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Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurology
Address35 Medical Center way
San Fancisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-0766
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    Other Positions
    TitleDirector, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program


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    Dr. Kriegstein received BA from Yale University and his MD and PhD degrees from New York University in 1977 where his thesis advisor was Dr. Eric Kandel. He subsequently completed Residency training in Neurology at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Children’s Hospital, and Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. He has held academic appointments at Stanford University, Yale University, and Columbia University. In 2004 he joined the Neurology Department at the University of California, San Francisco. He is currently the John Bowes Distinguished Professor in Stem Cell and Tissue Biology and Founding Director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. Dr. Kriegstein’s own research focuses on the way in which neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic brain produce neurons, and ways in which this information can be used for cell based therapies to treat diseases of the nervous system. His lab found that radial glial cells are neuronal stem cells in the developing brain, and also identified a second type of precursor cell produced by radial glial cells that is responsible for generating specific neuronal subtypes. He has recently begun to characterize the progenitor cells within the developing human brain, to determine the genetic profiles of specific progenitor populations, and to explore how these cells contribute to the huge expansion of neuron number that characterizes human cerebral cortex.


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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Development and Expansion of the Human Cerebral Cortex
    NIH/NINDS R35NS097305Dec 1, 2016 - Nov 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mapping the Developing Human Neocortex by Massively Parallel Single Cell Analysis
    NIH/NIMH U01MH105989Sep 26, 2014 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of Cellular Pathwaysin Human Brain Development
    NIH/NINDS P01NS083513Jul 1, 2014 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Stem Cells of the Developing Human Neocortex
    NIH/NINDS R01NS075998Apr 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular and cellular mechanism of Microcephaly
    NIH/NINDS R01NS072630Sep 1, 2010 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Spinal cord injury: Targeting local inhibition to improve outcome
    NIH/NINDS RC1NS068200Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neurobiology of Disease Workshop -- Teaching Workshop
    NIH/NINDS R25NS054767May 1, 2006 - Jan 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Proliferation, Specification &Brain Function
    NIH P01NS048120Apr 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Co-Investigator
    BIORAD 2-PHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY SYSTEM
    NIH/NCRR S10RR013701Jul 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    GLYCINE RECEPTORS AND DISORDERS OF CORTICOGENESIS
    NIH/NINDS R37NS038658Apr 5, 1999 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Physiology of Radial Units in Corticogenesis
    NIH/NINDS R37NS035710Apr 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Physiology of Radial Units in Corticogenesis
    NIH/NINDS R01NS035710Apr 1, 1997 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Intercellular Signaling in Neocortical Development
    NIH/NINDS R01NS021223Dec 1, 1984 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ONTOGENESIS OF CORTICAL INHIBITION
    NIH/NINDS K07NS000887Jul 1, 1984 - Dec 31, 1989
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neurobiology of Disease -- Teaching Workshop
    NIH/NINDS R13NS020032Aug 1, 1983 - Oct 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Retallack H, Di Lullo E, Arias C, Knopp KA, Laurie MT, Sandoval-Espinosa C, Mancia Leon WR, Krencik R, Ullian EM, Spatazza J, Pollen AA, Mandel-Brehm C, Nowakowski TJ, Kriegstein A, DeRisi JL. Zika virus cell tropism in the developing human brain and inhibition by azithromycin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Nov 29. PMID: 27911847.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Müller S, Liu SJ, Di Lullo E, Malatesta M, Pollen AA, Nowakowski TJ, Kohanbash G, Aghi M, Kriegstein A, Lim DA, Diaz A. Single-cell sequencing maps gene expression to mutational phylogenies in PDGF- and EGF-driven gliomas. Mol Syst Biol. 2016 Nov 25; 12(11):889. PMID: 27888226.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Pollen AA, Kriegstein A. Primate Neurons Flex Their Musclin. Neuron. 2016 Nov 23; 92(4):681-683. PMID: 27883900.