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    Daniel Lowenstein, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurology
    Address505 Parnassus Ave, Moffitt
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-514-6019

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship School of Medicine
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Daniel H. Lowenstein is Professor and Vice Chairman in the Department of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Director of the UCSF Epilepsy Center, and Director of Physician-Scientist and Education Training Programs for the UCSF School of Medicine.

      Dr. Lowenstein received his B.A. degree in Mathematics from the University of Colorado in 1973, an M.S. degree in Man-Environment Relations from The Pennsylvania State University in 1978, and an M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School in 1983. Following an internship in Pediatrics at UCSF in 1983-84, he completed his residency in Neurology at UCSF from 1984-87, serving as Chief Resident in the final year. He then did a two-year fellowship in Stanley Prusiner's Laboratory, investigating the sequence homology of the PrP gene in various rodent species. He went on to become a faculty member in the Department of Neurology at UCSF, established the UCSF Epilepsy Research Laboratory, and was the Robert B. and Ellinor Aird Professor of Neurology from 1998-2000. He then joined Harvard Medical School (HMS) as the Dean for Medical Education for two and a half years, overseeing a re-organization of curricular governance, the creation of a new educational technology program, the establishment of the HMS Academy (a novel structure for the support of the school’s education mission), and the initial planning for a major revision of the curriculum. In 2003, for family reasons, he moved back to UCSF in his current position.

      Dr. Lowenstein is a clinician-scientist who has studied both basic science and clinical aspects of epilepsy. His laboratory studies have addressed the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal network remodeling that occur during epileptogenesis; i.e. the process in which a normal network transforms into a hyperexcitable network capable of producing or relaying seizure activity. The main efforts of his research group focused on the various forms of cellular reorganization that are observed in humans with temporal lobe epilepsy, and the parallels between reorganization in the adult nervous system and normal developmental processes. Important findings by his team included the discovery that seizure activity in an adult model of temporal lobe epilepsy causes a marked increase in the birth of hippocampal neurons, and the recognition that numerous molecules responsible for normal development are also expressed in this same brain region in the adult. These studies bear not only on the neurobiology of epilepsy, but also on the broader issue of neurodevelopment and the capacity for regeneration in the adult nervous system after injury.

      Dr. Lowenstein's main clinical research is focused on approaches designed to advance our understanding of the complex genetics that are thought to underlie a substantial portion of the idiopathic epilepsies, and he is a leader of a national effort (The Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project) designed to make new discoveries in this area (see epgp.org). He has also been actively involved in research on the management and treatment of patients with status epilepticus; i.e. unusually prolonged seizures. He has been the Principal Investigator of a prospective, multi-centered, NIH-sponsored clinical trial looking at the potential benefits of active treatment of patients in status epilepticus in the pre-hospital setting. This five-year study, completed in 1999, helped define the optimal therapy for these patients nationally, and initiated a second large project (for which Dr. Lowenstein is a Co-Principal Investigator) currently underway looking at intramuscular versus intravenous treatment modalities in this setting.

      Dr. Lowenstein’s efforts in epilepsy research were recognized by the American Epilepsy Society’s 2001 Basic Research Award, an honor given each year to the foremost basic science investigator whose research “contributes importantly to understanding and conquering epilepsy.” He also served as president of the American Epilepsy Society in 2003-04.

      Dr. Lowenstein has also been actively involved in defining scientific policy at the national level. He served a 4-year term as a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and has chaired a number of NINDS committees and task forces involved with overall strategic planning for NINDS, as well as the setting of priorities for research in epilepsy.

      In addition to his research interests, Dr. Lowenstein is an avid and highly-regarded teacher, and he has had an active role at UCSF concerning issues related to cultural diversity and civil rights. In recognition of his leadership at UCSF in these areas, as well as his long-standing advocacy for students, staff and faculty of all backgrounds, he received the 1998 Black Student Health Association’s Faculty Award, the 1998 UCSF Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Award, the 2006 Holly Smith Award for Exceptional Service to the UCSF School of Medicine, and the 2009 UCSF Chancellor’s Award for Public Service.

