trimethylation in Huntington disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 6; 110(32):E3027-36.
        View in: PubMed PMC3740882
      23. Korb E, Wilkinson CL, Delgado RN, Lovero KL, Finkbeiner S. Arc in the nucleus regulates PML-dependent GluA1 transcription and homeostatic plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jul; 16(7):874-83.
        View in: PubMed PMC3703835
      24. Bilican B, Serio A, Barmada SJ, Nishimura AL, Sullivan GJ, Carrasco M, Phatnani HP, Puddifoot CA, Story D, Fletcher J, Park IH, Friedman BA, Daley GQ, Wyllie DJ, Hardingham GE, Wilmut I, Finkbeiner S, Maniatis T, Shaw CE, Chandran S. Comment on "Drug screening for ALS using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells". Sci Transl Med. 2013 Jun 5; 5(188):188le2.
        View in: PubMed PMC3936961
      25. Aron R, Tsvetkov A, Finkbeiner S. NUB1 snubs huntingtin toxicity. Nat Neurosci. 2013 May; 16(5):523-5.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Skibinski G, Finkbeiner S. Longitudinal measures of proteostasis in live neurons: features that determine fate in models of neurodegenerative disease. FEBS Lett. 2013 Apr 17; 587(8):1139-46.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Kaye JA, Finkbeiner S. Modeling Huntington's disease with induced pluripotent stem cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013 Sep; 56:50-64.
        View in: PubMed PMC3791169
      28. Serio A, Bilican B, Barmada SJ, Ando DM, Zhao C, Siller R, Burr K, Haghi G, Story D, Nishimura AL, Carrasco MA, Phatnani HP, Shum C, Wilmut I, Maniatis T, Shaw CE, Finkbeiner S, Chandran S. Astrocyte pathology and the absence of non-cell autonomy in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19; 110(12):4697-702.
        View in: PubMed PMC3607024
      29. Tsvetkov AS, Ando DM, Finkbeiner S. Longitudinal imaging and analysis of neurons expressing polyglutamine-expanded proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1017:1-20.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Armakola M, Higgins MJ, Figley MD, Barmada SJ, Scarborough EA, Diaz Z, Fang X, Shorter J, Krogan NJ, Finkbeiner S, Farese RV, Gitler AD. Inhibition of RNA lariat debranching enzyme suppresses TDP-43 toxicity in ALS disease models. Nat Genet. 2012 Dec; 44(12):1302-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3510335
      31. Martens LH, Zhang J, Barmada SJ, Zhou P, Kamiya S, Sun B, Min SW, Gan L, Finkbeiner S, Huang EJ, Farese RV. Progranulin deficiency promotes neuroinflammation and neuron loss following toxin-induced injury. J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov 1; 122(11):3955-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3484443
      32. Wray S, Self M. Creation of an open-access, mutation-defined fibroblast resource for neurological disease research. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43099.
        View in: PubMed PMC3428297
      33. Sontag EM, Lotz GP, Agrawal N, Tran A, Aron R, Yang G, Necula M, Lau A, Finkbeiner S, Glabe C, Marsh JL, Muchowski PJ, Thompson LM. Methylene blue modulates huntingtin aggregation intermediates and is protective in Huntington's disease models. J Neurosci. 2012 Aug 8; 32(32):11109-19.
        View in: PubMed PMC3546821
      34. Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D'Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr; 8(4):445-544.
        View in: PubMed PMC3404883
      35. Bilican B, Serio A, Barmada SJ, Nishimura AL, Sullivan GJ, Carrasco M, Phatnani HP, Puddifoot CA, Story D, Fletcher J, Park IH, Friedman BA, Daley GQ, Wyllie DJ, Hardingham GE, Wilmut I, Finkbeiner S, Maniatis T, Shaw CE, Chandran S. Mutant induced pluripotent stem cell lines recapitulate aspects of TDP-43 proteinopathies and reveal cell-specific vulnerability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15):5803-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3326463
      36. Nucifora LG, Burke KA, Feng X, Arbez N, Zhu S, Miller J, Yang G, Ratovitski T, Delannoy M, Muchowski PJ, Finkbeiner S, Legleiter J, Ross CA, Poirier MA. Identification of novel potentially toxic oligomers formed in vitro from mammalian-derived expanded huntingtin exon-1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 4; 287(19):16017-28.
