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    Phyllis Tien, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address4150 Clement Street
    San Francisco CA 94121
    Phone415-221-4810x2577
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      UCSF 2010Floyd Rector Resident Research Mentoring Award
      UCSF2003Hellman Family Award for Early Career Faculty

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Tien is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and a Staff Physician at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC).

      Since joining the faculty at UCSF in 2000, she has been engaged in clinical translational research of chronic viral infections, specifically HIV and HCV, and their metabolic and inflammatory consequences on long term organ injury (e.g. liver, bone and vascular injury). As part of this work, she also studies novel non-invasive techniques to estimate steatosis and fibrosis using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound-based transient elastography as well as novel CT and MR imaging methods to measure bone and vascular injury. She is the Principal Investigator of an NIH funded R01 study to investigate the link between visceral adiposity, HIV, and HCV to the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and an NIH funded K24 award to mentor early career investigators to examine the effects of HIV/HCV coinfection on liver, bone and vascular injury. She is also one of three Principal Investigators of the Northern California site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), which is the largest and longest running prospective cohort of the progression of HIV infection in women in the US.

      She serves as the Chair of the WIHS Executive Committee, and is a member of the Department of Health and Human Services Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines Panel for Adults and Adolescents and the NIH AIDS Clinical Epidemiology Study Section.

      Education and Training:

      - MD, University of California, San Diego
      - Internship, University of Colorado
      - Residency, Stanford University
      - Fellow in Infectious Disease and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University
      - Fellow in AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco


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      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Peters MG, Bacchetti P, Boylan R, French AL, Tien PC, Plankey MW, Glesby MJ, Augenbraun M, Golub ET, Karim R, Parkes J, Rosenberg W. Enhanced liver fibrosis marker as a noninvasive predictor of mortality in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected women from a multicenter study of women with or at risk for HIV. AIDS. 2016 Mar 13; 30(5):723-9. PMID: 26595542.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Kerzerho J, McIlvaine EJ, Anthony P, Mack WJ, Wang CH, Frederick T, Operskalski E, Chen Z, Al-Harthi L, Landay A, Young MA, Tien PC, Augenbraun M, Strickler HD, Akbari O, Golub ET, Sharp GB, Kovacs A. Impact of Hepatitis C Virus on the Circulating Levels of IL-7 in HIV-1 Coinfected Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Feb 1; 71(2):172-80. PMID: 26761519.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Sharma A, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Gustafson D, Plankey MW, Hershow RC, Tien PC, Golub ET, Anastos K. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mortality in HIV-Infected HAART Users in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0143740. PMID: 26699870.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Tien PC. Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2015 Dec; 17(12):73. PMID: 26493063.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Swanson S, Ma Y, Scherzer R, Huhn G, French AL, Plankey MW, Grunfeld C, Rosenberg WM, Peters MG, Tien PC. Association of HIV, Hepatitis C Virus, and Liver Fibrosis Severity With the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Score. J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1; 213(7):1079-86. PMID: 26621911.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Sharma A, Shi Q, Hoover DR, Anastos K, Tien PC, Young MA, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Gustafson D, Yin MT. Increased Fracture Incidence in Middle-Aged HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women: Updated Results From the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Sep 1; 70(1):54-61. PMID: 26322667.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Shah S, Ma Y, Scherzer R, Huhn G, French AL, Plankey M, Peters MG, Grunfeld C, Tien PC. Association of HIV, hepatitis C virus and liver fibrosis severity with interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels. AIDS. 2015 Jul 17; 29(11):1325-33. PMID: 25870985.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Marcus JL, Leyden WA, Chao CR, Xu L, Quesenberry CP, Tien PC, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ. Differences in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy by Sex and Hepatitis C Infection Status. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Jul; 29(7):370-8. PMID: 26061798.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Jotwani V, Shlipak MG, Scherzer R, Parekh RS, Kao WH, Bennett M, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young M, Tien PC, Parikh CR, Estrella MM. APOL1 Genotype and Glomerular and Tubular Kidney Injury in Women With HIV. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Jun; 65(6):889-98. PMID: 25921719.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hanna DB, Post WS, Deal JA, Hodis HN, Jacobson LP, Mack WJ, Anastos K, Gange SJ, Landay AL, Lazar JM, Palella FJ, Tien PC, Witt MD, Xue X, Young MA, Kaplan RC, Kingsley LA. HIV Infection Is Associated With Progression of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 15; 61(4):640-50. PMID: 25904369.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Valcour V, Rubin LH, Tien P, Anastos K, Young M, Mack W, Cohen M, Golub ET, Crystal H, Maki PM. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modulates the associations between insulin resistance and cognition in the current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era: a study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Neurovirol. 2015 Aug; 21(4):415-21. PMID: 25740539.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Jung M, Parrinello CM, Xue X, Mack WJ, Anastos K, Lazar JM, Selzer RH, Shircore AM, Plankey M, Tien P, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Hodis HN, Kaplan RC. Echolucency of the Carotid Artery Intima-Media Complex and Intima-Media Thickness Have Different Cardiovascular Risk Factor Relationships: The Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015; 4(2). PMID: 25699995.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Wheeler AL, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Schafer AL. Teriparatide treatment of osteoporosis in an HIV-infected man: a case report and literature review. AIDS. 2015 Jan 14; 29(2):245-6. PMID: 25532609.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Jotwani V, Scherzer R, Abraham A, Estrella MM, Bennett M, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young M, Tien PC, Ix JH, Sarnak MJ, Parikh CR, Shlipak MG. Association of Urine a1-Microglobulin with Kidney Function Decline and Mortality in HIV-Infected Women. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jan 7; 10(1):63-73. PMID: 25370597.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Karim R, Mack WJ, Kono N, Tien PC, Anastos K, Lazar J, Young M, Desai S, Golub ET, Kaplan RC, Hodis HN, Kovacs A. T-cell activation, both pre- and post-HAART levels, correlates with carotid artery stiffness over 6.5 years among HIV-infected women in the WIHS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Nov 1; 67(3):349-56. PMID: 25314253; PMCID: PMC4197806 [Available on 11/01/15].