      Regarding his teaching accomplishments, Dr. Lowenstein has received every major award related to medical student education granted both locally at UCSF and nationally. He received multiple awards from the 1st and 2nd year classes at UCSF, including those for "A Major Contribution to Teaching," "Outstanding Lecture," "Outstanding Lecture Series," and "An Outstanding Role Model." Other major awards include the 1992 UCSF Academic Senate Distinction in Teaching Award, the 1993 and 1998 UCSF Kaiser Award for Excellence in Teaching, the UCSF Class of 1995 John V. Carbone Award for Excellence in Teaching, and Faculty Teaching Awards in 1994 and 1996. Dr. Lowenstein has given the Keynote Address for graduating students at Commencement Ceremonies at UCSF in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 2000. In 1996, the UCSF students awarded him the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Golden Apple Award for Excellence in Teaching. He went on to receive the AMSA 1997 National Golden Apple for Teaching Excellence Award, which is given to one medical school teacher in the country each year. In addition, the American Neurological Association (ANA) named him the first recipient of the ANA Distinguished Teacher Award in 1997, and in 1998 he was granted the Alpha Omega Alpha Robert J. Glaser Distinguished Teacher Award by the American Association of Medical Colleges.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Hegde M, Lowenstein DH. The search for circulating epilepsy biomarkers. Biomark Med. 2014 Mar; 8(3):413-27.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lowenstein DH, Walker M, Waterhouse E. Status epilepticus in the setting of acute encephalitis. Epilepsy Curr. 2014 Jan; 14(1 Suppl):43-9.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Hauser SL, Johnston SC, Ferriero DM, Josephson SA, Lowenstein DH, Messing RO, Oksenberg JR. Quo vadis? - peering into the future. Ann Neurol. 2013 Dec; 74(6):A5-7.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Aggarwal AK, Thompson M, Falik R, Shaw A, O'Sullivan P, Lowenstein DH. Mental illness among us: a new curriculum to reduce mental illness stigma among medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2013 Nov 1; 37(6):385-91.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Johnston SC, Ferriero DM, Josephson SA, Lowenstein DH, Messing RO, Oksenberg J, Stewart A, Hauser SL. Have the Annals editors added value? Ann Neurol. 2013 Nov; 74(5):A7-9.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Silbergleit R, Lowenstein D, Durkalski V, Conwit R. Lessons from the RAMPART study--and which is the best route of administration of benzodiazepines in status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2013 Sep; 54 Suppl 6:74-7.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Bleck T, Cock H, Chamberlain J, Cloyd J, Connor J, Elm J, Fountain N, Jones E, Lowenstein D, Shinnar S, Silbergleit R, Treiman D, Trinka E, Kapur J. The established status epilepticus trial 2013. Epilepsia. 2013 Sep; 54 Suppl 6:89-92.
        View in: PubMed
      8. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Nature. 2013 Sep 12; 501(7466):217-21.
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      9. Fox CK, Glass HC, Sidney S, Lowenstein DH, Fullerton HJ. Acute seizures predict epilepsy after childhood stroke. Ann Neurol. 2013 Aug; 74(2):249-56.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hirose S, Scheffer IE, Marini C, De Jonghe P, Andermann E, Goldman AM, Kauffman M, Tan NC, Lowenstein DH, Sisodiya SM, Ottman R, Berkovic SF. SCN1A testing for epilepsy: application in clinical practice. Epilepsia. 2013 May; 54(5):946-52.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Helbig I, Lowenstein DH. Genetics of the epilepsies: where are we and where are we going? Curr Opin Neurol. 2013 Apr; 26(2):179-85.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Silbergleit R, Durkalski V, Lowenstein D, Conwit R, Pancioli A, Palesch Y, Barsan W. Intramuscular versus intravenous therapy for prehospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 16; 366(7):591-600.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Stewart AF, Ferriero DM, Josephson SA, Lowenstein DH, Messing RO, Oksenberg JR, Johnston SC, Hauser SL. Fighting decision fatigue. Ann Neurol. 2012 Jan; 71(1):A5-A15.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Rossetti AO, Lowenstein DH. Management of refractory status epilepticus in adults: still more questions than answers. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Oct; 10(10):922-30.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Silbergleit R, Lowenstein D, Durkalski V, Conwit R. RAMPART (Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial): a double-blind randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam in the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus by paramedics. Epilepsia. 2011 Oct; 52 Suppl 8:45-7.