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    Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurology
    Address35 Medical Center way
    San Fancisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-0766
      Other Positions
      TitleDirector, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program


       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Kriegstein received BA from Yale University and his MD and PhD degrees from New York University in 1977 where his thesis advisor was Dr. Eric Kandel. He subsequently completed Residency training in Neurology at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Children’s Hospital, and Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. He has held academic appointments at Stanford University, Yale University, and Columbia University. In 2004 he joined the Neurology Department at the University of California, San Francisco. He is currently the John Bowes Distinguished Professor in Stem Cell and Tissue Biology and Founding Director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. Dr. Kriegstein’s own research focuses on the way in which neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic brain produce neurons, and ways in which this information can be used for cell based therapies to treat diseases of the nervous system. His lab found that radial glial cells are neuronal stem cells in the developing brain, and also identified a second type of precursor cell produced by radial glial cells that is responsible for generating specific neuronal subtypes. He has recently begun to characterize the progenitor cells within the developing human brain, to determine the genetic profiles of specific progenitor populations, and to explore how these cells contribute to the huge expansion of neuron number that characterizes human cerebral cortex.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Ostrem BE, Lui JH, Gertz CC, Kriegstein AR. Control of outer radial glial stem cell mitosis in the human brain. Cell Rep. 2014 Aug 7; 8(3):656-64.
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      2. Southwell DG, Nicholas CR, Basbaum AI, Stryker MP, Kriegstein AR, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A. Interneurons from embryonic development to cell-based therapy. Science. 2014 Apr 11; 344(6180):1240622.
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      3. Tong CK, Chen J, Cebrián-Silla A, Mirzadeh Z, Obernier K, Guinto CD, Tecott LH, García-Verdugo JM, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A. Axonal control of the adult neural stem cell niche. Cell Stem Cell. 2014 Apr 3; 14(4):500-11.
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      4. Gertz CC, Lui JH, Lamonica BE, Wang X, Kriegstein AR. Diverse behaviors of outer radial glia in developing ferret and human cortex. J Neurosci. 2014 Feb 12; 34(7):2559-70.
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      5. Bershteyn M, Hayashi Y, Desachy G, Hsiao EC, Sami S, Tsang KM, Weiss LA, Kriegstein AR, Yamanaka S, Wynshaw-Boris A. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature. 2014 Mar 6; 507(7490):99-103.
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      6. Wu Q, Liu J, Fang A, Li R, Bai Y, Kriegstein AR, Wang X. The dynamics of neuronal migration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 800:25-36.
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      7. Hansen DV, Lui JH, Flandin P, Yoshikawa K, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A, Kriegstein AR. Non-epithelial stem cells and cortical interneuron production in the human ganglionic eminences. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 16(11):1576-87.
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      8. Bershteyn M, Kriegstein AR. Cerebral organoids in a dish: progress and prospects. Cell. 2013 Sep 26; 155(1):19-20.
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      9. Nicholas CR, Chen J, Tang Y, Southwell DG, Chalmers N, Vogt D, Arnold CM, Chen YJ, Stanley EG, Elefanty AG, Sasai Y, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Kriegstein AR. Functional maturation of hPSC-derived forebrain interneurons requires an extended timeline and mimics human neural development. Cell Stem Cell. 2013 May 2; 12(5):573-86.
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      10. Chen YJ, Vogt D, Wang Y, Visel A, Silberberg SN, Nicholas CR, Danjo T, Pollack JL, Pennacchio LA, Anderson S, Sasai Y, Baraban SC, Kriegstein AR, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL. Use of "MGE enhancers" for labeling and selection of embryonic stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors and neurons. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e61956.
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      11. Visel A, Taher L, Girgis H, May D, Golonzhka O, Hoch RV, McKinsey GL, Pattabiraman K, Silberberg SN, Blow MJ, Hansen DV, Nord AS, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Hosseini R, Phouanenavong S, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Afzal V, Kaplan T, Kriegstein AR, Rubin EM, Ovcharenko I, Pennacchio LA, Rubenstein JL. A high-resolution enhancer atlas of the developing telencephalon. Cell. 2013 Feb 14; 152(4):895-908.
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      12. LaMonica BE, Lui JH, Hansen DV, Kriegstein AR. Mitotic spindle orientation predicts outer radial glial cell generation in human neocortex. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1665.