      16. Kiefer E, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Kuniholm MH, Augenbraun M, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Kaplan RC, Liu C, Nowicki M, Tien PC, Tracy RP, Anastos K. Association of markers of hemostasis with death in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Nov 1; 67(3):287-94. PMID: 25314249; PMCID: PMC4197808 [Available on 11/01/15].
      17. Malkina A, Scherzer R, Shlipak M, Bacchetti P, Tien P, Grunfeld C, Kosmiski L, Peralta C. The association of adiposity with kidney function decline among HIV-infected adults: findings from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV Infection (FRAM) study. HIV Med. 2015 Mar; 16(3):184-90. PMID: 25251910.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Nix LM, Tien PC. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in HIV. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014 Sep; 11(3):271-8. PMID: 25027062; PMCID: PMC4138538 [Available on 09/01/15].
      19. Frasco MA, Karim R, Van Den Berg D, Watanabe RM, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Gustafson DR, Liu C, Tien PC, Mack WJ, Pearce CL. Antiretroviral therapy modifies the genetic effect of known type 2 diabetes-associated risk variants in HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2014 Jul 31; 28(12):1815-23. PMID: 24932614.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Lang J, Scherzer R, Tien PC, Parikh CR, Anastos K, Estrella MM, Abraham AG, Sharma A, Cohen MH, Butch AW, Nowicki M, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Serum albumin and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Oct; 64(4):584-91. PMID: 25059222; PMCID: PMC4177337 [Available on 10/01/15].
      21. Scherzer R, Gandhi M, Estrella MM, Tien PC, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Shlipak MG. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans. AIDS. 2014 Jun 1; 28(9):1289-95. PMID: 24922479; PMCID: PMC4188545.
      22. Schwartz JB, Moore KL, Yin M, Sharma A, Merenstein D, Islam T, Golub ET, Tien PC, Adeyemi OM. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment, and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014 May-Jun; 13(3):250-9. PMID: 24668135; PMCID: PMC4016117.
      23. Shaked I, Hanna DB, Gleißner C, Marsh B, Plants J, Tracy D, Anastos K, Cohen M, Golub ET, Karim R, Lazar J, Prasad V, Tien PC, Young MA, Landay AL, Kaplan RC, Ley K. Macrophage inflammatory markers are associated with subclinical carotid artery disease in women with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 May; 34(5):1085-92. PMID: 24651679; PMCID: PMC4067091 [Available on 05/01/15].
      24. Marks KM, Kitch D, Chung RT, Hadigan C, Andersen J, Tien P, Luetkemeyer A, Alston-Smith B, Glesby MJ. Pilot study of pioglitazone before HCV retreatment in HIV/HCV genotype 1-infected subjects with insulin resistance and previous nonresponse to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy: A5239. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 1; 65(3):345-9. PMID: 24525470; PMCID: PMC3998202 [Available on 03/01/15].
      25. Wheeler AL, Scherzer R, Lee D, Delaney JA, Bacchetti P, Shlipak MG, Sidney S, Grunfeld C, Tien PC. HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection ameliorates the atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities of HIV infection. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2; 28(1):49-58. PMID: 24136113.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Gustafson DR, Mielke MM, Tien PC, Valcour V, Cohen M, Anastos K, Liu C, Pearce L, Golub ET, Minkoff H, Crystal HA. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Neurovirol. 2013 Dec; 19(6):574-85. PMID: 24338243; PMCID: PMC3957488 [Available on 12/12/14].
      27. Dillon DG, Gurdasani D, Riha J, Ekoru K, Asiki G, Mayanja BN, Levitt NS, Crowther NJ, Nyirenda M, Njelekela M, Ramaiya K, Nyan O, Adewole OO, Anastos K, Azzoni L, Boom WH, Compostella C, Dave JA, Dawood H, Erikstrup C, Fourie CM, Friis H, Kruger A, Idoko JA, Longenecker CT, Mbondi S, Mukaya JE, Mutimura E, Ndhlovu CE, Praygod G, Pefura Yone EW, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Range N, Sani MU, Schutte AE, Sliwa K, Tien PC, Vorster EH, Walsh C, Zinyama R, Mashili F, Sobngwi E, Adebamowo C, Kamali A, Seeley J, Young EH, Smeeth L, Motala AA, Kaleebu P, Sandhu MS. Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec; 42(6):1754-71. PMID: 24415610; PMCID: PMC3887568.
