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    Kathleen Liu, MD

    Address533 Parnassus Ave, UC Hall
    San Francisco CA 94143
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoM.A.S. in Clinical Research Graduate Division (Advance Training in Clinical Research)2007
      University of California, San FranciscoM.D. Medicine1999
      University of California, San FranciscoPh.D. Graduate Division (Biochemistry)1997

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      College: Harvard University, AB
      Medical/Graduate School: University of California, San Francisco, MD, PhD


      My current research areas of interest focus on the predictive and pathogenetic role of biomarkers for both acute and chronic disease states. My long term goal is to identify and validate novel biomarkers of organ injury (specifically, the kidney and lung) that may have predictive value for disease outcomes as well as shed important insight into disease pathogenesis. In addition, I have a major interest in clinical trials in the Intensive Care Unit, with a particular focus on acute lung injury and acute kidney injury.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Federspiel CK, Liu KD. Does Changing the Volume Matter? The Relationship of Urine Volume and Dialysis Intensity. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Aug 8; 11(8):1321-3. PMID: 27449662.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Liu KD, Vijayan A, Rosner MH, Shi J, Chawla LS, Kellum JA. Clinical adjudication in acute kidney injury studies: findings from the pivotal TIMP-2*IGFBP7 biomarker study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016 Oct; 31(10):1641-6. PMID: 27342580.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Waikar SS, Sabbisetti V, Ärnlöv J, Carlsson AC, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Foster MC, Fufaa GD, Helmersson-Karlqvist J, Hsu CY, Kimmel PL, Larsson A, Liu Y, Lind L, Liu KD, Mifflin TE, Nelson RG, Risérus U, Vasan RS, Xie D, Zhang X, Bonventre JV. Relationship of proximal tubular injury to chronic kidney disease as assessed by urinary kidney injury molecule-1 in five cohort studies. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016 Sep; 31(9):1460-70. PMID: 27270293; PMCID: PMC5009290 [Available on 09/01/17].
      4. Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Manley GT, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. The acute respiratory distress syndrome following isolated severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Jun; 80(6):989-97. PMID: 26881489.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Sapru A, Liu KD, Wiemels J, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Jorgenson E, Witte JS, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Association of common genetic variation in the protein C pathway genes with clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2016; 20(1):151. PMID: 27215212.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Pérez XL, Liu KD. Critical Care Updates for the Nephrologist, 2016. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2016 May; 23(3):136-40. PMID: 27113688.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Liu KD. Changing Faces of Critical Care Nephrology. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2016 May; 23(3):134-5. PMID: 27113687.
        View in: PubMed
      8. McSparron JI, Hayes MM, Poston JT, Thomson CC, Fessler HE, Stapleton RD, Carlos WG, Hinkle L, Liu K, Shieh S, Ali A, Rogers A, Shah NG, Slack D, Patel B, Wolfe K, Schweickert WD, Bakhru RN, Shin S, Sell RE, Luks AM. ATS Core Curriculum 2016: Part II. Adult Critical Care Medicine. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 May; 13(5):731-40. PMID: 27144797.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Parks M, Liu KD. Acute kidney injury: Clinical trials in AKI: is the end in sight? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2016 May; 12(5):263-4. PMID: 27026352.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Weyker PD, Pérez XL, Liu KD. Management of Acute Kidney Injury and Acid-Base Balance in the Septic Patient. Clin Chest Med. 2016 Jun; 37(2):277-88. PMID: 27229644.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Vijayan A, Faubel S, Askenazi DJ, Cerda J, Fissell WH, Heung M, Humphreys BD, Koyner JL, Liu KD, Mour G, Nolin TD, Bihorac A. Clinical Use of the Urine Biomarker [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] for Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016 Jul; 68(1):19-28. PMID: 26948834.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Matthay MA, Liu KD. New Strategies for Effective Therapeutics in Critically Ill Patients. JAMA. 2016 Feb 23; 315(8):747-8. PMID: 26903328.