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Lowenstein DH. Interview: the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke/American Epilepsy Society benchmarks and research priorities for epilepsy research. Biomark Med. 2011 Oct; 5(5):531-5.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Mateen FJ, Carone M, Nyce S, Ghosn J, Mutuerandu T, Al-Saedy H, Lowenstein DH, Burnham G. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System. J Neurol. 2012 Apr; 259(4):694-701.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Durkalski V, Silbergleit R, Lowenstein D. Challenges in the design and analysis of non-inferiority trials: a case study. Clin Trials. 2011 Oct; 8(5):601-8.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Josephson SA, Lowenstein DH. Medical student learning in the preclinical curriculum: many steps behind a rapidly moving world. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul; 70(1):A9-A10.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Loring DW, Lowenstein DH, Barbaro NM, Fureman BE, Odenkirchen J, Jacobs MP, Austin JK, Dlugos DJ, French JA, Gaillard WD, Hermann BP, Hesdorffer DC, Roper SN, Van Cott AC, Grinnon S, Stout A. Common data elements in epilepsy research: development and implementation of the NINDS epilepsy CDE project. Epilepsia. 2011 Jun; 52(6):1186-91.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Poduri A, Lowenstein D. Epilepsy genetics--past, present, and future. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Jun; 21(3):325-32.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Willmore LJ, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy and trauma: a persistent challenge. Neurology. 2010 Jul 20; 75(3):202-3.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Hauser SL, Lowenstein DH, Johnston SC. Getting youth in the game: can we accelerate training for clinician-scientists? Ann Neurol. 2010 Feb; 67(2):A5-6.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Hauser SL, Johnston SC, Ferriero DM, Lowenstein DH, Josephson SA, Messing RO, Oksenberg JR, Stewart AF. Status report: the Annals in 2010. Ann Neurol. 2010 Jan; 67(1):A5-12.
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      25. Lowenstein DH. Traumatic brain injury: a glimpse of order among the chaos? Ann Neurol. 2009 Oct; 66(4):A7-8.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Kelley MS, Jacobs MP, Lowenstein DH. The NINDS epilepsy research benchmarks. Epilepsia. 2009 Mar; 50(3):579-82.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Jacobs MP, Leblanc GG, Brooks-Kayal A, Jensen FE, Lowenstein DH, Noebels JL, Spencer DD, Swann JW. Curing epilepsy: progress and future directions. Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Mar; 14(3):438-45.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy after head injury: an overview. Epilepsia. 2009 Feb; 50 Suppl 2:4-9.
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      29. Stern BJ, Lowenstein DH, Schuh LA. Invited article: Neurology education research. Neurology. 2008 Mar 11; 70(11):876-83.
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      30. Glaser CA, Gilliam S, Honarmand S, Tureen JH, Lowenstein DH, Anderson LJ, Bollen AW, Solbrig MV. Refractory status epilepticus in suspect encephalitis. Neurocrit Care. 2008; 9(1):74-82.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Lowenstein D, Messing R. Epilepsy genetics: yet more exciting news. Ann Neurol. 2007 Dec; 62(6):549-50.
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      32. Shih T, Lowenstein D. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy: if at first you don't succeed... Ann Neurol. 2007 Oct; 62(4):311-3.
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      33. Lowenstein DH. Pathways to discovery in epilepsy research: rethinking the quest for cures. Epilepsia. 2008 Jan; 49(1):1-7.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Johnston SC, Lowenstein DH, Ferriero DM, Messing RO, Oksenberg JR, Hauser SL. Early editorial manuscript screening versus obligate peer review: a randomized trial. Ann Neurol. 2007 Apr; 61(4):A10-2.
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      35. Lowenstein DH, Cloyd J. Out-of-hospital treatment of status epilepticus and prolonged seizures. Epilepsia. 2007; 48 Suppl 8:96-8.
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      36. Parent JM, von dem Bussche N, Lowenstein DH. Prolonged seizures recruit caudal subventricular zone glial progenitors into the injured hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2006; 16(3):321-8.
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      37. Parent JM, Elliott RC, Pleasure SJ, Barbaro NM, Lowenstein DH. Aberrant seizure-induced neurogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2006 Jan; 59(1):81-91.
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      38. Garga N, Lowenstein DH. Posttraumatic epilepsy: a major problem in desperate need of major advances. Epilepsy Curr. 2006 Jan-Feb; 6(1):1-5.
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      39. Lowenstein DH. The management of refractory status epilepticus: an update. Epilepsia. 2006; 47 Suppl 1:35-40.