        View in: PubMed PMC3346083
      37. Peters-Libeu C, Miller J, Rutenber E, Newhouse Y, Krishnan P, Cheung K, Hatters D, Brooks E, Widjaja K, Tran T, Mitra S, Arrasate M, Mosquera LA, Taylor D, Weisgraber KH, Finkbeiner S. Disease-associated polyglutamine stretches in monomeric huntingtin adopt a compact structure. J Mol Biol. 2012 Aug 24; 421(4-5):587-600.
        View in: PubMed PMC3358578
      38. Sharma P, Ando DM, Daub A, Kaye JA, Finkbeiner S. High-throughput screening in primary neurons. Methods Enzymol. 2012; 506:331-60.
        View in: PubMed PMC3564665
      39. Arrasate M, Finkbeiner S. Protein aggregates in Huntington's disease. Exp Neurol. 2012 Nov; 238(1):1-11.
        View in: PubMed PMC3909772
      40. Klionsky DJ, Baehrecke EH, Brumell JH, Chu CT, Codogno P, Cuervo AM, Debnath J, Deretic V, Elazar Z, Eskelinen EL, Finkbeiner S, Fueyo-Margareto J, Gewirtz D, Jäättelä M, Kroemer G, Levine B, Melia TJ, Mizushima N, Rubinsztein DC, Simonsen A, Thorburn A, Thumm M, Tooze SA. A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes (2nd edition). Autophagy. 2011 Nov; 7(11):1273-94.
        View in: PubMed PMC3359482
      41. Miller J, Arrasate M, Brooks E, Libeu CP, Legleiter J, Hatters D, Curtis J, Cheung K, Krishnan P, Mitra S, Widjaja K, Shaby BA, Lotz GP, Newhouse Y, Mitchell EJ, Osmand A, Gray M, Thulasiramin V, Saudou F, Segal M, Yang XW, Masliah E, Thompson LM, Muchowski PJ, Weisgraber KH, Finkbeiner S. Identifying polyglutamine protein species in situ that best predict neurodegeneration. Nat Chem Biol. 2011 Dec; 7(12):925-34.
        View in: PubMed PMC3271120
      42. Korb E, Finkbeiner S. Arc in synaptic plasticity: from gene to behavior. Trends Neurosci. 2011 Nov; 34(11):591-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3207967
      43. Gittis AH, Hang GB, LaDow ES, Shoenfeld LR, Atallah BV, Finkbeiner S, Kreitzer AC. Rapid target-specific remodeling of fast-spiking inhibitory circuits after loss of dopamine. Neuron. 2011 Sep 8; 71(5):858-68.
        View in: PubMed PMC3170520
      44. Finkbeiner S. Huntington's Disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Jun; 3(6).
        View in: PubMed PMC3098678
      45. Nakamura K, Nemani VM, Azarbal F, Skibinski G, Levy JM, Egami K, Munishkina L, Zhang J, Gardner B, Wakabayashi J, Sesaki H, Cheng Y, Finkbeiner S, Nussbaum RL, Masliah E, Edwards RH. Direct membrane association drives mitochondrial fission by the Parkinson disease-associated protein alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 10; 286(23):20710-26.
        View in: PubMed PMC3121472
      46. Zhang QC, Yeh TL, Leyva A, Frank LG, Miller J, Kim YE, Langen R, Finkbeiner S, Amzel ML, Ross CA, Poirier MA. A compact beta model of huntingtin toxicity. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 11; 286(10):8188-96.