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Fandel TM, Trivedi A, Nicholas CR, Zhang H, Chen J, Martinez AF, Noble-Haeusslein LJ, Kriegstein A. Transplanted Human Stem Cell-Derived Interneuron Precursors Mitigate Mouse Bladder Dysfunction and Central Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury. Cell Stem Cell. 2016 Oct 6; 19(4):544-557. PMID: 27666009.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nowakowski TJ, Pollen AA, Sandoval-Espinosa C, Kriegstein A. Transformation of the Radial Glia Scaffold Demarcates Two Stages of Human Cerebral Cortex Development. Neuron. 2016 Sep 21; 91(6):1219-27. PMID: 27657449.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Rani N, Nowakowski TJ, Zhou H, Godshalk SE, Lisi V, Kriegstein A, Kosik KS. A Primate lncRNA Mediates Notch Signaling during Neuronal Development by Sequestering miRNA. Neuron. 2016 Jun 15; 90(6):1174-88. PMID: 27263970.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Diaz A, Liu SJ, Sandoval C, Pollen A, Nowakowski TJ, Lim DA, Kriegstein A. SCell: integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data. Bioinformatics. 2016 Jul 15; 32(14):2219-20. PMID: 27153637.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Liu SJ, Nowakowski TJ, Pollen AA, Lui JH, Horlbeck MA, Attenello FJ, He D, Weissman JS, Kriegstein A, Diaz AA, Lim DA. Single-cell analysis of long non-coding RNAs in the developing human neocortex. Genome Biol. 2016; 17(1):67. PMID: 27081004.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Nowakowski TJ, Pollen AA, Di Lullo E, Sandoval-Espinosa C, Bershteyn M, Kriegstein A. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2016 May 5; 18(5):591-6. PMID: 27038591.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gertz CC, Kriegstein A. Neuronal Migration Dynamics in the Developing Ferret Cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 Oct 21; 35(42):14307-15. PMID: 26490868.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Chen J, Kriegstein A. A GABAergic projection from the zona incerta to cortex promotes cortical neuron development. Science. 2015 Oct 30; 350(6260):554-8. PMID: 26429884.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pollen AA, Nowakowski TJ, Chen J, Retallack H, Sandoval-Espinosa C, Nicholas CR, Shuga J, Liu SJ, Oldham MC, Diaz A, Lim DA, Leyrat AA, West JA, Kriegstein A. Molecular Identity of Human Outer Radial Glia during Cortical Development. Cell. 2015 Sep 24; 163(1):55-67. PMID: 26406371; PMCID: PMC4583716 [Available on 09/24/16].
    13. Harwell CC, Fuentealba LC, Gonzalez-Cerrillo A, Parker PR, Gertz CC, Mazzola E, Garcia MT, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cepko CL, Kriegstein A. Wide Dispersion and Diversity of Clonally Related Inhibitory Interneurons. Neuron. 2015 Sep 2; 87(5):999-1007. PMID: 26299474; PMCID: PMC4581718 [Available on 09/02/16].
    14. Ramos AD, Andersen RE, Liu SJ, Nowakowski TJ, Hong SJ, Gertz CC, Salinas RD, Zarabi H, Kriegstein A, Lim DA. The long noncoding RNA Pnky regulates neuronal differentiation of embryonic and postnatal neural stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2015 Apr 2; 16(4):439-47. PMID: 25800779; PMCID: PMC4388801 [Available on 04/02/16].
    15. Clinton BK, Cunningham CL, Kriegstein A, Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V. Radial glia in the proliferative ventricular zone of the embryonic and adult turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Neurogenesis (Austin). 2014; 1(1):e970905. PMID: 27504470.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Lui JH, Nowakowski TJ, Pollen AA, Javaherian A, Kriegstein A, Oldham MC. Radial glia require PDGFD-PDGFRß signalling in human but not mouse neocortex. Nature. 2014 Nov 13; 515(7526):264-8. PMID: 25391964; PMCID: PMC4231536.
    17. Kriegstein A. Yoshiki Sasai (1962–2014). Neuron. 2014 Sep 17; 83(6):1237-8. PMID: 25364807.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Price JD, Park KY, Chen J, Salinas RD, Cho MJ, Kriegstein A, Lim DA. The Ink4a/Arf locus is a barrier to direct neuronal transdifferentiation. J Neurosci. 2014 Sep 10; 34(37):12560-7. PMID: 25209293; PMCID: PMC4160784.
    19. Kriegstein A. Yoshiki Sasai (1962–2014). Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Sep 4; 15(3):265-6. PMID: 25333080.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Pollen AA, Nowakowski TJ, Shuga J, Wang X, Leyrat AA, Lui JH, Li N, Szpankowski L, Fowler B, Chen P, Ramalingam N, Sun G, Thu M, Norris M, Lebofsky R, Toppani D, Kemp DW, Wong M, Clerkson B, Jones BN, Wu S, Knutsson L, Alvarado B, Wang J, Weaver LS, May AP, Jones RC, Unger MA, Kriegstein A, West JA. Low-coverage single-cell mRNA sequencing reveals cellular heterogeneity and activated signaling pathways in developing cerebral cortex. Nat Biotechnol. 2014 Oct; 32(10):1053-8. PMID: 25086649; PMCID: PMC4191988.
    21. Ostrem BE, Lui JH, Gertz CC, Kriegstein A. Control of outer radial glial stem cell mitosis in the human brain. Cell Rep. 2014 Aug 7; 8(3):656-64. PMID: 25088420; PMCID: PMC4127493.