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      40. Lowenstein DH. Treatment options for status epilepticus. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Jun; 5(3):334-9.
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      41. Del Turco D, Gebhardt C, Burbach GJ, Pleasure SJ, Lowenstein DH, Deller T. Laminar organization of the mouse dentate gyrus: insights from BETA2/Neuro D mutant mice. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Sep 6; 477(1):81-95.
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      42. Irby DM, Cooke M, Lowenstein D, Richards B. The academy movement: a structural approach to reinvigorating the educational mission. Acad Med. 2004 Aug; 79(8):729-36.
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      43. Elliott RC, Lowenstein DH. Gene expression profiling of seizure disorders. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jun; 29(6):1083-92.
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      44. Cao X, Wong ST, Hoo KS, Tjandra D, Fu JC, Lowenstein DH. A web-based federated neuroinformatics model for surgical planning and clinical research applications in epilepsy. Neuroinformatics. 2004; 2(1):101-18.
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      45. Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25; 349(13):1257-66.
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      46. Thibault GE, Neill JM, Lowenstein DH. The Academy at Harvard Medical School: nurturing teaching and stimulating innovation. Acad Med. 2003 Jul; 78(7):673-81.
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      47. Elliott RC, Miles MF, Lowenstein DH. Overlapping microarray profiles of dentate gyrus gene expression during development- and epilepsy-associated neurogenesis and axon outgrowth. J Neurosci. 2003 Mar 15; 23(6):2218-27.
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      48. Lowenstein DH. Treatment options for status epilepticus. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 3(1):6-11.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Practice parameter: antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2003 Jan 14; 60(1):10-6.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Stables JP, Bertram EH, White HS, Coulter DA, Dichter MA, Jacobs MP, Loscher W, Lowenstein DH, Moshe SL, Noebels JL, Davis M. Models for epilepsy and epileptogenesis: report from the NIH workshop, Bethesda, Maryland. Epilepsia. 2002 Nov; 43(11):1410-20.
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      51. Rider EA, Cooke M, Lowenstein D. The Academies Collaborative: sharing a new model for medical education. Acad Med. 2002 May; 77(5):455.
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      52. Parent JM, Valentin VV, Lowenstein DH. Prolonged seizures increase proliferating neuroblasts in the adult rat subventricular zone-olfactory bulb pathway. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 15; 22(8):3174-88.
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      53. Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Seizure-induced neurogenesis: are more new neurons good for an adult brain? Prog Brain Res. 2002; 135:121-31.
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      54. Lowenstein D. Epilepsy after head injury: the impact of impact. Ann Neurol. 2001 Dec; 50(6):696-7.
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      55. Jacobs MP, Fischbach GD, Davis MR, Dichter MA, Dingledine R, Lowenstein DH, Morrell MJ, Noebels JL, Rogawski MA, Spencer SS, Theodore WH. Future directions for epilepsy research. Neurology. 2001 Nov 13; 57(9):1536-42.
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      56. Castro PA, Cooper EC, Lowenstein DH, Baraban SC. Hippocampal heterotopia lack functional Kv4.2 potassium channels in the methylazoxymethanol model of cortical malformations and epilepsy. J Neurosci. 2001 Sep 1; 21(17):6626-34.
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      57. Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, Corry MD, Allen F, Ulrich S, Gottwald MD, O'Neil N, Neuhaus JM, Segal MR, Lowenstein DH. A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 30; 345(9):631-7.
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      58. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK, Allen F, Neuhaus J, Corry M, Gottwald M, O'Neil N, Ulrich S, Isaacs SM, Gelb A. The prehospital treatment of status epilepticus (PHTSE) study: design and methodology. Control Clin Trials. 2001 Jun; 22(3):290-309.
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      59. Kim AS, Lowenstein DH, Pleasure SJ. Wnt receptors and Wnt inhibitors are expressed in gradients in the developing telencephalon. Mech Dev. 2001 May; 103(1-2):167-72.
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      60. Kim AS, Anderson SA, Rubenstein JL, Lowenstein DH, Pleasure SJ. Pax-6 regulates expression of SFRP-2 and Wnt-7b in the developing CNS. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 1; 21(5):RC132.
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      61. Elliott RC, Khademi S, Pleasure SJ, Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Differential regulation of basic helix-loop-helix mRNAs in the dentate gyrus following status epilepticus. Neuroscience. 2001; 106(1):79-88.