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      13. Chen S, Chen J, Shi H, Wei M, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Bultje RS, Pei X, Kriegstein AR, Zhang M, Shi SH. Regulation of microtubule stability and organization by mammalian Par3 in specifying neuronal polarity. Dev Cell. 2013 Jan 14; 24(1):26-40.
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      14. Woodworth MB, Custo Greig L, Kriegstein AR, Macklis JD. SnapShot: cortical development. Cell. 2012 Nov 9; 151(4):918-918.e1.
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      15. Plath K, Srivastava D, Alvarez-Buylla A, Tanaka EM, Kriegstein AR. Stem cells in the land of the rising sun: ISSCR 2012. Cell Stem Cell. 2012 Nov 2; 11(5):607-14.
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      16. Bráz JM, Sharif-Naeini R, Vogt D, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Basbaum AI. Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2012 May 24; 74(4):663-75.
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      17. LaMonica BE, Lui JH, Wang X, Kriegstein AR. OSVZ progenitors in the human cortex: an updated perspective on neurodevelopmental disease. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012 Oct; 22(5):747-53.
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      18. Harwell CC, Parker PR, Gee SM, Okada A, McConnell SK, Kreitzer AC, Kriegstein AR. Sonic hedgehog expression in corticofugal projection neurons directs cortical microcircuit formation. Neuron. 2012 Mar 22; 73(6):1116-26.
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      19. Wang X, Lui JH, Kriegstein AR. Orienting fate: spatial regulation of neurogenic divisions. Neuron. 2011 Oct 20; 72(2):191-3.
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      20. Ihrie RA, Shah JK, Harwell CC, Levine JH, Guinto CD, Lezameta M, Kriegstein AR, Alvarez-Buylla A. Persistent sonic hedgehog signaling in adult brain determines neural stem cell positional identity. Neuron. 2011 Jul 28; 71(2):250-62.
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      21. Lui JH, Hansen DV, Kriegstein AR. Development and evolution of the human neocortex. Cell. 2011 Jul 8; 146(1):18-36.
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      22. Hansen DV, Rubenstein JL, Kriegstein AR. Deriving excitatory neurons of the neocortex from pluripotent stem cells. Neuron. 2011 May 26; 70(4):645-60.
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      23. Wang X, Tsai JW, LaMonica B, Kriegstein AR. A new subtype of progenitor cell in the mouse embryonic neocortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011 May; 14(5):555-61.
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      24. Rowitch DH, Kriegstein AR. Developmental genetics of vertebrate glial-cell specification. Nature. 2010 Nov 11; 468(7321):214-22.
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      25. Tsai JW, Lian WN, Kemal S, Kriegstein AR, Vallee RB. Kinesin 3 and cytoplasmic dynein mediate interkinetic nuclear migration in neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Dec; 13(12):1463-71.
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      26. Wang DD, Kriegstein AR. Blocking early GABA depolarization with bumetanide results in permanent alterations in cortical circuits and sensorimotor gating deficits. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Mar; 21(3):574-87.
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      27. Elias LA, Turmaine M, Parnavelas JG, Kriegstein AR. Connexin 43 mediates the tangential to radial migratory switch in ventrally derived cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2010 May 19; 30(20):7072-7.
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      28. Hansen DV, Lui JH, Parker PR, Kriegstein AR. Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex. Nature. 2010 Mar 25; 464(7288):554-561.
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      29. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Espinosa A, Ariza J, Parker P, Orasji S, Daadi MM, Bankiewicz K, Alvarez-Buylla A, Kriegstein AR. Embryonic MGE precursor cells grafted into adult rat striatum integrate and ameliorate motor symptoms in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Mar 5; 6(3):238-50.
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      30. Nicholas CR, Kriegstein AR. Regenerative medicine: Cell reprogramming gets direct. Nature. 2010 Feb 25; 463(7284):1031-2.
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      31. Lo B, Parham L, Cedars M, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Rao R, Roberts C, Wagner R. Research ethics. NIH guidelines for stem cell research and gamete donors. Science. 2010 Feb 19; 327(5968):962-3.
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      32. Lo B, Parham L, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cedars M, Conklin B, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Wagner R. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Jan 8; 6(1):16-20.
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      33. Bultje RS, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Jan LY, Jan YN, Kriegstein AR, Shi SH. Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2009 Jul 30; 63(2):189-202.
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      34. Javaherian A, Kriegstein A. A stem cell niche for intermediate progenitor cells of the embryonic cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2009 Jul; 19 Suppl 1:i70-7.