        View in: PubMed
      13. de Caestecker M, Humphreys BD, Liu KD, Fissell WH, Cerda J, Nolin TD, Askenazi D, Mour G, Harrell FE, Pullen N, Okusa MD, Faubel S. Bridging Translation by Improving Preclinical Study Design in AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Dec; 26(12):2905-16. PMID: 26538634.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Bansal N, Carpenter MA, Weiner DE, Levey AS, Pfeffer M, Kusek JW, Cai J, Hunsicker LG, Park M, Bennett M, Liu KD, Hsu CY. Urine Injury Biomarkers and Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Recipients of Prevalent Kidney Transplants: The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Jul; 27(7):2109-21. PMID: 26538631.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Ghannoum M, Calello DP, Lavergne V, Gosselin S, Liu KD, Roberts DM. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov; 43(11):e534-5. PMID: 26468727.
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      16. Foster MC, Coresh J, Bonventre JV, Sabbisetti VS, Waikar SS, Mifflin TE, Nelson RG, Grams M, Feldman HI, Vasan RS, Kimmel PL, Hsu CY, Liu KD. Urinary Biomarkers and Risk of ESRD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Nov 6; 10(11):1956-63. PMID: 26350438; PMCID: PMC4633784 [Available on 11/06/16].
      17. Leventhal TM, Liu KD. What a Nephrologist Needs to Know About Acute Liver Failure. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015 Sep; 22(5):376-81. PMID: 26311599.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Calello DP, Liu KD, Wiegand TJ, Roberts DM, Lavergne V, Gosselin S, Hoffman RS, Nolin TD, Ghannoum M. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning: Systematic Review and Recommendations From the Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup. Crit Care Med. 2015 Aug; 43(8):1716-30. PMID: 25860205.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Heung M, Faubel S, Watnick S, Cruz DN, Koyner JL, Mour G, Liu KD, Cerda J, Okusa MD, Lukaszewski M, Vijayan A. Outpatient Dialysis for Patients with AKI: A Policy Approach to Improving Care. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Oct 7; 10(10):1868-74. PMID: 26220818; PMCID: PMC4594066 [Available on 10/07/16].
      20. Cerdá J, Liu KD, Cruz DN, Jaber BL, Koyner JL, Heung M, Okusa MD, Faubel S. Promoting Kidney Function Recovery in Patients with AKI Requiring RRT. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Oct 7; 10(10):1859-67. PMID: 26138260; PMCID: PMC4594060 [Available on 10/07/16].
      21. Liu KD, Hsu CY. When change is not a good thing. Clin Chem. 2015 Jul; 61(7):897-9. PMID: 25991825.
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      22. Beitler JR, Thompson BT, Matthay MA, Talmor D, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Hayden D, Spragg RG, Malhotra A. Estimating dead-space fraction for secondary analyses of acute respiratory distress syndrome clinical trials. Crit Care Med. 2015 May; 43(5):1026-35. PMID: 25738857; PMCID: PMC4400228 [Available on 05/01/16].
      23. Shieh SC, Liu KD. Finding the key to dialysis catheter lock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 May 1; 191(9):972-4. PMID: 25932759.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Wilson J, McKenna D, Liu KD, Matthay MA. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome - authors' reply. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Apr; 3(4):e12-3. PMID: 25890655.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Kangelaris KN, Prakash A, Liu KD, Aouizerat B, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ, Rogers A, Seeley EJ, Chu J, Liu T, Osterberg-Deiss T, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Jun 1; 308(11):L1102-13. PMID: 25795726; PMCID: PMC4451399 [Available on 06/01/16].
      26. Hsu CY, Ballard S, Batlle D, Bonventre JV, Böttinger EP, Feldman HI, Klein JB, Coresh J, Eckfeldt JH, Inker LA, Kimmel PL, Kusek JW, Liu KD, Mauer M, Mifflin TE, Molitch ME, Nelsestuen GL, Rebholz CM, Rovin BH, Sabbisetti VS, Van Eyk JE, Vasan RS, Waikar SS, Whitehead KM, Nelson RG. Cross-Disciplinary Biomarkers Research: Lessons Learned by the CKD Biomarkers Consortium. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 May 7; 10(5):894-902. PMID: 25739849; PMCID: PMC4422251 [Available on 05/07/16].