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      62. Lowenstein DH. Structural reorganization of hippocampal networks caused by seizure activity. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2001; 45:209-36.
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      63. Pleasure SJ, Anderson S, Hevner R, Bagri A, Marin O, Lowenstein DH, Rubenstein JL. Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 2000 Dec; 28(3):727-40.
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      64. Pleasure SJ, Collins AE, Lowenstein DH. Unique expression patterns of cell fate molecules delineate sequential stages of dentate gyrus development. J Neurosci. 2000 Aug 15; 20(16):6095-105.
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      65. Liu M, Pleasure SJ, Collins AE, Noebels JL, Naya FJ, Tsai MJ, Lowenstein DH. Loss of BETA2/NeuroD leads to malformation of the dentate gyrus and epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jan 18; 97(2):865-70.
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      66. Lado FA, Sankar R, Lowenstein D, Moshé SL. Age-dependent consequences of seizures: relationship to seizure frequency, brain damage, and circuitry reorganization. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2000; 6(4):242-52.
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      67. Chen H, Bagri A, Zupicich JA, Zou Y, Stoeckli E, Pleasure SJ, Lowenstein DH, Skarnes WC, Chédotal A, Tessier-Lavigne M. Neuropilin-2 regulates the development of selective cranial and sensory nerves and hippocampal mossy fiber projections. Neuron. 2000 Jan; 25(1):43-56.
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      68. Tada E, Parent JM, Lowenstein DH, Fike JR. X-irradiation causes a prolonged reduction in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats. Neuroscience. 2000; 99(1):33-41.
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      69. Gottwald MD, Akers LC, Liu PK, Orsulak PJ, Corry MD, Bacchetti P, Fields SM, Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Prehospital stability of diazepam and lorazepam. Am J Emerg Med. 1999 Jul; 17(4):333-7.
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      70. Parent JM, Tada E, Fike JR, Lowenstein DH. Inhibition of dentate granule cell neurogenesis with brain irradiation does not prevent seizure-induced mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the rat. J Neurosci. 1999 Jun 1; 19(11):4508-19.
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      71. Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus: new concepts. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Apr; 12(2):183-90.
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      72. Lowenstein DH, Parent JM. Brain, heal thyself. Science. 1999 Feb 19; 283(5405):1126-7.
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      73. Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus: an overview of the clinical problem. Epilepsia. 1999; 40 Suppl 1:S3-8; discussion S21-2.
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      74. Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL. It's time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1999 Jan; 40(1):120-2.
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      75. Parent JM, Janumpalli S, McNamara JO, Lowenstein DH. Increased dentate granule cell neurogenesis following amygdala kindling in the adult rat. Neurosci Lett. 1998 May 8; 247(1):9-12.
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      76. Drake MV, Lowenstein DH. The role of diversity in the health care needs of California. West J Med. 1998 May; 168(5):348-54.
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      77. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 2; 338(14):970-6.
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      78. Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus. West J Med. 1998 Apr; 168(4):263.
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      79. Cooper EC, Milroy A, Jan YN, Jan LY, Lowenstein DH. Presynaptic localization of Kv1.4-containing A-type potassium channels near excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1998 Feb 1; 18(3):965-74.
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      80. Parent JM, Yu TW, Leibowitz RT, Geschwind DH, Sloviter RS, Lowenstein DH. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant network reorganization in the adult rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1997 May 15; 17(10):3727-38.
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      81. Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Mossy fiber reorganization in the epileptic hippocampus. Curr Opin Neurol. 1997 Apr; 10(2):103-9.
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      82. Lowenstein DH, Arsenault L. Dentate granule cell layer collagen explant cultures: spontaneous axonal growth and induction by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or basic fibroblast growth factor. Neuroscience. 1996 Oct; 74(4):1197-208.
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      83. Lowenstein DH, Arsenault L. The effects of growth factors on the survival and differentiation of cultured dentate gyrus neurons. J Neurosci. 1996 Mar 1; 16(5):1759-69.
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      84. Lowenstein DH. Recent advances related to basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Res Suppl. 1996; 11:45-60.
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      85. Holtzman DM, Lowenstein DH. Selective inhibition of axon outgrowth by antibodies to NGF in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci. 1995 Nov; 15(11):7062-70.
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      86. Raghupathi R, Welsh FA, Lowenstein DH, Gennarelli TA, McIntosh TK. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 May; 15(3):467-73.