      28. Driver TH, Scherzer R, Peralta CA, Tien PC, Estrella MM, Parikh CR, Butch AW, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young MA, Abraham A, Shlipak MG. Comparisons of creatinine and cystatin C for detection of kidney disease and prediction of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2013 Sep 10; 27(14):2291-9. PMID: 23669156; PMCID: PMC3919542.
      29. Jotwani V, Scherzer R, Abraham A, Estrella MM, Bennett M, Devarajan P, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young M, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Parikh CR, Shlipak MG. Does HIV infection promote early kidney injury in women? Antivir Ther. 2014; 19(1):79-87. PMID: 23970313; PMCID: PMC3933452.
      30. Bailony MR, Scherzer R, Huhn G, Plankey MW, Peters MG, Tien PC. Association of HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and metabolic factors with liver stiffness measured by transient elastography. J Infect Dis. 2013 Dec 1; 208(11):1776-83. PMID: 23901097; PMCID: PMC3814832 [Available on 12/01/14].
      31. Mirmirani P, Maurer T, Cohen M, D'Souza G, Karim R, Plankey M, Robison E, Sharma A, Tien PC, Hessol NA. Investigating the effects of metabolic dysregulation on hair follicles: a comparison of HIV-infected women with and without central lipohypertrophy. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Oct; 53(10):e443-8. PMID: 23786579; PMCID: PMC3785560 [Available on 10/01/15].
      32. Parrinello CM, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Benning L, Tracy RP, Kaplan RC. Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclear. Analyses from the Women's Interagency HIV study. AIDS. 2013 Jun 1; 27(9):1516-9. PMID: 23435295; PMCID: PMC3909663.
      33. Karim R, Mack WJ, Stiller T, Operskalski E, Frederick T, Landay A, Young MA, Tien PC, Augenbraun M, Strickler HD, Kovacs A. Association of HIV clinical disease progression with profiles of early immune activation: results from a cluster analysis approach. AIDS. 2013 Jun 1; 27(9):1473-81. PMID: 23945505; PMCID: PMC3949252.
      34. Adeyemi OM, Livak B, Orsi J, Glesby MJ, Villacres MC, Weber KM, Sharma A, Golub E, Young M, Cohen M, Tien PC. Vitamin D and insulin resistance in non-diabetic women's interagency HIV study participants. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013 Jun; 27(6):320-5. PMID: 23675750; PMCID: PMC3671624.
      35. Lang J, Scherzer R, Weekley CC, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Serum albumin and short-term risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected veterans. AIDS. 2013 May 15; 27(8):1339-43. PMID: 23343914; PMCID: PMC4026018.
      36. Plankey M, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Dass-Brailsford P, Gustafson D, Cohen MH, Karim R, Yin M, Tien PC. The association of self-perception of body fat changes and quality of life in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Care. 2013; 25(12):1544-50. PMID: 23656440; PMCID: PMC3769511.
      37. Kiefer EM, Shi Q, Hoover DR, Kaplan R, Tracy R, Augenbraun M, Liu C, Nowicki M, Tien PC, Cohen M, Golub ET, Anastos K. Association of hepatitis C with markers of hemostasis in HIV-infected and uninfected women in the women's interagency HIV study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 1; 62(3):301-10. PMID: 23221984; PMCID: PMC3652915.
      38. Aziz M, Livak B, Burke-Miller J, French AL, Glesby MJ, Sharma A, Young M, Villacres MC, Tien PC, Golub ET, Cohen MH, Adeyemi OM. Vitamin D insufficiency may impair CD4 recovery among Women's Interagency HIV Study participants with advanced disease on HAART. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20; 27(4):573-8. PMID: 23095316; PMCID: PMC3902982.
      39. Karim R, Mack WJ, Kono N, Tien PC, Anastos K, Lazar J, Young M, Cohen M, Golub E, Greenblatt RM, Kaplan RC, Hodis HN. Gonadotropin and sex steroid levels in HIV-infected premenopausal women and their association with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected women in the women's interagency HIV study (WIHS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr; 98(4):E610-8. PMID: 23418313; PMCID: PMC3615203.
      40. Estrella MM, Abraham AG, Jing Y, Parekh RS, Tien PC, Merenstein D, Pearce CL, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Dehovitz JA, Gange SJ. Antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected women have similar long-term kidney function trajectories as HIV-uninfected women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 May; 29(5):755-60. PMID: 23273313; PMCID: PMC3636577.
      41. Hessol NA, Ameli N, Cohen MH, Urwin S, Weber KM, Tien PC. The association between diet and physical activity on insulin resistance in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jan 1; 62(1):74-80. PMID: 23075914; PMCID: PMC3529765.