      27. Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Matthay MA. Erratum to: plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):574. PMID: 25708422.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Ghannoum M, Wiegand TJ, Liu KD, Calello DP, Godin M, Lavergne V, Gosselin S, Nolin TD, Hoffman RS. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2015 May; 53(4):215-29. PMID: 25715736.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Faubel S, Franch H, Vijayan A, Barron MA, Heung M, Liu KD, Koyner JL, Conner MJ. Preparing for renal replacement therapy in patients with the Ebola virus disease. Blood Purif. 2014; 38(3-4):276-85. PMID: 25675963.
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      30. Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbot J, Matthay MA. Plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):470-8. PMID: 25643902; PMCID: PMC4500527 [Available on 03/01/16].
      31. Grissom CK, Hirshberg EL, Dickerson JB, Brown SM, Lanspa MJ, Liu KD, Schoenfeld D, Tidswell M, Hite RD, Rock P, Miller RR, Morris AH. Fluid management with a simplified conservative protocol for the acute respiratory distress syndrome*. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb; 43(2):288-95. PMID: 25599463.
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      32. Schell-Chaple HM, Puntillo KA, Matthay MA, Liu KD. Body temperature and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Crit Care. 2015 Jan; 24(1):15-23. PMID: 25554550; PMCID: PMC4464553 [Available on 01/01/16].
      33. Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Vojnik R, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Rogers AJ, Levitt J, Wiener-Kronish J, Bajwa EK, Leavitt A, McKenna D, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jan; 3(1):24-32. PMID: 25529339; PMCID: PMC4297579 [Available on 01/01/16].
      34. Fufaa GD, Weil EJ, Nelson RG, Hanson RL, Bonventre JV, Sabbisetti V, Waikar SS, Mifflin TE, Zhang X, Xie D, Hsu CY, Feldman HI, Coresh J, Vasan RS, Kimmel PL, Liu KD. Association of urinary KIM-1, L-FABP, NAG and NGAL with incident end-stage renal disease and mortality in American Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2015 Jan; 58(1):188-98. PMID: 25316431; PMCID: PMC4258130 [Available on 01/01/16].
      35. Liu KD, Yang W, Go AS, Anderson AH, Feldman HI, Fischer MJ, He J, Kallem RR, Kusek JW, Master SR, Miller ER, Rosas SE, Steigerwalt S, Tao K, Weir MR, Hsu CY. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and risk of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD: results from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Feb; 65(2):267-74. PMID: 25311702; PMCID: PMC4353671 [Available on 02/01/16].
      36. Liu KD. Therapeutic strategies for clinical trials targeting renal recovery. Nephron Clin Pract. 2014; 127(1-4):113-6. PMID: 25343832.
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      37. Liu KD, Dong N, Truwit JD. Rosuvastatin for sepsis-associated ARDS. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4; 371(10):968-9. PMID: 25184876.
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      38. Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2058-68. PMID: 24942512; PMCID: PMC4134734.
      39. Krupa A, Fol M, Rahman M, Stokes KY, Florence JM, Leskov IL, Khoretonenko MV, Matthay MA, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Tvinnereim A, Rosenfield GR, Kurdowska AK. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Sep 15; 307(6):L435-48. PMID: 25085625; PMCID: PMC4166786.
      40. Huddleston LL, Liu KD. Propofol as a panacea for acute kidney injury? Kidney Int. 2014 Aug; 86(2):240-3. PMID: 25079022.
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      41. Liu KD, Wilson JG, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan ML, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Kangelaris KN, Gotts JE, Rogers AJ, Levitt JE, Wiener-Kronish JP, Delucchi KL, Leavitt AD, McKenna DH, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2014; 4:22. PMID: 25593740; PMCID: PMC4273700.
      42. Moseson EM, Zhuo H, Chu J, Stein JC, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study. J Intensive Care. 2014; 2:40. PMID: 25960880; PMCID: PMC4424730.