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      87. Tecott LH, Sun LM, Akana SF, Strack AM, Lowenstein DH, Dallman MF, Julius D. Eating disorder and epilepsy in mice lacking 5-HT2c serotonin receptors. Nature. 1995 Apr 6; 374(6522):542-6.
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      88. Lowenstein DH. The stress protein response and its potential relationship to prolonged seizure activity. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1995 Apr; 18(2):148-58.
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      89. Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Treatment of refractory generalized status epilepticus with continuous infusion of midazolam. Neurology. 1994 Oct; 44(10):1837-40.
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      90. Lowenstein DH, Gwinn RP, Seren MS, Simon RP, McIntosh TK. Increased expression of mRNA encoding calbindin-D28K, the glucose-regulated proteins, or the 72 kDa heat-shock protein in three models of acute CNS injury. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994 Mar; 22(1-4):299-308.
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      91. Smith DH, Lowenstein DH, Gennarelli TA, McIntosh TK. Persistent memory dysfunction is associated with bilateral hippocampal damage following experimental brain injury. Neurosci Lett. 1994 Feb 28; 168(1-2):151-4.
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      92. Lowenstein DH. Basic concepts of molecular biology for the epileptologist. Epilepsia. 1994; 35 Suppl 1:S7-19.
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      93. Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus related to alcohol abuse. Epilepsia. 1993 Nov-Dec; 34(6):1033-7.
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      94. Lowenstein DH, Seren MS, Longo FM. Prolonged increases in neurotrophic activity associated with kainate-induced hippocampal synaptic reorganization. Neuroscience. 1993 Oct; 56(3):597-604.
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      95. Devinsky O, Lowenstein D, Bromfield E, Duchowny M, Smith DB. Epilepsy education in medical schools: report of the American Epilepsy Society Committee on Medical Student Education. Epilepsia. 1993 Sep-Oct; 34(5):809-11.
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      96. Eide FF, Lowenstein DH, Reichardt LF. Neurotrophins and their receptors--current concepts and implications for neurologic disease. Exp Neurol. 1993 Jun; 121(2):200-14.
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      97. Yaffe K, Lowenstein DH. Prognostic factors of pentobarbital therapy for refractory generalized status epilepticus. Neurology. 1993 May; 43(5):895-900.
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      98. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Status epilepticus at an urban public hospital in the 1980s. Neurology. 1993 Mar; 43(3 Pt 1):483-8.
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      99. Hicks RR, Smith DH, Lowenstein DH, Saint Marie R, McIntosh TK. Mild experimental brain injury in the rat induces cognitive deficits associated with regional neuronal loss in the hippocampus. J Neurotrauma. 1993; 10(4):405-14.
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      100. Lowenstein DH, Thomas MJ, Smith DH, McIntosh TK. Selective vulnerability of dentate hilar neurons following traumatic brain injury: a potential mechanistic link between head trauma and disorders of the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1992 Dec; 12(12):4846-53.
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      101. Sloviter RS, Lowenstein DH. Heat shock protein expression in vulnerable cells of the rat hippocampus as an indicator of excitation-induced neuronal stress. J Neurosci. 1992 Aug; 12(8):3004-9.
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      102. Täuber MG, Kennedy SL, Tureen JH, Lowenstein DH. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein. Am J Pathol. 1992 Jul; 141(1):53-60.
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      103. Tsaur ML, Sheng M, Lowenstein DH, Jan YN, Jan LY. Differential expression of K+ channel mRNAs in the rat brain and down-regulation in the hippocampus following seizures. Neuron. 1992 Jun; 8(6):1055-67.
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      104. Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ. Clinical and EEG features of status epilepticus in comatose patients. Neurology. 1992 Jan; 42(1):100-4.
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      105. Lowenstein DH, Chan PH, Miles MF. The stress protein response in cultured neurons: characterization and evidence for a protective role in excitotoxicity. Neuron. 1991 Dec; 7(6):1053-60.
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      106. Lowenstein DH, Shimosaka S, So YT, Simon RP. The relationship between electrographic seizure activity and neuronal injury. Epilepsy Res. 1991 Oct; 10(1):49-54.
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      107. Sharp FR, Sagar SM, Hicks K, Lowenstein D, Hisanaga K. c-fos mRNA, Fos, and Fos-related antigen induction by hypertonic saline and stress. J Neurosci. 1991 Aug; 11(8):2321-31.