      42. Shlipak MG, Scherzer R, Abraham A, Tien PC, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Devarajan P, Bennett M, Butch AW, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Nowicki M, Sharma A, Young MA, Sarnak MJ, Parikh CR. Urinary markers of kidney injury and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Dec 15; 61(5):565-73. PMID: 23023103; PMCID: PMC3509242.
      43. Sharma A, Tian F, Yin MT, Keller MJ, Cohen M, Tien PC. Association of regional body composition with bone mineral density in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women: women's interagency HIV study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Dec 1; 61(4):469-76. PMID: 22895436; PMCID: PMC3494812.
      44. Sarkar M, Bacchetti P, Tien P, Mileti E, French AL, Edlin BR, Keller M, Seaberg E, Nowicki MJ, Young M, Peters MG. Racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance in HIV infected and uninfected women. Dig Dis Sci. 2013 May; 58(5):1341-8. PMID: 23179159; PMCID: PMC3663918.
      45. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cox C, Karim R, Cohen M, Sharma A, Young M, Glesby MJ. Association of HIV infection with incident diabetes mellitus: impact of using hemoglobin A1C as a criterion for diabetes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 1; 61(3):334-40. PMID: 22878421; PMCID: PMC3480977.
      46. Parrinello CM, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Benning L, Tracy RP, Kaplan RC. Association of subclinical atherosclerosis with lipid levels amongst antiretroviral-treated and untreated HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV study. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec; 225(2):408-11. PMID: 23089369; PMCID: PMC3696584.
      47. Sarkar M, Bacchetti P, French AL, Tien P, Glesby MJ, Nowicki M, Plankey M, Gange S, Sharp G, Minkoff H, Peters MG. Lower liver-related death in African-American women with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection, compared to Caucasian and Hispanic women. Hepatology. 2012 Nov; 56(5):1699-705. PMID: 22618868; PMCID: PMC3440547.
      48. Kaplan RC, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Parrinello CM, Benning L, Tracy RP. Potential cardiovascular disease risk markers among HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1; 60(4):359-68. PMID: 22592585; PMCID: PMC3400505.
      49. Westreich D, Cole SR, Young JG, Palella F, Tien PC, Kingsley L, Gange SJ, Hernán MA. The parametric g-formula to estimate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS or death. Stat Med. 2012 Aug 15; 31(18):2000-9. PMID: 22495733; PMCID: PMC3641816.
      50. Bambha K, Pierce C, Cox C, French AL, Tien PC, Sharp GB, Augenbraun M, Glesby MJ, Villacres MC, Plankey M, Strickler HD, Gange SJ, Peters MG. Assessing mortality in women with hepatitis C virus and HIV using indirect markers of fibrosis. AIDS. 2012 Mar 13; 26(5):599-607. PMID: 22156972; PMCID: PMC3698040.
      51. Cole SR, Hudgens MG, Tien PC, Anastos K, Kingsley L, Chmiel JS, Jacobson LP. Marginal structural models for case-cohort study designs to estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident AIDS or death. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Mar 1; 175(5):381-90. PMID: 22302074; PMCID: PMC3282878.
      52. Weiser SD, Young SL, Cohen CR, Kushel MB, Tsai AC, Tien PC, Hatcher AM, Frongillo EA, Bangsberg DR. Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6):1729S-1739S. PMID: 22089434; PMCID: PMC3226026.
      53. Eastburn A, Scherzer R, Zolopa AR, Benson C, Tracy R, Do T, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Grunfeld C, Tien PC. Association of low level viremia with inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26320. PMID: 22073156; PMCID: PMC3206804.
      54. Eatesam M, Noworolski SM, Tien PC, Nystrom M, Dodge JL, Merriman RB, Qayyum A. Liver diffusivity in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic liver disease: comparison of breathhold and free-breathing techniques. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Jan; 35(1):103-9. PMID: 22034200; PMCID: PMC3241899.
      55. Valcour V, Maki P, Bacchetti P, Anastos K, Crystal H, Young M, Mack WJ, Cohen M, Golub ET, Tien PC. Insulin resistance and cognition among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adult women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 May; 28(5):447-53. PMID: 21878059; PMCID: PMC3332367.
      56. Scherzer R, Heymsfield SB, Lee D, Powderly WG, Tien PC, Bacchetti P, Shlipak MG, Grunfeld C. Decreased limb muscle and increased central adiposity are associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV infection. AIDS. 2011 Jul 17; 25(11):1405-14. PMID: 21572308; PMCID: PMC3933309.
      57. Adeyemi OM, Agniel D, French AL, Tien PC, Weber K, Glesby MJ, Villacres MC, Sharma A, Merenstein D, Golub ET, Meyer W, Cohen M. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 1; 57(3):197-204. PMID: 21471818; PMCID: PMC3431159.
      58. Lake JE, Wohl D, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Tien PC, Sidney S, Currier JS. Regional fat deposition and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: the FRAM study. AIDS Care. 2011 Aug; 23(8):929-38. PMID: 21767228; PMCID: PMC3249238.
