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    Diane Havlir, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressSFGH Bldg 80
    Phone415-476-4082x400

       Overview 
       Overview
      The goal of my research is to develop therapeutic strategies that reduce the HIV burden on an individual and population level. Antiretroviral therapy has been one of the greatest successes in medicine, yet we are unable determine how to use it to eradicate HIV or deploy it to turn the HIV epidemic around globally. Further, antiretroviral therapy can reduce the global TB and malaria burden, but the optimal strategies have not been determined. Current areas of focus of our group include translational and intervention studies targeting the gut as a major residual reservoir for HIV in antiretroviral treated patients. Internationally, through the Makerere University - UCSF (MU-UCSF) research collaboration and the ACTG we are studying 1) optimal treatment strategies for HIV and TB, including new TB agents 2) strategies to reduce HIV and malaria burden in children and pregnant women. We are also developing approaches to treat HIV earlier in the course of disease in a sustainable manner that benefits the overall health, education and economics of communities in East Africa.


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       Global Health
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Achan J, Ruel T, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Ugandan Women Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir- or Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Oct 1; 67(2):128-35.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Marquez C, Davis JL, Katamba A, Haguma P, Ochom E, Ayakaka I, Chamie G, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Cattamanchi A. Assessing the Quality of Tuberculosis Evaluation for Children with Prolonged Cough Presenting to Routine Community Health Care Settings in Rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105935.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Conrad MD, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Polymorphisms in K13 and Falcipain-2 Associated with Artemisinin Resistance Are Not Prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum Isolated from Ugandan Children. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105690.
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      4. Conrad MD, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Polymorphisms in K13 and Falcipain-2 Associated with Artemisinin Resistance Are Not Prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum Isolated from Ugandan Children. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105690.
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      5. Bigira V, Kapisi J, Clark TD, Kinara S, Mwangwa F, Muhindo MK, Osterbauer B, Aweeka FT, Huang L, Achan J, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Protective efficacy and safety of three antimalarial regimens for the prevention of malaria in young ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2014 Aug; 11(8):e1001689.
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      6. Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS. CROI 2014: viral hepatitis and complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy. Top Antivir Med. 2014 May; 22(2):602-15.
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      7. Kakuru A, Achan J, Muhindo MK, Ikilezi G, Arinaitwe E, Mwangwa F, Ruel T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies Are Efficacious and Safe for Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1; 59(3):446-53.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Ruel TD, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Kamya M, Achan J. Virologic and Immunologic Outcomes of HIV-Infected Ugandan Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):535-41.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Luetkemeyer AF, Kendall MA, Nyirenda M, Wu X, Ive P, Benson CA, Andersen JW, Swindells S, Sanne IM, Havlir DV, Kumwenda J. Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in A5221 STRIDE: Timing, Severity, and Implications for HIV-TB Programs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 1; 65(4):423-8.
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      10. Grinsztejn B, Hosseinipour MC, Ribaudo HJ, Swindells S, Eron J, Chen YQ, Wang L, Ou SS, Anderson M, McCauley M, Gamble T, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, de Melo MG, Mayer KH, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Sanne I, Gallant J, Hoffman I, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Havlir D, Cohen MS. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; 14(4):281-90.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Jain V, Byonanebye DM, Liegler T, Kwarisiima D, Chamie G, Kabami J, Petersen ML, Balzer LB, Clark TD, Black D, Thirumurthy H, Geng EH, Charlebois ED, Amanyire G, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Changes in Population HIV RNA Levels in Mbarara, Uganda, During Scale-up of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Access. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 1; 65(3):327-32.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Kotwani P, Balzer L, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Byonanebye D, Bainomujuni B, Black D, Chamie G, Jain V, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Geng EH, Petersen ML, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Evaluating linkage to care for hypertension after community-based screening in rural Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Apr; 19(4):459-68.