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      35. Kriegstein AR, Pitkänen A. Commentary: the prospect of cell-based therapy for epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Apr; 6(2):295-9.
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      36. Lo B, Parham L, Broom C, Cedars M, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Oberman M, Roberts C, Wagner R. Importing human pluripotent stem cell lines derived at another institution: tailoring review to ethical concerns. Cell Stem Cell. 2009 Feb 6; 4(2):115-23.
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      37. Wang DD, Kriegstein AR. Defining the role of GABA in cortical development. J Physiol. 2009 May 1; 587(Pt 9):1873-9.
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      38. Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A. The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009; 32:149-84.
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      39. Elias GM, Elias LA, Apostolides PF, Kriegstein AR, Nicoll RA. Differential trafficking of AMPA and NMDA receptors by SAP102 and PSD-95 underlies synapse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 30; 105(52):20953-8.
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      40. Elias LA, Potter GB, Kriegstein AR. A time and a place for nkx2-1 in interneuron specification and migration. Neuron. 2008 Sep 11; 59(5):679-82.
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      41. Wang DD, Kriegstein AR, Ben-Ari Y. GABA regulates stem cell proliferation before nervous system formation. Epilepsy Curr. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):137-9.
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      42. Milosevic A, Noctor SC, Martinez-Cerdeno V, Kriegstein AR, Goldman JE. Progenitors from the postnatal forebrain subventricular zone differentiate into cerebellar-like interneurons and cerebellar-specific astrocytes upon transplantation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Nov; 39(3):324-34.
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      43. Wang DD, Kriegstein AR. GABA regulates excitatory synapse formation in the neocortex via NMDA receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 21; 28(21):5547-58.
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      44. LoTurco JJ, Kriegstein AR. Manipulating midbrain stem cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell. 2008 May 8; 2(5):405-6.
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      45. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein AR. Distinct behaviors of neural stem and progenitor cells underlie cortical neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol. 2008 May 1; 508(1):28-44.
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      46. Elias LA, Kriegstein AR. Gap junctions: multifaceted regulators of embryonic cortical development. Trends Neurosci. 2008 May; 31(5):243-50.
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      47. Lo B, Kriegstein A, Grady D. Clinical trials in stem cell transplantation: guidelines for scientific and ethical review. Clin Trials. 2008; 5(5):517-22.
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      48. Elias LA, Wang DD, Kriegstein AR. Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature. 2007 Aug 23; 448(7156):901-7.
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      49. Walantus W, Elias L, Kriegstein A. In utero intraventricular injection and electroporation of E16 rat embryos. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):236.
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      50. Walantus W, Castaneda D, Elias L, Kriegstein A. In utero intraventricular injection and electroporation of E15 mouse embryos. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):239.
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      51. Kriegstein AR. Cortical neurogenesis: transitioning from advances in the laboratory to cell-based therapies. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):241.
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      52. Elias L, Kriegstein A. Organotypic slice culture of E18 rat brains. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):235.
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      53. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein AR. Contribution of intermediate progenitor cells to cortical histogenesis. Arch Neurol. 2007 May; 64(5):639-42.
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      54. Noctor SC, Martinez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein AR. Neural stem and progenitor cells in cortical development. Novartis Found Symp. 2007; 288:59-73; discussion 73-8, 96-8.
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      55. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Kriegstein AR. Estradiol stimulates progenitor cell division in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the embryonic neocortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 24(12):3475-88.
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      56. Kriegstein A, Noctor S, Martínez-Cerdeño V. Patterns of neural stem and progenitor cell division may underlie evolutionary cortical expansion. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Nov; 7(11):883-90.
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      57. Young-Pearse TL, Ivic L, Kriegstein AR, Cepko CL. Characterization of mice with targeted deletion of glycine receptor alpha 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug; 26(15):5728-34.
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      58. Martínez-Cerdeño V, Noctor SC, Kriegstein AR. The role of intermediate progenitor cells in the evolutionary expansion of the cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2006 Jul; 16 Suppl 1:i152-61.
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      59. Kriegstein A, Parnavelas JG. Progress in corticogenesis. Cereb Cortex. 2006 Jul; 16 Suppl 1:i1-2.
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      60. Castañeda-Castellanos DR, Flint AC, Kriegstein AR. Blind patch clamp recordings in embryonic and adult mammalian brain slices. Nat Protoc. 2006; 1(2):532-42.