      59. Thompson V, Medard B, Taseera K, Chakera AJ, Andia I, Emenyonu N, Hunt PW, Martin J, Scherzer R, Weiser SD, Bangsberg DR, Tien PC. Regional anthropometry changes in antiretroviral-naïve persons initiating a Zidovudine-containing regimen in Mbarara, Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Jul; 27(7):785-91. PMID: 21128866; PMCID: PMC3159125.
      60. Yarasheski KE, Scherzer R, Kotler DP, Dobs AS, Tien PC, Lewis CE, Kronmal RA, Heymsfield SB, Bacchetti P, Grunfeld C. Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Mar; 66(3):332-40. PMID: 21310810; PMCID: PMC3041474.
      61. Wyatt CM, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Tien PC, Karim R, Cohen MH, Goderre JL, Seaberg EC, Lazar J, Young MA, Klotman PE, Anastos K. Pre-existing albuminuria predicts AIDS and non-AIDS mortality in women initiating antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther. 2011; 16(4):591-6. PMID: 21685547; PMCID: PMC3119869.
      62. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cox C, Cohen M, Karim R, Lazar J, Young M, Glesby MJ. HIV, HAART, and lipoprotein particle concentrations in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS. 2010 Nov 27; 24(18):2809-17. PMID: 20871387; PMCID: PMC2992832.
      63. Yin MT, Shi Q, Hoover DR, Anastos K, Sharma A, Young M, Levine A, Cohen MH, Shane E, Golub ET, Tien PC. Fracture incidence in HIV-infected women: results from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS. 2010 Nov 13; 24(17):2679-86. PMID: 20859192; PMCID: PMC3108019.
      64. Tien PC, Choi AI, Zolopa AR, Benson C, Tracy R, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Grunfeld C. Inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults: analysis of the FRAM study cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):316-22. PMID: 20581689; PMCID: PMC2955817.
      65. Ghotb A, Noworolski SM, Madden E, Scherzer R, Qayyum A, Pannell J, Ferrell L, Peters M, Tien PC. Adipose tissue and metabolic factors associated with steatosis in HIV/HCV coinfection: histology versus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Oct; 55(2):228-31. PMID: 20512045; PMCID: PMC2943991.
      66. Estrella MM, Parekh RS, Abraham A, Astor BC, Szczech LA, Anastos K, Dehovitz JA, Merenstein DJ, Pearce CL, Tien PC, Cohen MH, Gange SJ. The impact of kidney function at highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on mortality in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Oct; 55(2):217-20. PMID: 20581688; PMCID: PMC3243740.
      67. Delaney JA, Scherzer R, Biggs ML, Shliplak MG, Polak JF, Currier JS, Kronmal RA, Wanke C, Bacchetti P, O'leary D, Tien PC, Grunfeld C. Associations of antiretroviral drug use and HIV-specific risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness. AIDS. 2010 Sep 10; 24(14):2201-9. PMID: 20671544; PMCID: PMC3224487.
      68. Wyatt CM, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Seaberg E, Wei C, Tien PC, Karim R, Lazar J, Young MA, Cohen MH, Klotman PE, Anastos K. Microalbuminuria is associated with all-cause and AIDS mortality in women with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Sep; 55(1):73-7. PMID: 20098331; PMCID: PMC2888617.
      69. Choi A, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Tien PC, Saag MS, Gibert CL, Szczech LA, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C, albuminuria, and 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV-infected persons. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Nov; 56(5):872-82. PMID: 20709438; PMCID: PMC3164880.
      70. Grunfeld C, Saag M, Cofrancesco J, Lewis CE, Kronmal R, Heymsfield S, Tien PC, Bacchetti P, Shlipak M, Scherzer R. Regional adipose tissue measured by MRI over 5 years in HIV-infected and control participants indicates persistence of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS. 2010 Jul 17; 24(11):1717-26. PMID: 20502316; PMCID: PMC3309711.
      71. Howard AA, Hoover DR, Anastos K, Wu X, Shi Q, Strickler HD, Cole SR, Cohen MH, Kovacs A, Augenbraun M, Latham PS, Tien PC. The effects of opiate use and hepatitis C virus infection on risk of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jun; 54(2):152-9. PMID: 20190642; PMCID: PMC3069645.
      72. Kovacs A, Karim R, Mack WJ, Xu J, Chen Z, Operskalski E, Frederick T, Landay A, Voris J, Spencer LS, Young MA, Tien PC, Augenbraun M, Strickler HD, Al-Harthi L. Activation of CD8 T cells predicts progression of HIV infection in women coinfected with hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 15; 201(6):823-34. PMID: 20151840; PMCID: PMC3105602.
      73. Westreich D, Cole SR, Tien PC, Chmiel JS, Kingsley L, Funk MJ, Anastos K, Jacobson LP. Time scale and adjusted survival curves for marginal structural cox models. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Mar 15; 171(6):691-700. PMID: 20139124; PMCID: PMC2877453.