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      13. Yukl SA, Sinclair E, Somsouk M, Hunt PW, Epling L, Killian M, Girling V, Li P, Havlir DV, Deeks SG, Wong JK, Hatano H. A comparison of methods for measuring rectal HIV levels suggests that HIV DNA resides in cells other than CD4+ T cells, including myeloid cells. AIDS. 2014 Jan 28; 28(3):439-42.
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      14. Moyers BS, Secemsky EA, Vittinghoff E, Wong JK, Havlir DV, Hsue PY, Tseng ZH. Effect of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Viral Load on Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Am J Cardiol. 2014 Apr 1; 113(7):1260-5.
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      15. Luetkemeyer AF, Kendall MA, Wu X, Lourenço MC, Jentsch U, Swindells S, Qasba SS, Sanchez J, Havlir DV, Grinsztejn B, Sanne IM, Firnhaber C. Evaluation of Two Line Probe Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis (TB) Drug Resistance, and Non-TB Mycobacteria in HIV-Infected Individuals with Suspected TB. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Apr; 52(4):1052-9.
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      16. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, Balzer LB, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Uptake of Community-Based HIV Testing during a Multi-Disease Health Campaign in Rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84317.
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      17. Kotwani P, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Geng EH, Jain V, Chamie G, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13(1):1151.
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      18. Deeks SG, Lewin SR, Havlir DV. The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease. Lancet. 2013 Nov 2; 382(9903):1525-33.
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      19. Vijayan T, Semitala FC, Matsiko N, Elyanu P, Namusobya J, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Geng EH. Changes in the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in HIV-Infected Patients With Tuberculosis in Uganda: A Study of the Diffusion of Evidence Into Practice in the Global Response to HIV/AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec; 57(12):1766-72.
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      20. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84.
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      21. Kim LH, Arinaitwe E, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Clark TD, Okong P, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Acceptability and feasibility of serial HIV antibody testing during pregnancy/postpartum and male partner testing in Tororo, Uganda. AIDS Care. 2014 Mar; 26(3):360-6.
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      22. Namusobya J, Semitala FC, Amanyire G, Kabami J, Chamie G, Bogere J, Jain V, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Geng EH. High retention in care among HIV-infected patients entering care with CD4 levels >350 cells/µL under routine program conditions in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov; 57(9):1343-50.
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      23. Christopoulos KA, Havlir DV. Overcoming the human immunodeficiency virus obstacle course. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 22; 173(14):1344-5.
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      24. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, Ho T, Killian M, Girling V, Epling L, Li P, Wong LK, Crouch P, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, McQuaid K, Sinclair E, Wong JK. The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence. J Infect Dis. 2013 Oct 15; 208(8):1212-20.
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      25. Ades V, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Clark TD, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D, Ruel TD. Neonatal Mortality in HIV-Exposed Infants Born to Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Dec; 59(6):441-6.
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      26. Chamie G, Wandera B, Luetkemeyer A, Bogere J, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Household ventilation and tuberculosis transmission in Kampala, Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Jun; 17(6):764-70.
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      27. Nosyk B, Audoin B, Beyrer C, Cahn P, Granich R, Havlir D, Katabira E, Lange J, Lima VD, Patterson T, Strathdee SA, Williams B, Montaner J. Examining the evidence on the causal effect of HAART on transmission of HIV using the Bradford Hill criteria. AIDS. 2013 Apr 24; 27(7):1159-65.
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      28. Luetkemeyer AF, Rosenkranz SL, Lu D, Marzan F, Ive P, Hogg E, Swindells S, Benson CA, Grinsztejn B, Sanne IM, Havlir DV, Aweeka F. Relationship between weight, efavirenz exposure, and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients on rifampin-based tuberculosis treatment in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221 STRIDE Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Aug; 57(4):586-93.
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      29. Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS. CROI 2013: Complications of HIV disease, viral hepatitis, and antiretroviral therapy. Top Antivir Med. 2013 Apr-May; 21(2):62-74.
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      30. Cohan D, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Aliba Luwedde F, Ades V, Plenty A, Kakuru A, Achan J, Clark T, Osterbauer B, Kamya M, Havlir D. WHO option B+: early experience of antiretroviral therapy sequencing after cessation of breastfeeding and risk of dermatologic toxicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 1; 62(3):e101-3.