    22. Southwell DG, Nicholas CR, Basbaum AI, Stryker MP, Kriegstein A, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A. Interneurons from embryonic development to cell-based therapy. Science. 2014 Apr 11; 344(6180):1240622. PMID: 24723614; PMCID: PMC4056344.
    23. Tong CK, Chen J, Cebrián-Silla A, Mirzadeh Z, Obernier K, Guinto CD, Tecott LH, García-Verdugo JM, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A. Axonal control of the adult neural stem cell niche. Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Apr 3; 14(4):500-11. PMID: 24561083; PMCID: PMC4080817.
    24. Gertz CC, Lui JH, LaMonica BE, Wang X, Kriegstein A. Diverse behaviors of outer radial glia in developing ferret and human cortex. J Neurosci. 2014 Feb 12; 34(7):2559-70. PMID: 24523546; PMCID: PMC3921426.
    25. Bershteyn M, Hayashi Y, Desachy G, Hsiao EC, Sami S, Tsang KM, Weiss LA, Kriegstein A, Yamanaka S, Wynshaw-Boris A. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2014 Mar 6; 507(7490):99-103. PMID: 24413397; PMCID: PMC4030630.
    26. Wu Q, Liu J, Fang A, Li R, Bai Y, Kriegstein A, Wang X. The dynamics of neuronal migration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 800:25-36. PMID: 24243098.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Hansen DV, Lui JH, Flandin P, Yoshikawa K, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Kriegstein A. Non-epithelial stem cells and cortical interneuron production in the human ganglionic eminences. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 16(11):1576-87. PMID: 24097039; PMCID: PMC4191718.
    28. Bershteyn M, Kriegstein A. Cerebral organoids in a dish: progress and prospects. Cell. 2013 Sep 26; 155(1):19-20. PMID: 24074857.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Nicholas CR, Chen J, Tang Y, Southwell DG, Chalmers N, Vogt D, Arnold CM, Chen YJ, Stanley EG, Elefanty AG, Sasai Y, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Kriegstein A. Functional maturation of hPSC-derived forebrain interneurons requires an extended timeline and mimics human neural development. Cell Stem Cell. 2013 May 2; 12(5):573-86. PMID: 23642366; PMCID: PMC3699205.
    30. Chen YJ, Vogt D, Wang Y, Visel A, Silberberg SN, Nicholas CR, Danjo T, Pollack JL, Pennacchio LA, Anderson S, Sasai Y, Baraban SC, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL. Use of "MGE enhancers" for labeling and selection of embryonic stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors and neurons. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e61956. PMID: 23658702; PMCID: PMC3641041.
    31. Visel A, Taher L, Girgis H, May D, Golonzhka O, Hoch RV, McKinsey GL, Pattabiraman K, Silberberg SN, Blow MJ, Hansen DV, Nord AS, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Hosseini R, Phouanenavong S, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Afzal V, Kaplan T, Kriegstein A, Rubin EM, Ovcharenko I, Pennacchio LA, Rubenstein JL. A high-resolution enhancer atlas of the developing telencephalon. Cell. 2013 Feb 14; 152(4):895-908. PMID: 23375746; PMCID: PMC3660042.
    32. LaMonica BE, Lui JH, Hansen DV, Kriegstein A. Mitotic spindle orientation predicts outer radial glial cell generation in human neocortex. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1665. PMID: 23575669; PMCID: PMC3625970.
    33. Chen S, Chen J, Shi H, Wei M, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Bultje RS, Pei X, Kriegstein A, Zhang M, Shi SH. Regulation of microtubule stability and organization by mammalian Par3 in specifying neuronal polarity. Dev Cell. 2013 Jan 14; 24(1):26-40. PMID: 23273878; PMCID: PMC3549028.
    34. Woodworth MB, Custo Greig L, Kriegstein A, Macklis JD. SnapShot: cortical development. Cell. 2012 Nov 9; 151(4):918-918.e1. PMID: 23141546; PMCID: PMC3694327.
    35. Plath K, Srivastava D, Alvarez-Buylla A, Tanaka EM, Kriegstein A. Stem cells in the land of the rising sun: ISSCR 2012. Cell Stem Cell. 2012 Nov 2; 11(5):607-14. PMID: 23122288.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Bráz JM, Sharif-Naeini R, Vogt D, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Basbaum AI. Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2012 May 24; 74(4):663-75. PMID: 22632725; PMCID: PMC3361692.
    37. LaMonica BE, Lui JH, Wang X, Kriegstein A. OSVZ progenitors in the human cortex: an updated perspective on neurodevelopmental disease. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012 Oct; 22(5):747-53. PMID: 22487088; PMCID: PMC3402619.