      43. Orme RM, Perkins GD, McAuley DF, Liu KD, Mason AJ, Morelli A, Singer M, Ashby D, Gordon AC. An efficacy and mechanism evaluation study of Levosimendan for the Prevention of Acute oRgan Dysfunction in Sepsis (LeoPARDS): protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014; 15:199. PMID: 24894386; PMCID: PMC4061524.
      44. Asmussen S, Ito H, Traber DL, Lee JW, Cox RA, Hawkins HK, McAuley DF, McKenna DH, Traber LD, Zhuo H, Wilson J, Herndon DN, Prough DS, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Enkhbaatar P. Human mesenchymal stem cells reduce the severity of acute lung injury in a sheep model of bacterial pneumonia. Thorax. 2014 Sep; 69(9):819-25. PMID: 24891325; PMCID: PMC4284068.
      45. Truwit JD, Bernard GR, Steingrub J, Matthay MA, Liu KD, Albertson TE, Brower RG, Shanholtz C, Rock P, Douglas IS, deBoisblanc BP, Hough CL, Hite RD, Thompson BT. Rosuvastatin for sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 5; 370(23):2191-200. PMID: 24835849; PMCID: PMC4241052.
      46. Koyner JL, Cerdá J, Goldstein SL, Jaber BL, Liu KD, Shea JA, Faubel S. The daily burden of acute kidney injury: a survey of U.S. nephrologists on World Kidney Day. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Sep; 64(3):394-401. PMID: 24815216.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Wong HR, Liu KD, Kangelaris KN, Lahni P, Calfee CS. Performance of interleukin-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults. J Crit Care. 2014 Oct; 29(5):718-22. PMID: 24848949; PMCID: PMC4141017.
      48. Hsu CY, Liu KD. Cardiovascular events after AKI: a new dimension. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Mar; 25(3):425-7. PMID: 24503240; PMCID: PMC3935600.
      49. Asija R, Roth SJ, Hanley FL, Peng L, Liu K, Abbott J, Zhuo H, Matthay M. Reperfusion pulmonary edema in children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries undergoing unifocalization procedures: A pilot study examining potential pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical significance. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Oct; 148(4):1560-5. PMID: 24534681.
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      50. Kwon SH, Liu KD, Mostov KE. Intercellular transfer of GPRC5B via exosomes drives HGF-mediated outward growth. Curr Biol. 2014 Jan 20; 24(2):199-204. PMID: 24412205; PMCID: PMC3938203.
      51. Kallet RH, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. The association between physiologic dead-space fraction and mortality in subjects with ARDS enrolled in a prospective multi-center clinical trial. Respir Care. 2014 Nov; 59(11):1611-8. PMID: 24381187; PMCID: PMC4077995.
      52. Wilson JG, Butcher BW, Liu KD. Evolving practices in critical care and their influence on acute kidney injury. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2013 Dec; 19(6):523-30. PMID: 24240818.
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      53. Parikh CR, Butrymowicz I, Yu A, Chinchilli VM, Park M, Hsu CY, Reeves WB, Devarajan P, Kimmel PL, Siew ED, Liu KD. Urine stability studies for novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Apr; 63(4):567-72. PMID: 24200462; PMCID: PMC3969397.
      54. Bonventre JV, Basile D, Liu KD, McKay D, Molitoris BA, Nath KA, Nickolas TL, Okusa MD, Palevsky PM, Schnellmann R, Rys-Sikora K, Kimmel PL, Star RA. AKI: a path forward. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Sep; 8(9):1606-8. PMID: 23868899; PMCID: PMC3805072.
      55. Liu KD, Yang W, Hsu CY. The authors reply. Kidney Int. 2013 Jul; 84(1):217. PMID: 23812370.
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      56. Lameire NH, Bagga A, Cruz D, De Maeseneer J, Endre Z, Kellum JA, Liu KD, Mehta RL, Pannu N, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R. Acute kidney injury: an increasing global concern. Lancet. 2013 Jul 13; 382(9887):170-9. PMID: 23727171.
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      57. Agrawal A, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Chu JC, Imp BM, Cortez A, Abbott J, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Plasma angiopoietin-2 predicts the onset of acute lung injury in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1; 187(7):736-42. PMID: 23328529; PMCID: PMC3678110.