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      31. Thirumurthy H, Chamie G, Jain V, Kabami J, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Geng E, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Improved employment and education outcomes in households of HIV-infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: evidence from a community health campaign in Uganda. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20; 27(4):627-34.
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      32. Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr; 88(4):744-6.
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      33. Jain V, Liegler T, Kabami J, Chamie G, Clark TD, Black D, Geng EH, Kwarisiima D, Wong JK, Abdel-Mohsen M, Sonawane N, Aweeka FT, Thirumurthy H, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Assessment of population-based HIV RNA levels in a rural east African setting using a fingerprick-based blood collection method. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Feb; 56(4):598-605.
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      34. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark TD, Nsanzabana C, Charlebois E, Aweeka F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29; 367(22):2110-8.
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      35. Tseng ZH, Moyers B, Secemsky EA, Havlir DV, Hsue PY. PR Interval and sudden cardiac death in patients with HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 1; 207(1):199-200.
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      36. Lawn SD, Harries AD, Meintjes G, Getahun H, Havlir DV, Wood R. Reducing deaths from tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2121-33.
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      37. Huang L, Parikh S, Rosenthal PJ, Lizak P, Marzan F, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Aweeka FT. Concomitant efavirenz reduces pharmacokinetic exposure to the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine in healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 1; 61(3):310-6.
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      38. Geng EH, Hare CB, Kahn JO, Jain V, Van Nunnery T, Christopoulos KA, Deeks SG, Gandhi M, Havlir DV. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/µL in a public health setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec; 55(12):1690-7.
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      39. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43400.
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      40. Young S, Murray K, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Osterbauer B, Achan J, Arinaitwe E, Clark T, Ades V, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kamya M, Havlir D, Cohan D. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41934.
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      41. Havlir D, Beyrer C. The beginning of the end of AIDS? N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 23; 367(8):685-7.
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      42. Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy. Top Antivir Med. 2012 Jun-Jul; 20(2):48-60.
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      43. Tseng ZH, Secemsky EA, Dowdy D, Vittinghoff E, Moyers B, Wong JK, Havlir DV, Hsue PY. Sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 May 22; 59(21):1891-6.
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      44. Jordan MR, Bennett DE, Wainberg MA, Havlir D, Hammer S, Yang C, Morris L, Peeters M, Wensing AM, Parkin N, Nachega JB, Phillips A, De Luca A, Geng E, Calmy A, Raizes E, Sandstrom P, Archibald CP, Perriëns J, McClure CM, Hong SY, McMahon JH, Dedes N, Sutherland D, Bertagnolio S. Update on World Health Organization HIV drug resistance prevention and assessment strategy: 2004-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May; 54 Suppl 4:S245-9.
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      45. Riley ED, Neilands TB, Moore K, Cohen J, Bangsberg DR, Havlir D. Social, structural and behavioral determinants of overall health status in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35207.
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      46. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1001-9.
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      47. Harries AD, Lawn SD, Getahun H, Zachariah R, Havlir DV. HIV and tuberculosis--science and implementation to turn the tide and reduce deaths. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012; 15(2):17396.
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      48. Haubrich RH, Riddler SA, Ribaudo H, Direnzo G, Klingman KL, Garren KW, Butcher DL, Rooney JF, Havlir DV, Mellors JW. Initial viral decay to assess the relative antiretroviral potency of protease inhibitor-sparing, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimens for first-line therapy of HIV infection. AIDS. 2011 Nov 28; 25(18):2269-78.
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      49. Luetkemeyer AF, Charlebois ED, Hare CB, Black D, Smith A, Havlir DV, Peters MG. Resistance patterns and response to entecavir intensification among HIV-HBV-coinfected adults with persistent HBV viremia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Nov 1; 58(3):e96-9.