    38. Harwell CC, Parker PR, Gee SM, Okada A, McConnell SK, Kreitzer AC, Kriegstein A. Sonic hedgehog expression in corticofugal projection neurons directs cortical microcircuit formation. Neuron. 2012 Mar 22; 73(6):1116-26. PMID: 22445340; PMCID: PMC3551478.
    39. Wang X, Lui JH, Kriegstein A. Orienting fate: spatial regulation of neurogenic divisions. Neuron. 2011 Oct 20; 72(2):191-3. PMID: 22017981; PMCID: PMC3220621.
    40. Ihrie RA, Shah JK, Harwell CC, Levine JH, Guinto CD, Lezameta M, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A. Persistent sonic hedgehog signaling in adult brain determines neural stem cell positional identity. Neuron. 2011 Jul 28; 71(2):250-62. PMID: 21791285; PMCID: PMC3346180.
    41. Lui JH, Hansen DV, Kriegstein A. Development and evolution of the human neocortex. Cell. 2011 Jul 8; 146(1):18-36. PMID: 21729779; PMCID: PMC3610574.
    42. Hansen DV, Rubenstein JL, Kriegstein A. Deriving excitatory neurons of the neocortex from pluripotent stem cells. Neuron. 2011 May 26; 70(4):645-60. PMID: 21609822; PMCID: PMC3124445.
    43. Wang X, Tsai JW, LaMonica B, Kriegstein A. A new subtype of progenitor cell in the mouse embryonic neocortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011 May; 14(5):555-61. PMID: 21478886; PMCID: PMC3083489.
    44. Rowitch DH, Kriegstein A. Developmental genetics of vertebrate glial-cell specification. Nature. 2010 Nov 11; 468(7321):214-22. PMID: 21068830.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Tsai JW, Lian WN, Kemal S, Kriegstein A, Vallee RB. Kinesin 3 and cytoplasmic dynein mediate interkinetic nuclear migration in neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Dec; 13(12):1463-71. PMID: 21037580; PMCID: PMC3059207.
    46. Wang DD, Kriegstein A. Blocking early GABA depolarization with bumetanide results in permanent alterations in cortical circuits and sensorimotor gating deficits. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Mar; 21(3):574-87. PMID: 20624842; PMCID: PMC3041010.
    47. Elias LA, Turmaine M, Parnavelas JG, Kriegstein A. Connexin 43 mediates the tangential to radial migratory switch in ventrally derived cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2010 May 19; 30(20):7072-7. PMID: 20484649; PMCID: PMC2883285.
    48. Hansen DV, Lui JH, Parker PR, Kriegstein A. Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex. Nature. 2010 Mar 25; 464(7288):554-561. PMID: 20154730.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Espinosa A, Ariza J, Parker P, Orasji S, Daadi MM, Bankiewicz K, Alvarez-Buylla A, Kriegstein A. Embryonic MGE precursor cells grafted into adult rat striatum integrate and ameliorate motor symptoms in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Mar 5; 6(3):238-50. PMID: 20207227; PMCID: PMC4075336.
    50. Nicholas CR, Kriegstein A. Regenerative medicine: Cell reprogramming gets direct. Nature. 2010 Feb 25; 463(7284):1031-2. PMID: 20182502.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lo B, Parham L, Cedars M, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Rao R, Roberts C, Wagner R. Research ethics. NIH guidelines for stem cell research and gamete donors. Science. 2010 Feb 19; 327(5968):962-3. PMID: 20167773; PMCID: PMC2892655.
    52. Lo B, Parham L, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cedars M, Conklin B, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Wagner R. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Jan 8; 6(1):16-20. PMID: 20085739; PMCID: PMC4035242.
    53. Bultje RS, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Jan LY, Jan YN, Kriegstein A, Shi SH. Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2009 Jul 30; 63(2):189-202. PMID: 19640478; PMCID: PMC2736606.
    54. Javaherian A, Kriegstein A. A stem cell niche for intermediate progenitor cells of the embryonic cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Jul; 19 Suppl 1:i70-7. PMID: 19346271; PMCID: PMC2693531.
    55. Kriegstein A, Pitkänen A. Commentary: the prospect of cell-based therapy for epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Apr; 6(2):295-9. PMID: 19332322.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Lo B, Parham L, Broom C, Cedars M, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Oberman M, Roberts C, Wagner R. Importing human pluripotent stem cell lines derived at another institution: tailoring review to ethical concerns. Cell Stem Cell. 2009 Feb 6; 4(2):115-23. PMID: 19200800.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Wang DD, Kriegstein A. Defining the role of GABA in cortical development. J Physiol. 2009 May 1; 587(Pt 9):1873-9. PMID: 19153158; PMCID: PMC2689328.