      58. Palevsky PM, Liu KD, Brophy PD, Chawla LS, Parikh CR, Thakar CV, Tolwani AJ, Waikar SS, Weisbord SD. KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 May; 61(5):649-72. PMID: 23499048.
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      59. Park M, Vittinghoff E, Liu KD, Shlipak MG, Hsu CY. Urine Biomarkers Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) Have Different Patterns in Heart Failure Exacerbation. Biomark Insights. 2013; 8:15-8. PMID: 23531625; PMCID: PMC3603387.
      60. Liu KD, Yang W, Anderson AH, Feldman HI, Demirjian S, Hamano T, He J, Lash J, Lustigova E, Rosas SE, Simonson MS, Tao K, Hsu CY. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels do not improve risk prediction of progressive chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2013 May; 83(5):909-14. PMID: 23344473; PMCID: PMC3642209.
      61. Liu KD. Critical care nephrology: update in critical care for the nephrologist. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013 Jan; 20(1):4-5. PMID: 23265590.
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      62. Butcher BW, Liu KD. Fluid overload in AKI: epiphenomenon or putative effect on mortality? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2012 Dec; 18(6):593-8. PMID: 23037878; PMCID: PMC3782260.
      63. Agrawal A, Zhuo H, Brady S, Levitt J, Steingrub J, Siegel MD, Soto G, Peterson MW, Chesnutt MS, Matthay MA, Liu KD. Pathogenetic and predictive value of biomarkers in patients with ALI and lower severity of illness: results from two clinical trials. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012 Oct 15; 303(8):L634-9. PMID: 22865551; PMCID: PMC3469636.
      64. Ghannoum M, Nolin TD, Goldfarb DS, Roberts DM, Mactier R, Mowry JB, Dargan PI, Maclaren R, Hoegberg LC, Laliberté M, Calello D, Kielstein JT, Anseeuw K, Winchester JF, Burdmann EA, Bunchman TE, Li Y, Juurlink DN, Lavergne V, Megarbane B, Gosselin S, Liu KD, Hoffman RS. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Oct; 7(10):1682-90. PMID: 22837270.
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      65. Lavergne V, Nolin TD, Hoffman RS, Roberts D, Gosselin S, Goldfarb DS, Kielstein JT, Mactier R, Maclaren R, Mowry JB, Bunchman TE, Juurlink D, Megarbane B, Anseeuw K, Winchester JF, Dargan PI, Liu KD, Hoegberg LC, Li Y, Calello DP, Burdmann EA, Yates C, Laliberté M, Decker BS, Mello-Da-Silva CA, Lavonas E, Ghannoum M. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup: guideline methodology. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012 Jun; 50(5):403-13. PMID: 22578059.
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      66. Molitoris BA, Okusa MD, Palevsky PM, Chawla LS, Kaufman JS, Devarajan P, Toto RM, Hsu CY, Greene TH, Faubel SG, Kellum JA, Wald R, Chertow GM, Levin A, Waikar SS, Murray PT, Parikh CR, Shaw AD, Go AS, Chinchilli VM, Liu KD, Cheung AK, Weisbord SD, Mehta RL, Stokes JB, Thompson AM, Thompson BT, Westenfelder CS, Tumlin JA, Warnock DG, Shah SV, Xie Y, Duggan EG, Kimmel PL, Star RA. Design of clinical trials in AKI: a report from an NIDDK workshop. Trials of patients with sepsis and in selected hospital settings. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 May; 7(5):856-60. PMID: 22442184.
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      67. Faubel S, Chawla LS, Chertow GM, Goldstein SL, Jaber BL, Liu KD. Ongoing clinical trials in AKI. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 May; 7(5):861-73. PMID: 22442183.