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      50. Havlir DV, Kendall MA, Ive P, Kumwenda J, Swindells S, Qasba SS, Luetkemeyer AF, Hogg E, Rooney JF, Wu X, Hosseinipour MC, Lalloo U, Veloso VG, Some FF, Kumarasamy N, Padayatchi N, Santos BR, Reid S, Hakim J, Mohapi L, Mugyenyi P, Sanchez J, Lama JR, Pape JW, Sanchez A, Asmelash A, Moko E, Sawe F, Andersen J, Sanne I. Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 20; 365(16):1482-91.
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      51. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, Hare CB, Christopoulos KA, Jones D, Petersen ML, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 53(10):1008-14.
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      52. Kay J, Wanzira H, Sandison T, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Kamya M, Homsy J, Tappero JW, Havlir D, Dorsey G, Ruel T. Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 58(3):194-9.
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      53. Nanteza MW, Mayanja-Kizza H, Charlebois E, Srikantiah P, Lin R, Mupere E, Mugyenyi P, Boom WH, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Whalen CC. A randomized trial of punctuated antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan HIV-seropositive adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4? T-cell counts of = 350 cells/µL. J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 15; 204(6):884-92.
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      54. Luetkemeyer AF, Getahun H, Chamie G, Lienhardt C, Havlir DV. Tuberculosis drug development: ensuring people living with HIV are not left behind. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Nov 15; 184(10):1107-13.
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      55. Ruel TD, Zanoni BC, Ssewanyana I, Cao H, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Feeney ME. Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell percentage during childhood. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep; 53(6):592-9.
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      56. Dowdy DW, Geng EH, Christopoulos KA, Kahn JS, Hare CB, Wlodarczyk D, Havlir DV. Mortality among antiretroviral-eligible patients in an urban public clinic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Aug 1; 57(4):297-300.
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      57. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Grinsztejn B, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Mehendale S, Chariyalertsak S, Santos BR, Mayer KH, Hoffman IF, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Wang L, Makhema J, Mills LA, de Bruyn G, Sanne I, Eron J, Gallant J, Havlir D, Swindells S, Ribaudo H, Elharrar V, Burns D, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Fleming TR. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 11; 365(6):493-505.
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      58. Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS. Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy. Top Antivir Med. 2011 May-Jun; 19(2):58-68.
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      59. Yukl SA, Li P, Fujimoto K, Lampiris H, Lu CM, Hare CB, Deeks SG, Liegler T, Pandori M, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Modification of the Abbott RealTime assay for detection of HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads less than one copy per milliliter. J Virol Methods. 2011 Aug; 175(2):261-5.
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      60. Charlebois ED, Das M, Porco TC, Havlir DV. The effect of expanded antiretroviral treatment strategies on the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 15; 52(8):1046-9.
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      61. Lancioni CL, Mahan CS, Johnson DF, Walusimbi M, Chervenak KA, Nalukwago S, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Mayanja-Kizza H, Whalen CC, Boom WH. Effects of antiretroviral therapy on immune function of HIV-infected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4+ >350 cells/mm3. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 203(7):992-1001.
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      62. Ruel TD, Kamya MR, Li P, Pasutti W, Charlebois ED, Liegler T, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK, Achan J. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1; 56(1):44-50.
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      63. Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Kateera F, Akello C, Cao H, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Ssewanyana I, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):330-5.
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      64. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Gianella S, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Sinclair E, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Wong JK, Havlir DV. Effect of raltegravir-containing intensification on HIV burden and T-cell activation in multiple gut sites of HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2010 Oct 23; 24(16):2451-60.
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      65. Yukl SA, Gianella S, Sinclair E, Epling L, Li Q, Duan L, Choi AL, Girling V, Ho T, Li P, Fujimoto K, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Haase AT, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 15; 202(10):1553-61.
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      66. Chamie G, Luetkemeyer A, Walusimbi-Nanteza M, Okwera A, Whalen CC, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Charlebois ED. Significant variation in presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis across a high resolution of CD4 strata. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Oct; 14(10):1295-302.
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      67. Li P, Ruel T, Fujimoto K, Hatano H, Yukl S, Eller LA, Liegler T, Kamya M, Gassasira A, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes. J Virol Methods. 2010 Dec; 170(1-2):115-20.