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      108. Sharp FR, Lowenstein D, Simon R, Hisanaga K. Heat shock protein hsp72 induction in cortical and striatal astrocytes and neurons following infarction. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1991 Jul; 11(4):621-7.
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      109. Gelb DJ, Yoshimura DM, Olney RK, Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ. Change in pattern of muscle activity following botulinum toxin injections for torticollis. Ann Neurol. 1991 Apr; 29(4):370-6.
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      110. Lowenstein DH, Miles MF, Hatam F, McCabe T. Up regulation of calbindin-D28K mRNA in the rat hippocampus following focal stimulation of the perforant path. Neuron. 1991 Apr; 6(4):627-33.
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      111. Simon RP, Cho H, Gwinn R, Lowenstein DH. The temporal profile of 72-kDa heat-shock protein expression following global ischemia. J Neurosci. 1991 Mar; 11(3):881-9.
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      112. Gonzalez MF, Lowenstein D, Fernyak S, Hisanaga K, Simon R, Sharp FR. Induction of heat shock protein 72-like immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation following transient global ischemia. Brain Res Bull. 1991 Feb; 26(2):241-50.
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      113. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge B. Managing status epilepticus. Lancet. 1990 Dec 8; 336(8728):1451.
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      114. Kaku DA, Lowenstein DH. Emergence of recreational drug abuse as a major risk factor for stroke in young adults. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Dec 1; 113(11):821-7.
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      115. Lowenstein DH, Simon RP, Sharp FR. The pattern of 72-kDa heat shock protein-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain following flurothyl-induced status epilepticus. Brain Res. 1990 Oct 29; 531(1-2):173-82.
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      116. Lowenstein DH, Butler DA, Westaway D, McKinley MP, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. Three hamster species with different scrapie incubation times and neuropathological features encode distinct prion proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Mar; 10(3):1153-63.
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      117. Rowbotham MC, Lowenstein DH. Neurologic consequences of cocaine use. Annu Rev Med. 1990; 41:417-22.
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      118. Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH, Simon RP. Placebo-controlled trial of intravenous diphenylhydantoin for short-term treatment of alcohol withdrawal seizures. Am J Med. 1989 Dec; 87(6):645-8.
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      119. Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH, Simon RP. Seizures associated with recreational drug abuse. Neurology. 1989 Aug; 39(8):1037-9.
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      120. Engstrom JW, Lowenstein DH, Bredesen DE. Cerebral infarctions and transient neurologic deficits associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1989 May; 86(5):528-32.
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      121. Lowenstein DH. Recreational drugs and stroke in young adults. West J Med. 1989 May; 150(5):575-6.
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      122. Rowley HA, Lowenstein DH, Rowbotham MC, Simon RP. Thalamomesencephalic strokes after cocaine abuse. Neurology. 1989 Mar; 39(3):428-30.
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      123. Gelb DJ, Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ. Controlled trial of botulinum toxin injections in the treatment of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology. 1989 Jan; 39(1):80-4.
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      124. Olney RK, Aminoff MJ, Gelb DJ, Lowenstein DH. Neuromuscular effects distant from the site of botulinum neurotoxin injection. Neurology. 1988 Nov; 38(11):1780-3.
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      125. Charman HP, Lowenstein DH, Cho KG, DeArmond SJ, Wilson CB. Primary cerebral angiosarcoma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1988 May; 68(5):806-10.
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      126. Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ. The clinical course of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology. 1988 Apr; 38(4):530-2.
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      127. Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Barbiturate anesthesia in the treatment of status epilepticus: clinical experience with 14 patients. Neurology. 1988 Mar; 38(3):395-400.
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      128. Lowenstein DH, Massa SM, Rowbotham MC, Collins SD, McKinney HE, Simon RP. Acute neurologic and psychiatric complications associated with cocaine abuse. Am J Med. 1987 Nov; 83(5):841-6.
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      129. Lowenstein DH, Mills C, Simon RP. Acute syphilitic transverse myelitis: unusual presentation of meningovascular syphilis. Genitourin Med. 1987 Oct; 63(5):333-8.
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      130. Lowenstein DH, Koch TK, Edwards MS. Cerebral ptosis with contralateral arteriovenous malformation: a report of two cases. Ann Neurol. 1987 Apr; 21(4):404-7.
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