        View in: PubMed PMC3048705
      47. Barmada S, Finkbeiner S. Bringing SOD1 into the fold. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 13(11):1303-4.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Peebles CL, Yoo J, Thwin MT, Palop JJ, Noebels JL, Finkbeiner S. Arc regulates spine morphology and maintains network stability in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 19; 107(42):18173-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC2964216
      49. Kratter IH, Finkbeiner S. PolyQ disease: too many Qs, too much function? Neuron. 2010 Sep 23; 67(6):897-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3989162
      50. Finkbeiner S. Bridging the Valley of Death of therapeutics for neurodegeneration. Nat Med. 2010 Nov; 16(11):1227-32.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Tsvetkov AS, Miller J, Arrasate M, Wong JS, Pleiss MA, Finkbeiner S. A small-molecule scaffold induces autophagy in primary neurons and protects against toxicity in a Huntington disease model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Sep 28; 107(39):16982-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC2947884
      52. Vossel KA, Zhang K, Brodbeck J, Daub AC, Sharma P, Finkbeiner S, Cui B, Mucke L. Tau reduction prevents Abeta-induced defects in axonal transport. Science. 2010 Oct 8; 330(6001):198.
        View in: PubMed PMC3024010
      53. Miller J, Arrasate M, Shaby BA, Mitra S, Masliah E, Finkbeiner S. Quantitative relationships between huntingtin levels, polyglutamine length, inclusion body formation, and neuronal death provide novel insight into huntington's disease molecular pathogenesis. J Neurosci. 2010 Aug 4; 30(31):10541-50.
        View in: PubMed PMC3078518
      54. Ramdzan YM, Nisbet RM, Miller J, Finkbeiner S, Hill AF, Hatters DM. Conformation sensors that distinguish monomeric proteins from oligomers in live cells. Chem Biol. 2010 Apr 23; 17(4):371-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3564667
      55. Landles C, Sathasivam K, Weiss A, Woodman B, Moffitt H, Finkbeiner S, Sun B, Gafni J, Ellerby LM, Trottier Y, Richards WG, Osmand A, Paganetti P, Bates GP. Proteolysis of mutant huntingtin produces an exon 1 fragment that accumulates as an aggregated protein in neuronal nuclei in Huntington disease. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 19; 285(12):8808-23.
        View in: PubMed PMC2838303
      56. Barmada SJ, Skibinski G, Korb E, Rao EJ, Wu JY, Finkbeiner S. Cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 is toxic to neurons and enhanced by a mutation associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2010 Jan 13; 30(2):639-49.
        View in: PubMed PMC2821110
      57. Sathasivam K, Lane A, Legleiter J, Warley A, Woodman B, Finkbeiner S, Paganetti P, Muchowski PJ, Wilson S, Bates GP. Identical oligomeric and fibrillar structures captured from the brains of R6/2 and knock-in mouse models of Huntington's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Jan 1; 19(1):65-78.
        View in: PubMed PMC2792149
      58. Barmada SJ, Finkbeiner S. Pathogenic TARDBP mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: disease-associated pathways. Rev Neurosci. 2010; 21(4):251-72.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Gu X, Greiner ER, Mishra R, Kodali R, Osmand A, Finkbeiner S, Steffan JS, Thompson LM, Wetzel R, Yang XW. Serines 13 and 16 are critical determinants of full-length human mutant huntingtin induced disease pathogenesis in HD mice. Neuron. 2009 Dec 24; 64(6):828-40.
        View in: PubMed PMC2807408
      60. Thompson LM, Aiken CT, Kaltenbach LS, Agrawal N, Illes K, Khoshnan A, Martinez-Vincente M, Arrasate M, O'Rourke JG, Khashwji H, Lukacsovich T, Zhu YZ, Lau AL, Massey A, Hayden MR, Zeitlin SO, Finkbeiner S, Green KN, LaFerla FM, Bates G, Huang L, Patterson PH, Lo DC, Cuervo AM, Marsh JL, Steffan JS. IKK phosphorylates Huntingtin and targets it for degradation by the proteasome and lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2009 Dec 28; 187(7):1083-99.
        View in: PubMed PMC2806289
      61. Daub A, Sharma P, Finkbeiner S. High-content screening of primary neurons: ready for prime time. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2009 Oct; 19(5):537-43.