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      61. Butt SJ, Fuccillo M, Nery S, Noctor S, Kriegstein A, Corbin JG, Fishell G. The temporal and spatial origins of cortical interneurons predict their physiological subtype. Neuron. 2005 Nov 23; 48(4):591-604.
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      62. Lo B, Zettler P, Cedars MI, Gates E, Kriegstein AR, Oberman M, Reijo Pera R, Wagner RM, Wuerth MT, Wolf LE, Yamamoto KR. A new era in the ethics of human embryonic stem cell research. Stem Cells. 2005 Nov-Dec; 23(10):1454-9.
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      63. Tsai JW, Chen Y, Kriegstein AR, Vallee RB. LIS1 RNA interference blocks neural stem cell division, morphogenesis, and motility at multiple stages. J Cell Biol. 2005 Sep 12; 170(6):935-45.
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      64. Kriegstein AR. GABA puts the brake on stem cells. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Sep; 8(9):1132-3.
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      65. Fishell G, Kriegstein A. Cortical development: new concepts. Neuron. 2005 May 5; 46(3):361-2.
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      66. Kriegstein AR. Constructing circuits: neurogenesis and migration in the developing neocortex. Epilepsia. 2005; 46 Suppl 7:15-21.
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      67. Weissman TA, Riquelme PA, Ivic L, Flint AC, Kriegstein AR. Calcium waves propagate through radial glial cells and modulate proliferation in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2004 Sep 2; 43(5):647-61.
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      68. Castañeda-Castellanos DR, Kriegstein AR. Controlling neuron number: does Numb do the math? Nat Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 7(8):793-4.
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      69. Kriegstein AR, Noctor SC. Patterns of neuronal migration in the embryonic cortex. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 27(7):392-9.
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      70. Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Ivic L, Kriegstein AR. Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Feb; 7(2):136-44.
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      71. Ivic L, Sands TT, Fishkin N, Nakanishi K, Kriegstein AR, Strømgaard K. Terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba are antagonists of cortical glycine and GABA(A) receptors. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 5; 278(49):49279-85.
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      72. Kriegstein AR, Götz M. Radial glia diversity: a matter of cell fate. Glia. 2003 Jul; 43(1):37-43.
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      73. Kriegstein A, Parnavelas JG. Changing concepts of cortical development. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Jun; 13(6):541.
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      74. Weissman T, Noctor SC, Clinton BK, Honig LS, Kriegstein AR. Neurogenic radial glial cells in reptile, rodent and human: from mitosis to migration. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Jun; 13(6):550-9.
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      75. Fishell G, Kriegstein AR. Neurons from radial glia: the consequences of asymmetric inheritance. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003 Feb; 13(1):34-41.
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      76. Owens DF, Kriegstein AR. Developmental neurotransmitters? Neuron. 2002 Dec 19; 36(6):989-91.
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      77. Owens DF, Kriegstein AR. Is there more to GABA than synaptic inhibition? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002 Sep; 3(9):715-27.
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      78. Benardete EA, Kriegstein AR. Increased excitability and decreased sensitivity to GABA in an animal model of dysplastic cortex. Epilepsia. 2002 Sep; 43(9):970-82.
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      79. Noctor SC, Flint AC, Weissman TA, Wong WS, Clinton BK, Kriegstein AR. Dividing precursor cells of the embryonic cortical ventricular zone have morphological and molecular characteristics of radial glia. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 15; 22(8):3161-73.
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      80. Kriegstein AR, Owens DF. GABA may act as a self-limiting trophic factor at developing synapses. Sci STKE. 2001 Aug 14; 2001(95):pe1.
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      81. Noctor SC, Flint AC, Weissman TA, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein AR. Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature. 2001 Feb 8; 409(6821):714-20.
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      82. Owens DF, Kriegstein AR. Maturation of channels and receptors: consequences for excitability. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2001; 45:43-87.
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      83. Dammerman RS, Kriegstein AR. Transient actions of neurotransmitters during neocortical development. Epilepsia. 2000 Aug; 41(8):1080-1.
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      84. Dammerman RS, Noctor SC, Kriegstein AR. Extrinsic GABAergic innervation of developing neocortical layer 1 in organotypic slice co-cultures. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jul 17; 423(1):112-20.
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      85. Dammerman RS, Flint AC, Noctor S, Kriegstein AR. An excitatory GABAergic plexus in developing neocortical layer 1. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Jul; 84(1):428-34.