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      68. Schooley RT, Spritzler J, Wang H, Lederman MM, Havlir D, Kuritzkes DR, Pollard R, Battaglia C, Robertson M, Mehrotra D, Casimiro D, Cox K, Schock B. AIDS clinical trials group 5197: a placebo-controlled trial of immunization of HIV-1-infected persons with a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 vaccine expressing the HIV-1 core protein. J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 1; 202(5):705-16.
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      69. Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. "A bird in the hand...": a commentary on the test and treat approach for HIV. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Aug 9; 170(15):1354-6.
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      70. Chamie G, Charlebois ED, Srikantiah P, Walusimbi-Nanteza M, Mugerwa RD, Mayanja H, Okwera A, Whalen CC, Havlir DV. Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologic and clinical treatment outcomes in a randomized trial of immediate versus CD4(+)-initiated antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with a high CD4(+) cell count. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 1; 51(3):359-62.
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      71. Bebell LM, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Busch MP, Dunn Williams J, Nugent CT, Bentsen C, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois ED. Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria. AIDS. 2010 Jul 31; 24(12):1945-52.
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      72. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malar J. 2010; 9:177.
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      73. Boivin MJ, Ruel TD, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Cao H, Eller LA, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Achan J, Akello C, Wong JK. HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children. AIDS. 2010 May 15; 24(8):1163-70.
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      74. Chamie G, Luetkemeyer A, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Tuberculosis as part of the natural history of HIV infection in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15; 50 Suppl 3:S245-54.
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      166. Zhang ZQ, Schuler T, Cavert W, Notermans DW, Gebhard K, Henry K, Havlir DV, Günthard HF, Wong JK, Little S, Feinberg MB, Polis MA, Schrager LK, Schacker TW, Richman DD, Corey L, Danner SA, Haase AT. Reversibility of the pathological changes in the follicular dendritic cell network with treatment of HIV-1 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Apr 27; 96(9):5169-72.
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      167. Havlir DV, Barnes PF. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 4; 340(5):367-73.
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      168. Dubé MP, Torriani FJ, See D, Havlir DV, Kemper CA, Leedom JM, Tilles JG, McCutchan JA, Sattler FR. Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 28(1):136-8.
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      169. Havlir DV, Dubé MP, McCutchan JA, Forthal DN, Kemper CA, Dunne MW, Parenti DM, Kumar PN, White AC, Witt MD, Nightingale SD, Sepkowitz KA, MacGregor RR, Cheeseman SH, Torriani FJ, Zelasky MT, Sattler FR, Bozzette SA. Prophylaxis with weekly versus daily fluconazole for fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Dec; 27(6):1369-75.
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      170. Havlir DV, Marschner IC, Hirsch MS, Collier AC, Tebas P, Bassett RL, Ioannidis JP, Holohan MK, Leavitt R, Boone G, Richman DD. Maintenance antiretroviral therapies in HIV infected patients with undetectable plasma HIV RNA after triple-drug therapy. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 343 Team. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 29; 339(18):1261-8.
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      171. Bessudo A, Rassenti L, Havlir D, Richman D, Feigal E, Kipps TJ. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Blood. 1998 Aug 15; 92(4):1317-23.
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      172. Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, Eron JJ, Gonzalez C, McMahon D, Jonas L, Meibohm A, Holder D, Schleif WA, Condra JH, Emini EA, Isaacs R, Chodakewitz JA, Richman DD. Simultaneous vs sequential initiation of therapy with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine for HIV-1 infection: 100-week follow-up. JAMA. 1998 Jul 1; 280(1):35-41.
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      173. Günthard HF, Wong JK, Ignacio CC, Havlir DV, Richman DD. Comparative performance of high-density oligonucleotide sequencing and dideoxynucleotide sequencing of HIV type 1 pol from clinical samples. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jul 1; 14(10):869-76.