      74. Yin MT, Lu D, Cremers S, Tien PC, Cohen MH, Shi Q, Shane E, Golub ET, Anastos K. Short-term bone loss in HIV-infected premenopausal women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Feb; 53(2):202-8. PMID: 19890216; PMCID: PMC2813405.
      75. Glesby MJ, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Danoff A, Howard A, Tien P, Merenstein D, Cohen M, Golub E, Dehovitz J, Nowicki M, Anastos K. Glycated haemoglobin in diabetic women with and without HIV infection: data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Antivir Ther. 2010; 15(4):571-7. PMID: 20587850; PMCID: PMC2943237.
      76. Cockerham L, Scherzer R, Zolopa A, Rimland D, Lewis CE, Bacchetti P, Grunfeld C, Shlipak M, Tien PC. Association of HIV infection, demographic and cardiovascular risk factors with all-cause mortality in the recent HAART era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jan; 53(1):102-6. PMID: 19738484; PMCID: PMC2799541.
      77. Boodram B, Plankey MW, Cox C, Tien PC, Cohen MH, Anastos K, Karim R, Hyman C, Hershow RC. Prevalence and correlates of elevated body mass index among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Dec; 23(12):1009-16. PMID: 19909168; PMCID: PMC2832643.
      78. Womack JA, Scherzer R, Cole SR, Fennie K, Williams AB, Grey M, Minkoff H, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Tien PC. Hormonal contraception and metabolic outcomes in women with or at risk for HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52(5):581-7. PMID: 19950431; PMCID: PMC2886798.
      79. Cole SR, Jacobson LP, Tien PC, Kingsley L, Chmiel JS, Anastos K. Using marginal structural measurement-error models to estimate the long-term effect of antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS or death. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jan 1; 171(1):113-22. PMID: 19934191; PMCID: PMC2800300.
      80. Grunfeld C, Delaney JA, Wanke C, Currier JS, Scherzer R, Biggs ML, Tien PC, Shlipak MG, Sidney S, Polak JF, O'Leary D, Bacchetti P, Kronmal RA. Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study. AIDS. 2009 Sep 10; 23(14):1841-9. PMID: 19455012; PMCID: PMC3156613.
      81. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cole SR, Cohen MH, Glesby MJ, Lazar J, Young M, Mack W, Hodis HN, Kaplan RC. Association of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection with subclinical atherosclerosis in the women's interagency HIV study. AIDS. 2009 Aug 24; 23(13):1781-4. PMID: 19553807; PMCID: PMC2847440.
      82. Tsui JI, Whooley MA, Monto A, Seal K, Tien PC, Shlipak M. Association of hepatitis C virus seropositivity with inflammatory markers and heart failure in persons with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul study. J Card Fail. 2009 Jun; 15(5):451-6. PMID: 19477406; PMCID: PMC2782758.
      83. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cole SR, Levine AM, Cohen M, DeHovitz J, Young M, Justman JE. Antiretroviral therapy exposure and insulin resistance in the Women's Interagency HIV study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 1; 49(4):369-76. PMID: 19186350; PMCID: PMC2889144.
      84. Noworolski SM, Tien PC, Merriman R, Vigneron DB, Qayyum A. Respiratory motion-corrected proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver. Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 May; 27(4):570-6. PMID: 18993007; PMCID: PMC2917604.
      85. Bahl M, Qayyum A, Westphalen AC, Noworolski SM, Chu PW, Ferrell L, Tien PC, Bass NM, Merriman RB. Liver steatosis: investigation of opposed-phase T1-weighted liver MR signal intensity loss and visceral fat measurement as biomarkers. Radiology. 2008 Oct; 249(1):160-6. PMID: 18796674; PMCID: PMC2657853.
      86. Kaplan RC, Kingsley LA, Gange SJ, Benning L, Jacobson LP, Lazar J, Anastos K, Tien PC, Sharrett AR, Hodis HN. Low CD4+ T-cell count as a major atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected women and men. AIDS. 2008 Aug 20; 22(13):1615-24. PMID: 18670221; PMCID: PMC2624572.
      87. Plankey M, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Grimes B, Hyman C, Cohen M, Howard AA, Tien PC. Self-perception of body fat changes and HAART adherence in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Behav. 2009 Feb; 13(1):53-9. PMID: 18688706; PMCID: PMC2902995.
      88. Womack J, Richman S, Tien PC, Grey M, Williams A. Hormonal contraception and HIV-positive women: metabolic concerns and management strategies. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2008 Jul-Aug; 53(4):362-75. PMID: 18586190; PMCID: PMC2776678.
      89. Reingold J, Wanke C, Kotler D, Lewis C, Tracy R, Heymsfield S, Tien P, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Grunfeld C, Shlipak M. Association of HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection with C-reactive protein levels: the fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM) study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jun 1; 48(2):142-8. PMID: 18344877; PMCID: PMC2561207.
      90. Tien PC, Kotler DP, Overton ET, Lewis CE, Rimland D, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Gripshover B. Regional adipose tissue and elevations in serum aminotransferases in HIV-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jun 1; 48(2):169-76. PMID: 18285711; PMCID: PMC2776053.