    58. Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A. The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009; 32:149-84. PMID: 19555289; PMCID: PMC3086722.
    59. Elias GM, Elias LA, Apostolides PF, Kriegstein A, Nicoll RA. Differential trafficking of AMPA and NMDA receptors by SAP102 and PSD-95 underlies synapse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 30; 105(52):20953-8. PMID: 19104036; PMCID: PMC2634944.
    60. Elias LA, Potter GB, Kriegstein A. A time and a place for nkx2-1 in interneuron specification and migration. Neuron. 2008 Sep 11; 59(5):679-82. PMID: 18786351; PMCID: PMC2632973.
    61. Wang DD, Kriegstein A, Ben-Ari Y. GABA regulates stem cell proliferation before nervous system formation. Epilepsy Curr. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):137-9. PMID: 18852839; PMCID: PMC2566617.
    62. Milosevic A, Noctor SC, Martinez-Cerdeno V, Kriegstein A, Goldman JE. Progenitors from the postnatal forebrain subventricular zone differentiate into cerebellar-like interneurons and cerebellar-specific astrocytes upon transplantation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Nov; 39(3):324-34. PMID: 18718868; PMCID: PMC2593080.
    63. Wang DD, Kriegstein A. GABA regulates excitatory synapse formation in the neocortex via NMDA receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 21; 28(21):5547-58. PMID: 18495889; PMCID: PMC2684685.
    64. LoTurco JJ, Kriegstein A. Manipulating midbrain stem cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell. 2008 May 8; 2(5):405-6. PMID: 18462687; PMCID: PMC2601722.
    65. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein A. Distinct behaviors of neural stem and progenitor cells underlie cortical neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol. 2008 May 1; 508(1):28-44. PMID: 18288691; PMCID: PMC2635107.
    66. Elias LA, Kriegstein A. Gap junctions: multifaceted regulators of embryonic cortical development. Trends Neurosci. 2008 May; 31(5):243-50. PMID: 18403031; PMCID: PMC2610634.
    67. Lo B, Kriegstein A, Grady D. Clinical trials in stem cell transplantation: guidelines for scientific and ethical review. Clin Trials. 2008; 5(5):517-22. PMID: 18827044.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Elias LA, Wang DD, Kriegstein A. Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature. 2007 Aug 23; 448(7156):901-7. PMID: 17713529.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Walantus W, Elias L, Kriegstein A. In utero intraventricular injection and electroporation of E16 rat embryos. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):236. PMID: 18997884; PMCID: PMC2557119.
    70. Walantus W, Castaneda D, Elias L, Kriegstein A. In utero intraventricular injection and electroporation of E15 mouse embryos. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):239. PMID: 18997887; PMCID: PMC2557118.
    71. Kriegstein A. Cortical neurogenesis: transitioning from advances in the laboratory to cell-based therapies. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):241. PMID: 18997889; PMCID: PMC2557109.
    72. Elias L, Kriegstein A. Organotypic slice culture of E18 rat brains. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):235. PMID: 18997883; PMCID: PMC2557113.
    73. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein A. Contribution of intermediate progenitor cells to cortical histogenesis. Arch Neurol. 2007 May; 64(5):639-42. PMID: 17502462.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Noctor SC, Martinez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein A. Neural stem and progenitor cells in cortical development. Novartis Found Symp. 2007; 288:59-73; discussion 73-8, 96-8. PMID: 18494252.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Kriegstein A. Estradiol stimulates progenitor cell division in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the embryonic neocortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 24(12):3475-88. PMID: 17229096.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Kriegstein A, Noctor S, Martínez-Cerdeño V. Patterns of neural stem and progenitor cell division may underlie evolutionary cortical expansion. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Nov; 7(11):883-90. PMID: 17033683.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Young-Pearse TL, Ivic L, Kriegstein A, Cepko CL. Characterization of mice with targeted deletion of glycine receptor alpha 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug; 26(15):5728-34. PMID: 16847326; PMCID: PMC1592777.