        View in: PubMed PMC2787795
      62. Mitra S, Tsvetkov AS, Finkbeiner S. Protein turnover and inclusion body formation. Autophagy. 2009 Oct; 5(7):1037-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC2892253
      63. Legleiter J, Lotz GP, Miller J, Ko J, Ng C, Williams GL, Finkbeiner S, Patterson PH, Muchowski PJ. Monoclonal antibodies recognize distinct conformational epitopes formed by polyglutamine in a mutant huntingtin fragment. J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 7; 284(32):21647-58.
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      64. Montie HL, Cho MS, Holder L, Liu Y, Tsvetkov AS, Finkbeiner S, Merry DE. Cytoplasmic retention of polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor ameliorates disease via autophagy in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Jun 1; 18(11):1937-50.
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      65. Pintchovski SA, Peebles CL, Kim HJ, Verdin E, Finkbeiner S. The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 in neurons. J Neurosci. 2009 Feb 4; 29(5):1525-37.
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      66. Mitra S, Tsvetkov AS, Finkbeiner S. Single neuron ubiquitin-proteasome dynamics accompanying inclusion body formation in huntington disease. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 13; 284(7):4398-403.
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      67. Finkbeiner S, Mitra S. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in Huntington's disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008; 8:421-33.
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      68. Palop JJ, Chin J, Roberson ED, Wang J, Thwin MT, Bien-Ly N, Yoo J, Ho KO, Yu GQ, Kreitzer A, Finkbeiner S, Noebels JL, Mucke L. Aberrant excitatory neuronal activity and compensatory remodeling of inhibitory hippocampal circuits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2007 Sep 6; 55(5):697-711.
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      69. Peebles CL, Finkbeiner S. RNA decay back in play. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Sep; 10(9):1083-4.
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      70. Rao VR, Finkbeiner S. NMDA and AMPA receptors: old channels, new tricks. Trends Neurosci. 2007 Jun; 30(6):284-91.
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      71. Finkbeiner S, Cuervo AM, Morimoto RI, Muchowski PJ. Disease-modifying pathways in neurodegeneration. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 11; 26(41):10349-57.
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      72. Beal MF, Bossy-Wetzel E, Finkbeiner S, Fiskum G, Giasson B, Johnson C, Khachaturian ZS, Lee VM, Nicholls D, Reddy H, Reynolds I, Teplow DB, Thal LJ, Trojanowski JQ, Walsh DM, Wetzel R, Wexler NS, Young AB, Bain L. Common threads in neurodegenerative disorders of aging. Alzheimers Dement. 2006 Oct; 2(4):322-6.
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      73. Rao VR, Pintchovski SA, Chin J, Peebles CL, Mitra S, Finkbeiner S. AMPA receptors regulate transcription of the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jul; 9(7):887-95.
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      74. Bradley J, Carter SR, Rao VR, Wang J, Finkbeiner S. Splice variants of the NR1 subunit differentially induce NMDA receptor-dependent gene expression. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 25; 26(4):1065-76.
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      75. Peters-Libeu C, Newhouse Y, Krishnan P, Cheung K, Brooks E, Weisgraber K, Finkbeiner S. Crystallization and diffraction properties of the Fab fragment of 3B5H10, an antibody specific for disease-causing polyglutamine stretches. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005 Dec 1; 61(Pt 12):1065-8.
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      76. Arrasate M, Finkbeiner S. Automated microscope system for determining factors that predict neuronal fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 8; 102(10):3840-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC553329
      77. Arrasate M, Mitra S, Schweitzer ES, Segal MR, Finkbeiner S. Inclusion body formation reduces levels of mutant huntingtin and the risk of neuronal death. Nature. 2004 Oct 14; 431(7010):805-10.
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      78. Brooks E, Arrasate M, Cheung K, Finkbeiner SM. Using antibodies to analyze polyglutamine stretches. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 277:103-28.
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      79. Rao VR, Finkbeiner S. Secrets of a secretase: N-cadherin proteolysis regulates CBP function. Cell. 2003 Sep 5; 114(5):533-5.
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      80. Bradley J, Finkbeiner S. An evaluation of specificity in activity-dependent gene expression in neurons. Prog Neurobiol. 2002 Aug; 67(6):469-77.