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      68. Palevsky PM, Molitoris BA, Okusa MD, Levin A, Waikar SS, Wald R, Chertow GM, Murray PT, Parikh CR, Shaw AD, Go AS, Faubel SG, Kellum JA, Chinchilli VM, Liu KD, Cheung AK, Weisbord SD, Chawla LS, Kaufman JS, Devarajan P, Toto RM, Hsu CY, Greene T, Mehta RL, Stokes JB, Thompson AM, Thompson BT, Westenfelder CS, Tumlin JA, Warnock DG, Shah SV, Xie Y, Duggan EG, Kimmel PL, Star RA. Design of clinical trials in acute kidney injury: report from an NIDDK workshop on trial methodology. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 May; 7(5):844-50. PMID: 22442182.
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      69. Okusa MD, Molitoris BA, Palevsky PM, Chinchilli VM, Liu KD, Cheung AK, Weisbord SD, Faubel S, Kellum JA, Wald R, Chertow GM, Levin A, Waikar SS, Murray PT, Parikh CR, Shaw AD, Go AS, Chawla LS, Kaufman JS, Devarajan P, Toto RM, Hsu CY, Greene TH, Mehta RL, Stokes JB, Thompson AM, Thompson BT, Westenfelder CS, Tumlin JA, Warnock DG, Shah SV, Xie Y, Duggan EG, Kimmel PL, Star RA. Design of clinical trials in acute kidney injury: a report from an NIDDK workshop--prevention trials. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 May; 7(5):851-5. PMID: 22442188.
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      70. Kangelaris KN, Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Pawlikowska L, Witte JS, Vittinghoff E, Zhuo H, Auerbach AD, Ziv E, Matthay MA. The association between a Darc gene polymorphism and clinical outcomes in African American patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2012 May; 141(5):1160-9. PMID: 22207676; PMCID: PMC3342784.
      71. Liu KD, Thompson BT, Ancukiewicz M, Steingrub JS, Douglas IS, Matthay MA, Wright P, Peterson MW, Rock P, Hyzy RC, Anzueto A, Truwit JD. Acute kidney injury in patients with acute lung injury: impact of fluid accumulation on classification of acute kidney injury and associated outcomes. Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec; 39(12):2665-71. PMID: 21785346; PMCID: PMC3220741.
      72. Matthay MA, Brower RG, Carson S, Douglas IS, Eisner M, Hite D, Holets S, Kallet RH, Liu KD, MacIntyre N, Moss M, Schoenfeld D, Steingrub J, Thompson BT. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of an aerosolized ß2-agonist for treatment of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep 1; 184(5):561-8. PMID: 21562125; PMCID: PMC3175548.
      73. Britos M, Smoot E, Liu KD, Thompson BT, Checkley W, Brower RG. The value of positive end-expiratory pressure and Fio2 criteria in the definition of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep; 39(9):2025-30. PMID: 21532473; PMCID: PMC3157575.
      74. Zhang M, Hsu R, Hsu CY, Kordesch K, Nicasio E, Cortez A, McAlpine I, Brady S, Zhuo H, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Calfee CS, Liu KD. FGF-23 and PTH levels in patients with acute kidney injury: A cross-sectional case series study. Ann Intensive Care. 2011; 1(1):21. PMID: 21906363; PMCID: PMC3224491.
      75. Cepkova M, Kapur V, Ren X, Quinn T, Zhuo H, Foster E, Matthay MA, Liu KD. Clinical significance of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute lung injury with or without right ventricular dilatation: an observational cohort study. Ann Intensive Care. 2011; 1(1):18. PMID: 21906356; PMCID: PMC3224453.
      76. Flori HR, Church G, Liu KD, Gildengorin G, Matthay MA. Positive fluid balance is associated with higher mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Res Pract. 2011; 2011:854142. PMID: 21687578; PMCID: PMC3114079.
      77. Matthay MA, Liu KD. Con: corticosteroids are not indicated for treatment of acute lung injury from H1N1 viral pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 1; 183(9):1127-8. PMID: 21531953; PMCID: PMC3114049.
      78. Grams ME, Estrella MM, Coresh J, Brower RG, Liu KD. Fluid balance, diuretic use, and mortality in acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 May; 6(5):966-73. PMID: 21393482; PMCID: PMC3087792.