    78. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Kriegstein A. The role of intermediate progenitor cells in the evolutionary expansion of the cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2006 Jul; 16 Suppl 1:i152-61. PMID: 16766701.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Kriegstein A, Parnavelas JG. Progress in corticogenesis. Cereb Cortex. 2006 Jul; 16 Suppl 1:i1-2. PMID: 16766695.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Castañeda-Castellanos DR, Flint AC, Kriegstein A. Blind patch clamp recordings in embryonic and adult mammalian brain slices. Nat Protoc. 2006; 1(2):532-42. PMID: 17406279.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Butt SJ, Fuccillo M, Nery S, Noctor S, Kriegstein A, Corbin JG, Fishell G. The temporal and spatial origins of cortical interneurons predict their physiological subtype. Neuron. 2005 Nov 23; 48(4):591-604. PMID: 16301176.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Lo B, Zettler P, Cedars MI, Gates E, Kriegstein A, Oberman M, Reijo Pera R, Wagner RM, Wuerth MT, Wolf LE, Yamamoto KR. A new era in the ethics of human embryonic stem cell research. Stem Cells. 2005 Nov-Dec; 23(10):1454-9. PMID: 16293581.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Tsai JW, Chen Y, Kriegstein A, Vallee RB. LIS1 RNA interference blocks neural stem cell division, morphogenesis, and motility at multiple stages. J Cell Biol. 2005 Sep 12; 170(6):935-45. PMID: 16144905; PMCID: PMC2171430.
    84. Kriegstein A. GABA puts the brake on stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Sep; 8(9):1132-3. PMID: 16127444.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Fishell G, Kriegstein A. Cortical development: new concepts. Neuron. 2005 May 5; 46(3):361-2. PMID: 15882631.
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    86. Kriegstein A. Constructing circuits: neurogenesis and migration in the developing neocortex. Epilepsia. 2005; 46 Suppl 7:15-21. PMID: 16201991.
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    87. Weissman TA, Riquelme PA, Ivic L, Flint AC, Kriegstein A. Calcium waves propagate through radial glial cells and modulate proliferation in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2004 Sep 2; 43(5):647-61. PMID: 15339647.
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    88. Castañeda-Castellanos DR, Kriegstein A. Controlling neuron number: does Numb do the math? Nat Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 7(8):793-4. PMID: 15280888.
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    89. Kriegstein A, Noctor SC. Patterns of neuronal migration in the embryonic cortex. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):392-9. PMID: 15219738.
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    90. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Ivic L, Kriegstein A. Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Feb; 7(2):136-44. PMID: 14703572.
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    91. Ivic L, Sands TT, Fishkin N, Nakanishi K, Kriegstein A, Strømgaard K. Terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba are antagonists of cortical glycine and GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 5; 278(49):49279-85. PMID: 14504293.
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    92. Kriegstein A, Götz M. Radial glia diversity: a matter of cell fate. Glia. 2003 Jul; 43(1):37-43. PMID: 12761864.
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    93. Kriegstein A, Parnavelas JG. Changing concepts of cortical development. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Jun; 13(6):541. PMID: 12764026.
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    94. Weissman T, Noctor SC, Clinton BK, Honig LS, Kriegstein A. Neurogenic radial glial cells in reptile, rodent and human: from mitosis to migration. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Jun; 13(6):550-9. PMID: 12764028.
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    95. Fishell G, Kriegstein A. Neurons from radial glia: the consequences of asymmetric inheritance. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003 Feb; 13(1):34-41. PMID: 12593980.
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    96. Owens DF, Kriegstein A. Developmental neurotransmitters? Neuron. 2002 Dec 19; 36(6):989-91. PMID: 12495613.
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    97. Owens DF, Kriegstein A. Is there more to GABA than synaptic inhibition? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002 Sep; 3(9):715-27. PMID: 12209120.
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    98. Benardete EA, Kriegstein A. Increased excitability and decreased sensitivity to GABA in an animal model of dysplastic cortex. Epilepsia. 2002 Sep; 43(9):970-82. PMID: 12199722.
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    99. Noctor SC, Flint AC, Weissman TA, Wong WS, Clinton BK, Kriegstein A. Dividing precursor cells of the embryonic cortical ventricular zone have morphological and molecular characteristics of radial glia. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 15; 22(8):3161-73. PMID: 11943818.
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    100. Kriegstein A, Owens DF. GABA may act as a self-limiting trophic factor at developing synapses. Sci STKE. 2001 Aug 14; 2001(95):pe1. PMID: 11752671.
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    101. Noctor SC, Flint AC, Weissman TA, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein A. Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature. 2001 Feb 8; 409(6821):714-20. PMID: 11217860.
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    102. Owens DF, Kriegstein A. Maturation of channels and receptors: consequences for excitability. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2001; 45:43-87. PMID: 11130909.
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    103. Dammerman RS, Kriegstein A. Transient actions of neurotransmitters during neocortical development. Epilepsia. 2000 Aug; 41(8):1080-1. PMID: 10961650.
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    104. Dammerman RS, Noctor SC, Kriegstein A. Extrinsic GABAergic innervation of developing neocortical layer 1 in organotypic slice co-cultures. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jul 17; 423(1):112-20. PMID: 10861540.
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    105. Dammerman RS, Flint AC, Noctor S, Kriegstein A. An excitatory GABAergic plexus in developing neocortical layer 1. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Jul; 84(1):428-34. PMID: 10899216.