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      174. Günthard HF, Wong JK, Ignacio CC, Guatelli JC, Riggs NL, Havlir DV, Richman DD. Human immunodeficiency virus replication and genotypic resistance in blood and lymph nodes after a year of potent antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 1998 Mar; 72(3):2422-8.
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      175. Havlir DV, Haubrich R, Hwang J, Dunne MW, Currier J, Forthal D, Torriani F, Richman DD, McCutchan JA. Human immunodeficiency virus replication in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia: a case control study. California Collaborative Treatment Group. J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar; 177(3):595-9.
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      176. Havlir DV, Lange JM. New antiretrovirals and new combinations. AIDS. 1998; 12 Suppl A:S165-74.
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      177. Wong JK, Hezareh M, Günthard HF, Havlir DV, Ignacio CC, Spina CA, Richman DD. Recovery of replication-competent HIV despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia. Science. 1997 Nov 14; 278(5341):1291-5.
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      178. Wong JK, Günthard HF, Havlir DV, Zhang ZQ, Haase AT, Ignacio CC, Kwok S, Emini E, Richman DD. Reduction of HIV-1 in blood and lymph nodes following potent antiretroviral therapy and the virologic correlates of treatment failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Nov 11; 94(23):12574-9.
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      179. Dubé MP, Sattler FR, Torriani FJ, See D, Havlir DV, Kemper CA, Dezfuli MG, Bozzette SA, Bartok AE, Leedom JM, Tilles JG, McCutchan JA. A randomized evaluation of ethambutol for prevention of relapse and drug resistance during treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia with clarithromycin-based combination therapy. California Collaborative Treatment Group. J Infect Dis. 1997 Nov; 176(5):1225-32.
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      180. Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, Eron JJ, Gonzalez C, McMahon D, Richman DD, Valentine FT, Jonas L, Meibohm A, Emini EA, Chodakewitz JA. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 11; 337(11):734-9.
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      181. Wong JK, Ignacio CC, Torriani F, Havlir D, Fitch NJ, Richman DD. In vivo compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus: evidence from the examination of pol sequences from autopsy tissues. J Virol. 1997 Mar; 71(3):2059-71.
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      182. Havlir DV, Richman DD. The role of viral dynamics in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and implications for antiviral therapy. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1997; 18(3):267-83.
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      183. Havlir DV, Eastman S, Gamst A, Richman DD. Nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus: kinetics of replication and estimated prevalence in untreated patients. J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):7894-9.
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      184. Havlir DV, Dubé MP, Sattler FR, Forthal DN, Kemper CA, Dunne MW, Parenti DM, Lavelle JP, White AC, Witt MD, Bozzette SA, McCutchan JA. Prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex with weekly azithromycin, daily rifabutin, or both. California Collaborative Treatment Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 8; 335(6):392-8.
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      185. Spector SA, McKinley GF, Lalezari JP, Samo T, Andruczk R, Follansbee S, Sparti PD, Havlir DV, Simpson G, Buhles W, Wong R, Stempien M. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 6; 334(23):1491-7.
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      186. Havlir DV, Richman DD. Viral dynamics of HIV: implications for drug development and therapeutic strategies. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jun 1; 124(11):984-94.
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      187. Torriani FJ, Behling CA, McCutchan JA, Haubrich RH, Havlir DV. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex: correlation between blood and tissue burden. J Infect Dis. 1996 Apr; 173(4):942-9.
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      188. Zhang H, Dornadula G, Wu Y, Havlir D, Richman DD, Pomerantz RJ. Kinetic analysis of intravirion reverse transcription in the blood plasma of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals: direct assessment of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors in vivo. J Virol. 1996 Jan; 70(1):628-34.
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      189. Katlama C, Havlir DV. Newer nucleosides: lamivudine and stavudine. AIDS. 1996; 10 Suppl A:S135-43.
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      190. Havlir D, McLaughlin MM, Richman DD. A pilot study to evaluate the development of resistance to nevirapine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with CD4 cell counts of > 500/mm3: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 208. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov; 172(5):1379-83.