      79. Sapru A, Pawlikowska L, Liu KD, Khush KK, Ann-Baxter-Lowe L, Hayden V, Menza RL, Convery M, Poon A, Landeck M, Zaroff JG, Matthay MA. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ß-adrenergic receptor genes are associated with lung allograft utilization. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011 Feb; 30(2):211-7. PMID: 20869266; PMCID: PMC3019270.
      80. Liu KD, Chertow GM. Curbing the use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury: Penny wise or pound foolish?: Comment on "Renal ultrasonography in the evaluation of acute kidney injury". Arch Intern Med. 2010 Nov 22; 170(21):1907-8. PMID: 21098349; PMCID: PMC4095784.
      81. Matthay MA, Thompson BT, Read EJ, McKenna DH, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Lee JW. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for severe acute lung injury. Chest. 2010 Oct; 138(4):965-72. PMID: 20923800; PMCID: PMC2951759.
      82. Ong T, McClintock DE, Kallet RH, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Liu KD. Ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 as a predictor of mortality in acute lung injury patients. Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep; 38(9):1845-51. PMID: 20581666; PMCID: PMC4009623.
      83. Go AS, Parikh CR, Ikizler TA, Coca S, Siew ED, Chinchilli VM, Hsu CY, Garg AX, Zappitelli M, Liu KD, Reeves WB, Ghahramani N, Devarajan P, Faulkner GB, Tan TC, Kimmel PL, Eggers P, Stokes JB. The assessment, serial evaluation, and subsequent sequelae of acute kidney injury (ASSESS-AKI) study: design and methods. BMC Nephrol. 2010; 11:22. PMID: 20799966; PMCID: PMC2944247.
      84. Liu KD. Acute kidney injury: is acute kidney injury a risk factor for long-term mortality? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010 Jul; 6(7):389-91. PMID: 20585317.
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      85. Johnson XD, Liu KD. Acute renal syndrome/renal angina: a new paradigm for studies of acute kidney injury? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May; 5(5):753-5. PMID: 20378643.
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      86. Liu KD, Glidden DV. Clinical trials for acute kidney injury: design challenges and possible solutions. Curr Drug Targets. 2009 Dec; 10(12):1190-5. PMID: 19715539.
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      87. Brown LM, Liu KD, Matthay MA. Measurement of extravascular lung water using the single indicator method in patients: research and potential clinical value. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Oct; 297(4):L547-58. PMID: 19617309; PMCID: PMC2770794.
      88. Liu KD, Altmann C, Smits G, Krawczeski CD, Edelstein CL, Devarajan P, Faubel S. Serum interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 are early biomarkers of acute kidney injury and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a case-control study. Crit Care. 2009; 13(4):R104. PMID: 19570208; PMCID: PMC2750143.
      89. Liu KD, Looney MR, Matthay MA. Inhaled activated protein C: a novel therapy for acute lung injury? Crit Care. 2009; 13(3):150. PMID: 19519935; PMCID: PMC2717421.
      90. Neyrinck AP, Liu KD, Howard JP, Matthay MA. Protective mechanisms of activated protein C in severe inflammatory disorders. Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Oct; 158(4):1034-47. PMID: 19466992; PMCID: PMC2785525.
      91. Liu KD, Lo L, Hsu CY. Some methodological issues in studying the long-term renal sequelae of acute kidney injury. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009 May; 18(3):241-5. PMID: 19318944.
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      92. Ong T, Stuart-Killion RB, Daniel BM, Presnell LB, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Liu KD. Higher pulmonary dead space may predict prolonged mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 May; 44(5):457-63. PMID: 19382217; PMCID: PMC2768264.
      93. Church GD, Matthay MA, Liu K, Milet M, Flori HR. Blood product transfusions and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009 May; 10(3):297-302. PMID: 19307809; PMCID: PMC3586190.
      94. Lo L, Liu KD, Hsu CY. Long-term outcomes after acute kidney injury: where we stand and how we can move forward. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Jun; 53(6):928-31. PMID: 19303684.
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      95. Liu KD. Critical care nephrology: Core Curriculum 2009. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 May; 53(5):898-910. PMID: 19303680; PMCID: PMC2697970.