      91. Currier J, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Heymsfield S, Lee D, Sidney S, Tien PC. Regional adipose tissue and lipid and lipoprotein levels in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 1; 48(1):35-43. PMID: 18197118; PMCID: PMC2776070.
      92. Shah T, Lampiris H, Vu M, Monto A, Tien PC. Resolution of hepatitis C virus-induced steatosis improves tolerability of antiretroviral drugs associated with hepatotoxicity in an HIV-infected individual. J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15; 197(6):932-3. PMID: 18419352.
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      93. Justman JE, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Tan T, Anastos K, Tien PC, Cole SR, Hyman C, Karim R, Weber K, Grinspoon S. Longitudinal anthropometric patterns among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Mar 1; 47(3):312-9. PMID: 18197125.
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      94. Liu HG, Fan ZP, Chen WW, Yang HY, Liu QF, Zhang H, Tien P, Wang FS. A mutant HBs antigen (HBsAg)183-191 epitope elicits specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute hepatitis B patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Mar; 151(3):441-7. PMID: 18234055; PMCID: PMC2276963.
      95. Operskalski EA, Mack WJ, Strickler HD, French AL, Augenbraun M, Tien PC, Villacres MC, Spencer LY, Degiacomo M, Kovacs A. Factors associated with hepatitis C viremia in a large cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected women. J Clin Virol. 2008 Apr; 41(4):255-63. PMID: 18243785; PMCID: PMC3493623.
      96. Cofrancesco J, Scherzer R, Tien PC, Gibert CL, Southwell H, Sidney S, Dobs A, Grunfeld C. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort. AIDS. 2008 Jan 30; 22(3):357-65. PMID: 18195562; PMCID: PMC3189479.
      97. Bacchetti P, Tien PC, Seaberg EC, O'Brien TR, Augenbraun MH, Kral AH, Busch MP, Edlin BR. Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression. BMC Infect Dis. 2007; 7:145. PMID: 18070362; PMCID: PMC2238758.
      98. Khalsa A, Karim R, Mack WJ, Minkoff H, Cohen M, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Seaberg E, Levine AM. Correlates of prevalent hypertension in a large cohort of HIV-infected women: Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS. 2007 Nov 30; 21(18):2539-41. PMID: 18025894.
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      99. Su Y, Zhu X, Wang Y, Wu M, Tien P. Evaluation of Glu11 and Gly8 of the H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide in membrane fusion using pseudotype virus and reverse genetics. Arch Virol. 2008; 153(2):247-57. PMID: 18030546.
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      100. Kaplan RC, Kingsley LA, Sharrett AR, Li X, Lazar J, Tien PC, Mack WJ, Cohen MH, Jacobson L, Gange SJ. Ten-year predicted coronary heart disease risk in HIV-infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct 15; 45(8):1074-81. PMID: 17879928.
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      101. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cole SR, Levine AM, Cohen M, DeHovitz J, Young M, Justman JE. Antiretroviral therapy exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS. 2007 Aug 20; 21(13):1739-45. PMID: 17690572.
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      102. Kaplan RC, Tien PC, Lazar J. Antiretroviral drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 16; 357(7):715; author reply 716-7. PMID: 17699825.
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      103. Tsui JI, French AL, Seaberg EC, Augenbraun M, Nowicki M, Peters M, Tien PC. Prevalence and long-term effects of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 15; 45(6):736-40. PMID: 17712758; PMCID: PMC4142488.
      104. Womack J, Tien PC, Feldman J, Shin JH, Fennie K, Anastos K, Cohen MH, Bacon MC, Minkoff H. Obesity and immune cell counts in women. Metabolism. 2007 Jul; 56(7):998-1004. PMID: 17570264; PMCID: PMC1939725.
      105. Tien PC, Barrón Y, Justman JE, Hyman C, Cohen MH, Young M, Kovacs A, Cole SR. Antiretroviral therapies associated with lipoatrophy in HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007 May; 21(5):297-305. PMID: 17518522; PMCID: PMC3133726.
      106. Anastos K, Lu D, Shi Q, Tien PC, Kaplan RC, Hessol NA, Cole S, Vigen C, Cohen M, Young M, Justman J. Association of serum lipid levels with HIV serostatus, specific antiretroviral agents, and treatment regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 May 1; 45(1):34-42. PMID: 17460470.
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      107. Tien PC, Bacchetti P, Gripshover B, Overton ET, Rimland D, Kotler D. Association between hepatitis C virus coinfection and regional adipose tissue volume in HIV-infected men and women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 May 1; 45(1):60-5. PMID: 17356466; PMCID: PMC3164885.
      108. French AL, Operskalski E, Peters M, Strickler HD, Tien PC, Sharp GB, Glesby MJ, Young M, Augenbraun M, Seaberg E, Kovacs A. Isolated hepatitis B core antibody is associated with HIV and ongoing but not resolved hepatitis C virus infection in a cohort of US women. J Infect Dis. 2007 May 15; 195(10):1437-42. PMID: 17436223; PMCID: PMC3133731.