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      81. Humbert S, Bryson EA, Cordelières FP, Connors NC, Datta SR, Finkbeiner S, Greenberg ME, Saudou F. The IGF-1/Akt pathway is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease and involves Huntingtin phosphorylation by Akt. Dev Cell. 2002 Jun; 2(6):831-7.
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      82. Finkbeiner S. New roles for introns: sites of combinatorial regulation of Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-dependent gene transcription. Sci STKE. 2001 Aug 7; 2001(94):pe1.
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      83. Finkbeiner S. Calcium regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000 Mar; 57(3):394-401.
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      84. Finkbeiner S. CREB couples neurotrophin signals to survival messages. Neuron. 2000 Jan; 25(1):11-4.
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      85. Curtis J, Finkbeiner S. Sending signals from the synapse to the nucleus: possible roles for CaMK, Ras/ERK, and SAPK pathways in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and neuronal growth. J Neurosci Res. 1999 Oct 1; 58(1):88-95.
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      86. Saudou F, Finkbeiner S, Devys D, Greenberg ME. Huntingtin acts in the nucleus to induce apoptosis but death does not correlate with the formation of intranuclear inclusions. Cell. 1998 Oct 2; 95(1):55-66.
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      87. Finkbeiner S, Greenberg ME. Ca2+ channel-regulated neuronal gene expression. J Neurobiol. 1998 Oct; 37(1):171-89.
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      88. Finkbeiner S, Dalva MB. To fear or not to fear: what was the question? A potential role for Ras-GRF in memory. Bioessays. 1998 Sep; 20(9):691-5.
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      89. Tao X, Finkbeiner S, Arnold DB, Shaywitz AJ, Greenberg ME. Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. Neuron. 1998 Apr; 20(4):709-26.
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      90. Finkbeiner S, Tavazoie SF, Maloratsky A, Jacobs KM, Harris KM, Greenberg ME. CREB: a major mediator of neuronal neurotrophin responses. Neuron. 1997 Nov; 19(5):1031-47.
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      91. Finkbeiner S, Greenberg ME. Spatial features of calcium-regulated gene expression. Bioessays. 1997 Aug; 19(8):657-60.
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      92. Finkbeiner S, Greenberg ME. Ca(2+)-dependent routes to Ras: mechanisms for neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity? Neuron. 1996 Feb; 16(2):233-6.
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      93. Finkbeiner SM. Glial calcium. Glia. 1993 Oct; 9(2):83-104.
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      94. van den Pol AN, Finkbeiner SM, Cornell-Bell AH. Calcium excitability and oscillations in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons and glia in vitro. J Neurosci. 1992 Jul; 12(7):2648-64.
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      95. Finkbeiner S. Calcium waves in astrocytes-filling in the gaps. Neuron. 1992 Jun; 8(6):1101-8.
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      96. Renzi R, Finkbeiner S. Ciprofloxacin interaction with sodium warfarin: a potentially dangerous side effect. Am J Emerg Med. 1991 Nov; 9(6):551-2.
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      97. Goldman RS, Finkbeiner SM, Smith SJ. Endothelin induces a sustained rise in intracellular calcium in hippocampal astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Feb 11; 123(1):4-8.
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      98. Cornell-Bell AH, Finkbeiner SM. Ca2+ waves in astrocytes. Cell Calcium. 1991 Feb-Mar; 12(2-3):185-204.
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      99. Cornell-Bell AH, Finkbeiner SM, Cooper MS, Smith SJ. Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling. Science. 1990 Jan 26; 247(4941):470-3.
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      100. Keana JF, McBurney RN, Scherz MW, Fischer JB, Hamilton PN, Smith SM, Server AC, Finkbeiner S, Stevens CF, Jahr C, et al. Synthesis and characterization of a series of diarylguanidines that are noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists with neuroprotective properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul; 86(14):5631-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC297678
      101. Goldman RS, Finkbeiner SM. Therapeutic use of magnesium sulfate in selected cases of cerebral ischemia and seizure. N Engl J Med. 1988 Nov 3; 319(18):1224-5.
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      102. Finkbeiner S, Stevens CF. Applications of quantitative measurements for assessing glutamate neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun; 85(11):4071-4.
        View in: PubMed PMC280363
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