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      191. Havlir D, Cheeseman SH, McLaughlin M, Murphy R, Erice A, Spector SA, Greenough TC, Sullivan JL, Hall D, Myers M, et al. High-dose nevirapine: safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1995 Mar; 171(3):537-45.
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      192. Cheeseman SH, Havlir D, McLaughlin MM, Greenough TC, Sullivan JL, Hall D, Hattox SE, Spector SA, Stein DS, Myers M, et al. Phase I/II evaluation of nevirapine alone and in combination with zidovudine for infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 1; 8(2):141-51.
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      193. Richman DD, Havlir D. Early versus delayed treatment of HIV infection. Zidovudine should be given before symptoms develop. Drugs. 1995; 49 Suppl 1:9-16; discussion 38-40.
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      194. Torriani FJ, McCutchan JA, Bozzette SA, Grafe MR, Havlir DV. Autopsy findings in AIDS patients with Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia. J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec; 170(6):1601-5.
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      195. Havlir DV. Mycobacterium avium complex: advances in therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994 Nov; 13(11):915-24.
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      196. Havlir D, Torriani F, Dubé M. Uveitis associated with rifabutin prophylaxis. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Oct 1; 121(7):510-2.
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      197. Kemper CA, Havlir D, Bartok AE, Kane C, Camp B, Lane N, Deresinski SC. Transient bacteremia due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug; 170(2):488-93.
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      198. Kemper CA, Havlir D, Haghighat D, Dubé M, Bartok AE, Sison JP, Yao Y, Yangco B, Leedom JM, Tilles JG, et al. The individual microbiologic effect of three antimycobacterial agents, clofazimine, ethambutol, and rifampin, on Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1994 Jul; 170(1):157-64.
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      199. Richman DD, Havlir D, Corbeil J, Looney D, Ignacio C, Spector SA, Sullivan J, Cheeseman S, Barringer K, Pauletti D, et al. Nevirapine resistance mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 selected during therapy. J Virol. 1994 Mar; 68(3):1660-6.
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      200. Havlir D, Kemper CA, Deresinski SC. Reproducibility of lysis-centrifugation cultures for quantification of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jul; 31(7):1794-8.
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      201. Flanigan T, Whalen C, Turner J, Soave R, Toerner J, Havlir D, Kotler D. Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts. Ann Intern Med. 1992 May 15; 116(10):840-2.
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      202. Havlir DV, van der Kuyp F, Duffy E, Marshall R, Hom D, Ellner JJ. A 19-year follow-up of tuberculin reactors. Assessment of skin test reactivity and in vitro lymphocyte responses. Chest. 1991 May; 99(5):1172-6.
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      203. Havlir DV, Wallis RS, Boom WH, Daniel TM, Chervenak K, Ellner JJ. Human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Infect Immun. 1991 Feb; 59(2):665-70.
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      204. Havlir DV, Ellner JJ, Chervenak KA, Boom WH. Selective expansion of human gamma delta T cells by monocytes infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Invest. 1991 Feb; 87(2):729-33.
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      205. Wallis RS, Alde SL, Havlir DV, Amir-Tahmasseb MH, Daniel TM, Ellner JJ. Identification of antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using human monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul; 84(1):214-9.
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      206. Havlir D, Brown L, Rousseau GK. Do not resuscitate discussions in a hospital-based home care program. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989 Jan; 37(1):52-4.
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      207. Havlir D, Tierney LM. Biochemical and clinical aspects of amyloidosis. West J Med. 1987 Jul; 147(1):65-70.
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      208. Havlir DV, Witt MD, Sande M. A 32-year-old man with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pneumococcal meningitis. West J Med. 1987 May; 146(5):618-9.
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      209. Havlir DV, Murillo S, Robles E, Trejos A, Mata L. Nutritional status of the elderly in Palmares, Costa Rica. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1983 Jun; 33(2):409-22.
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      210. Brown T, Havlir D. Typhoid fever. N Y State J Med. 1982 Dec; 82(13):1792, 1875.
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