      96. Brakeman PR, Liu KD, Shimizu K, Takai Y, Mostov KE. Nectin proteins are expressed at early stages of nephrogenesis and play a role in renal epithelial cell morphogenesis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Mar; 296(3):F564-74. PMID: 19116242; PMCID: PMC2660185.
      97. Liu KD. Impact of acute kidney injury on lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Jan; 296(1):L1-2. PMID: 18996900.
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      98. Liu KD, Levitt J, Zhuo H, Kallet RH, Brady S, Steingrub J, Tidswell M, Siegel MD, Soto G, Peterson MW, Chesnutt MS, Phillips C, Weinacker A, Thompson BT, Eisner MD, Matthay MA. Randomized clinical trial of activated protein C for the treatment of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 15; 178(6):618-23. PMID: 18565951; PMCID: PMC2542435.
      99. Liu KD, Matthay MA. Protein C as a surrogate end-point for clinical trials of sepsis. Crit Care. 2008; 12(2):139. PMID: 18492215; PMCID: PMC2447596.
      100. Liu KD, Brakeman PR. Renal repair and recovery. Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr; 36(4 Suppl):S187-92. PMID: 18382192.
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      101. Lindemann MJ, Hu Z, Benczik M, Liu KD, Gaffen SL. Differential regulation of the IL-17 receptor by gammac cytokines: inhibitory signaling by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 16; 283(20):14100-8. PMID: 18348982; PMCID: PMC2376247.
      102. Waikar SS, Liu KD, Chertow GM. Diagnosis, epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 May; 3(3):844-61. PMID: 18337550.
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      103. Liu KD, Matthay MA. Advances in critical care for the nephrologist: acute lung injury/ARDS. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Mar; 3(2):578-86. PMID: 18199848.
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      104. Liu KD, Glidden DV, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Ware LB, Wheeler A, Korpak A, Thompson BT, Chertow GM, Matthay MA. Predictive and pathogenetic value of plasma biomarkers for acute kidney injury in patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec; 35(12):2755-61. PMID: 18074478; PMCID: PMC3293249.
      105. Liu KD, Datta A, Yu W, Brakeman PR, Jou TS, Matthay MA, Mostov KE. Rac1 is required for reorientation of polarity and lumen formation through a PI 3-kinase-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Nov; 293(5):F1633-40. PMID: 17804488.
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      106. Cepkova M, Kapur V, Ren X, Quinn T, Zhuo H, Foster E, Liu KD, Matthay MA. Pulmonary dead space fraction and pulmonary artery systolic pressure as early predictors of clinical outcome in acute lung injury. Chest. 2007 Sep; 132(3):836-42. PMID: 17573490.
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      107. Waikar SS, Liu KD, Chertow GM. The incidence and prognostic significance of acute kidney injury. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007 May; 16(3):227-36. PMID: 17420666; PMCID: PMC3027554.
      108. Liu KD, Himmelfarb J, Paganini E, Ikizler TA, Soroko SH, Mehta RL, Chertow GM. Timing of initiation of dialysis in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Sep; 1(5):915-9. PMID: 17699307.
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      109. Liu KD, Matthay MA, Chertow GM. Evolving practices in critical care and potential implications for management of acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Jul; 1(4):869-73. PMID: 17699299.
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      110. Mostov K, Brakeman P, Datta A, Gassama A, Katz L, Kim M, Leroy P, Levin M, Liu K, Martin F, O'Brien LE, Verges M, Su T, Tang K, Tanimizu N, Yamaji T, Yu W. Formation of multicellular epithelial structures. Novartis Found Symp. 2005; 269:193-200; discussion 200-5, 223-30. PMID: 16355541.
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      111. Gaffen SL, Liu KD. Overview of interleukin-2 function, production and clinical applications. Cytokine. 2004 Nov 7; 28(3):109-23. PMID: 15473953.
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      112. Kallet RH, Liu K, Tang J. Management of acidosis during lung-protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respir Care Clin N Am. 2003 Dec; 9(4):437-56. PMID: 14984065.
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      113. Liu KD. Molecular mechanisms of recovery from acute renal failure. Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug; 31(8 Suppl):S572-81. PMID: 12907887.
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