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    106. Owens DF, Flint AC, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein A. Calcium dynamics of neocortical ventricular zone cells. Dev Neurosci. 2000; 22(1-2):25-33. PMID: 10657695.
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    107. Kriegstein A, Shungu DC, Millar WS, Armitage BA, Brust JC, Chillrud S, Goldman J, Lynch T. Leukoencephalopathy and raised brain lactate from heroin vapor inhalation ("chasing the dragon") Neurology. 1999 Nov 10; 53(8):1765-73. PMID: 10563626.
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    108. Flint AC, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein A. Endogenous activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in neocortical development causes neuronal calcium oscillations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 12; 96(21):12144-9. PMID: 10518590; PMCID: PMC18426.
    109. Owens DF, Liu X, Kriegstein A. Changing properties of GABA(A) receptor-mediated signaling during early neocortical development. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Aug; 82(2):570-83. PMID: 10444657.
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    110. Kriegstein A, Owens DF, Avoli M. Ontogeny of channels, transmitters and epileptogenesis. Adv Neurol. 1999; 79:145-59. PMID: 10514811.
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    111. Owens DF, Kriegstein A. Patterns of intracellular calcium fluctuation in precursor cells of the neocortical ventricular zone. J Neurosci. 1998 Jul 15; 18(14):5374-88. PMID: 9651220.
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    112. Flint AC, Liu X, Kriegstein A. Nonsynaptic glycine receptor activation during early neocortical development. Neuron. 1998 Jan; 20(1):43-53. PMID: 9459441.
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    113. Flint AC, Maisch US, Kriegstein A. Postnatal development of low [Mg2+] oscillations in neocortex. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Oct; 78(4):1990-6. PMID: 9325367.
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    114. Bittman K, Owens DF, Kriegstein A, LoTurco JJ. Cell coupling and uncoupling in the ventricular zone of developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 15; 17(18):7037-44. PMID: 9278539.
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    115. Flint AC, Maisch US, Weishaupt JH, Kriegstein A, Monyer H. NR2A subunit expression shortens NMDA receptor synaptic currents in developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 1997 Apr 1; 17(7):2469-76. PMID: 9065507.
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    116. Flint AC, Kriegstein A. Mechanisms underlying neuronal migration disorders and epilepsy. Curr Opin Neurol. 1997 Apr; 10(2):92-7. PMID: 9146989.
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    117. Kriegstein A, Armitage BA, Kim PY. Heroin inhalation and progressive spongiform leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 20; 336(8):589-90. PMID: 9036319.
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    118. Owens DF, Boyce LH, Davis MB, Kriegstein A. Excitatory GABA responses in embryonic and neonatal cortical slices demonstrated by gramicidin perforated-patch recordings and calcium imaging. J Neurosci. 1996 Oct 15; 16(20):6414-23. PMID: 8815920.
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    119. Kriegstein A. Cortical neurogenesis and its disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 1996 Apr; 9(2):113-7. PMID: 8782978.
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    120. LoTurco JJ, Owens DF, Heath MJ, Davis MB, Kriegstein A. GABA and glutamate depolarize cortical progenitor cells and inhibit DNA synthesis. Neuron. 1995 Dec; 15(6):1287-98. PMID: 8845153.
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    121. Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Properties of amino acid neurotransmitter receptors of embryonic cortical neurons when activated by exogenous and endogenous agonists. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1185-200. PMID: 1350794.
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    122. Troyer MD, Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Abnormal action-potential bursts and synchronized, GABA-mediated inhibitory potentials in an in vitro model of focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1992 Mar-Apr; 33(2):199-212. PMID: 1547749.
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    123. Blanton KJ, Kriegstein A. Norepinephrine activates potassium conductance in neurons of the turtle cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1992 Jan 20; 570(1-2):42-8. PMID: 1617428.
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    124. Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Spontaneous action potential activity and synaptic currents in the embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 1991 Dec; 11(12):3907-23. PMID: 1744697.
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    125. Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Morphological differentiation of distinct neuronal classes in embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Aug 22; 310(4):558-70. PMID: 1719040.
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    126. Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Appearance of putative amino acid neurotransmitters during differentiation of neurons in embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Aug 22; 310(4):571-92. PMID: 1682348.
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    127. Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein A. Clusters of coupled neuroblasts in embryonic neocortex. Science. 1991 Apr 26; 252(5005):563-6. PMID: 1850552.
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    128. LoTurco JJ, Blanton MG, Kriegstein A. Initial expression and endogenous activation of NMDA channels in early neocortical development. J Neurosci. 1991 Mar; 11(3):792-9. PMID: 1825846.