      109. Chamie G, Bonacini M, Bangsberg DR, Stapleton JT, Hall C, Overton ET, Scherzer R, Tien PC. Factors associated with seronegative chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15; 44(4):577-83. PMID: 17243063; PMCID: PMC3170414.
      110. Anastos K, Lu D, Shi O, Mulligan K, Tien PC, Freeman R, Cohen MH, Justman J, Hessol NA. The association of bone mineral density with HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment in women. Antivir Ther. 2007; 12(7):1049-58. PMID: 18018763.
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      111. Tien PC, Schneider MF, Cole SR, Justman JE, French AL, Young M, DeHovitz J, Nathwani N, Brown TT. Relation of stavudine discontinuation to anthropometric changes among HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jan 1; 44(1):43-8. PMID: 17091021.
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      112. Tien PC, Benson C, Zolopa AR, Sidney S, Osmond D, Grunfeld C. The study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM): methods, design, and sample characteristics. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 May 1; 163(9):860-9. PMID: 16524955; PMCID: PMC3170407.
      113. Luetkemeyer A, Hare CB, Stansell J, Tien PC, Charlesbois E, Lum P, Havlir D, Peters M. Clinical presentation and course of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Jan 1; 41(1):31-6. PMID: 16340470; PMCID: PMC4050666.
      114. Bacchetti P, Gripshover B, Grunfeld C, Heymsfield S, McCreath H, Osmond D, Saag M, Scherzer R, Shlipak M, Tien P. Fat distribution in men with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Oct 1; 40(2):121-31. PMID: 16186728; PMCID: PMC3166344.
      115. Monto A, Dove LM, Bostrom A, Kakar S, Tien PC, Wright TL. Hepatic steatosis in HIV/hepatitis C coinfection: prevalence and significance compared with hepatitis C monoinfection. Hepatology. 2005 Aug; 42(2):310-6. PMID: 16025515.
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      116. Tien PC, Kovacs A, Bacchetti P, French AL, Augenbraun M, Cole SR, Hessol N, Justman J. Association between syphilis, antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2, and recreational drug use and hepatitis B virus infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 1; 39(9):1363-70. PMID: 15494914; PMCID: PMC3118996.
      117. Mafong DD, Lee GA, Yu S, Tien P, Mauro T, Grunfeld C. Development of multiple lipomas during treatment with rosiglitazone in a patient with HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20; 18(12):1742-4. PMID: 15280791.
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      118. Cohen MH, Cook JA, Grey D, Young M, Hanau LH, Tien P, Levine AM, Wilson TE. Medically eligible women who do not use HAART: the importance of abuse, drug use, and race. Am J Public Health. 2004 Jul; 94(7):1147-51. PMID: 15226135; PMCID: PMC1448413.
      119. Tien PC, Grunfeld C. What is HIV-associated lipodystrophy? Defining fat distribution changes in HIV infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb; 17(1):27-32. PMID: 15090886.
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      120. Tien PC, Cole SR, Williams CM, Li R, Justman JE, Cohen MH, Young M, Rubin N, Augenbraun M, Grunfeld C. Incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in the women's interagency HIV study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Dec 15; 34(5):461-6. PMID: 14657755.
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      121. Grunfeld C, Tien P. Difficulties in understanding the metabolic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 37 Suppl 2:S43-6. PMID: 12942373.
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      122. Falusi O, French AL, Seaberg EC, Tien PC, Watts DH, Minkoff H, Piessens E, Kovacs A, Anastos K, Cohen MH. Prevalence and predictors of Toxoplasma seropositivity in women with and at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 1; 35(11):1414-7. PMID: 12439806; PMCID: PMC3119037.
      123. Tien PC, Grunfeld C. The fatty liver in AIDS. Semin Gastrointest Dis. 2002 Jan; 13(1):47-54. PMID: 11944634.
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      124. Batra M, Tien PC, Shafer RW, Contag CH, Katzenstein DA. HIV type 1 envelope subtype C sequences from recent seroconverters in Zimbabwe. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Jul 1; 16(10):973-9. PMID: 10890359.
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      125. Tien PC, Chiu T, Latif A, Ray S, Batra M, Contag CH, Zejena L, Mbizvo M, Delwart EL, Mullins JI, Katzenstein DA. Primary subtype C HIV-1 infection in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Feb 1; 20(2):147-53. PMID: 10048901.
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      126. Ussery XT, Gessner BD, Lipman H, Elliott JA, Crain MJ, Tien PC, Parkinson AJ, Davidson M, Facklam RR, Breiman RF. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and detection of a multiply resistant clone among children living in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region of Alaska. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Nov; 15(11):986-92. PMID: 8933546.
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      127. Aldritt SM, Tien P, Wang CC. Pyrimidine salvage in Giardia lamblia. J Exp Med. 1985 Mar 1; 161(3):437-45. PMID: 3973534; PMCID: PMC2187579.
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