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    129. Wilson AM, Kriegstein A. Turtle cortical neurons survive glutamate exposures that are lethal to mammalian neurons. Brain Res. 1991 Feb 1; 540(1-2):297-301. PMID: 1675917.
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    130. Blanton MG, Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein A. Endogenous neurotransmitter activates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on differentiating neurons in embryonic cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct; 87(20):8027-30. PMID: 1978317; PMCID: PMC54885.
    131. LoTurco JJ, Mody I, Kriegstein A. Differential activation of glutamate receptors by spontaneously released transmitter in slices of neocortex. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Jul 13; 114(3):265-71. PMID: 2169598.
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    132. Blanton MG, Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein A. Whole cell recording from neurons in slices of reptilian and mammalian cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Methods. 1989 Dec; 30(3):203-10. PMID: 2607782.
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    133. Shen JM, Kriegstein A. The development of bicuculline-induced epileptiform discharges in embryonic turtle cortex. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Mar 27; 98(2):184-8. PMID: 2540463.
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    134. Shen JM, Huguenard JR, Kriegstein A. Development of GABA responsiveness in embryonic turtle cortical neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Jul 8; 89(3):335-41. PMID: 3419632.
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    135. Schlegel JR, Kriegstein A. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Nov 22; 265(4):521-9. PMID: 2828438.
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    136. Kriegstein A. Synaptic responses of cortical pyramidal neurons to light stimulation in the isolated turtle visual system. J Neurosci. 1987 Aug; 7(8):2488-92. PMID: 3612249.
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    137. Kriegstein A, Suppes T, Prince DA. Cellular and synaptic physiology and epileptogenesis of developing rat neocortical neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 1987 Aug; 431(2):161-71. PMID: 3040188.
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    138. Blanton MG, Shen JM, Kriegstein A. Evidence for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in aspiny and sparsely spiny nonpyramidal neurons of the turtle dorsal cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1987 May 8; 259(2):277-97. PMID: 2438317.
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    139. Choi DW, Maulucci-Gedde M, Kriegstein A. Glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cell culture. J Neurosci. 1987 Feb; 7(2):357-68. PMID: 2880937.
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    140. Kriegstein A, Shen JM, Eshhar N. Monoclonal antibodies to the turtle cortex reveal neuronal subsets, antigenic cross-reactivity with the mammalian neocortex, and forebrain structures sharing a pallial derivation. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Dec 15; 254(3):330-40. PMID: 2432104.
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    141. Shen JM, Kriegstein A. Turtle hippocampal cortex contains distinct cell types, burst-firing neurons, and an epileptogenic subfield. J Neurophysiol. 1986 Dec; 56(6):1626-49. PMID: 2433411.
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    142. Kriegstein A, Connors BW. Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: synaptic properties and intrinsic circuitry. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):178-91. PMID: 2868076.
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    143. Connors BW, Kriegstein A. Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: distinctive properties of pyramidal and stellate neurons. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):164-77. PMID: 3944618.
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    144. Suppes T, Kriegstein A, Prince DA. The influence of dopamine on epileptiform burst activity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 11; 326(2):273-80. PMID: 2982462.
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    145. Kriegstein A, Dichter MA. Neuron generation in dissociated cell cultures from fetal rat cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1984 Mar 12; 295(1):184-9. PMID: 6713174.
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    146. Kriegstein A, Dichter MA. Morphological classification of rat cortical neurons in cell culture. J Neurosci. 1983 Aug; 3(8):1634-47. PMID: 6875660.
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    147. Kriegstein A, Suppes T, Prince DA. Cholinergic enhancement of penicillin-induced epileptiform discharges in pyramidal neurons of the guinea pig hippocampus. Brain Res. 1983 Apr 25; 266(1):137-42. PMID: 6850341.
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    148. Kriegstein A. Neurology-important advances in clinical medicine: treatment of febrile convulsions. West J Med. 1982 Oct; 137(4):313-4. PMID: 18749216.
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    149. Kandel ER, Kriegstein A, Schacher S. Development of the central nervous system of Aplysia in terms of the differentiation of its specific identifiable cells. Neuroscience. 1980; 5(12):2033-63. PMID: 6258098.
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    150. Kriegstein A. Stages in the post-hatching development of Aplysia californica. J Exp Zool. 1977 Feb; 199(2):275-88. PMID: 557529.
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    151. Kriegstein A. Development of the nervous system of Aplysia californica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jan; 74(1):375-8. PMID: 264690; PMCID: PMC393264.
    152. Kriegstein A, Castellucci V, Kandel ER. Metamorphosis of Aplysia californica in laboratory culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Sep; 71(9):3654-8. PMID: 4530325; PMCID: PMC433834.
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