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      86. Owens DF, Flint AC, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein AR. Calcium dynamics of neocortical ventricular zone cells. Dev Neurosci. 2000; 22(1-2):25-33.
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      87. Kriegstein AR, Shungu DC, Millar WS, Armitage BA, Brust JC, Chillrud S, Goldman J, Lynch T. Leukoencephalopathy and raised brain lactate from heroin vapor inhalation ("chasing the dragon") Neurology. 1999 Nov 10; 53(8):1765-73.
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      88. Flint AC, Dammerman RS, Kriegstein AR. Endogenous activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in neocortical development causes neuronal calcium oscillations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 12; 96(21):12144-9.
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      89. Owens DF, Liu X, Kriegstein AR. Changing properties of GABA(A) receptor-mediated signaling during early neocortical development. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Aug; 82(2):570-83.
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      90. Kriegstein AR, Owens DF, Avoli M. Ontogeny of channels, transmitters and epileptogenesis. Adv Neurol. 1999; 79:145-59.
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      91. Owens DF, Kriegstein AR. Patterns of intracellular calcium fluctuation in precursor cells of the neocortical ventricular zone. J Neurosci. 1998 Jul 15; 18(14):5374-88.
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      92. Flint AC, Liu X, Kriegstein AR. Nonsynaptic glycine receptor activation during early neocortical development. Neuron. 1998 Jan; 20(1):43-53.
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      93. Flint AC, Maisch US, Kriegstein AR. Postnatal development of low [Mg2+] oscillations in neocortex. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Oct; 78(4):1990-6.
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      94. Bittman K, Owens DF, Kriegstein AR, LoTurco JJ. Cell coupling and uncoupling in the ventricular zone of developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 15; 17(18):7037-44.
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      95. Flint AC, Maisch US, Weishaupt JH, Kriegstein AR, Monyer H. NR2A subunit expression shortens NMDA receptor synaptic currents in developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 1997 Apr 1; 17(7):2469-76.
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      96. Flint AC, Kriegstein AR. Mechanisms underlying neuronal migration disorders and epilepsy. Curr Opin Neurol. 1997 Apr; 10(2):92-7.
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      97. Kriegstein AR, Armitage BA, Kim PY. Heroin inhalation and progressive spongiform leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 20; 336(8):589-90.
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      98. Owens DF, Boyce LH, Davis MB, Kriegstein AR. Excitatory GABA responses in embryonic and neonatal cortical slices demonstrated by gramicidin perforated-patch recordings and calcium imaging. J Neurosci. 1996 Oct 15; 16(20):6414-23.
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      99. Kriegstein AR. Cortical neurogenesis and its disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 1996 Apr; 9(2):113-7.
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      100. LoTurco JJ, Owens DF, Heath MJ, Davis MB, Kriegstein AR. GABA and glutamate depolarize cortical progenitor cells and inhibit DNA synthesis. Neuron. 1995 Dec; 15(6):1287-98.
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      101. Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Properties of amino acid neurotransmitter receptors of embryonic cortical neurons when activated by exogenous and endogenous agonists. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1185-200.
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      102. Troyer MD, Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Abnormal action-potential bursts and synchronized, GABA-mediated inhibitory potentials in an in vitro model of focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1992 Mar-Apr; 33(2):199-212.
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      103. Blanton KJ, Kriegstein AR. Norepinephrine activates potassium conductance in neurons of the turtle cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1992 Jan 20; 570(1-2):42-8.
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      104. Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Spontaneous action potential activity and synaptic currents in the embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 1991 Dec; 11(12):3907-23.
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      105. Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Appearance of putative amino acid neurotransmitters during differentiation of neurons in embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Aug 22; 310(4):571-92.
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      106. Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Morphological differentiation of distinct neuronal classes in embryonic turtle cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Aug 22; 310(4):558-70.
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      107. Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein AR. Clusters of coupled neuroblasts in embryonic neocortex. Science. 1991 Apr 26; 252(5005):563-6.
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      108. LoTurco JJ, Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR. Initial expression and endogenous activation of NMDA channels in early neocortical development. J Neurosci. 1991 Mar; 11(3):792-9.
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      109. Wilson AM, Kriegstein AR. Turtle cortical neurons survive glutamate exposures that are lethal to mammalian neurons. Brain Res. 1991 Feb 1; 540(1-2):297-301.
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      110. Blanton MG, Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein AR. Endogenous neurotransmitter activates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on differentiating neurons in embryonic cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct; 87(20):8027-30.
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      111. LoTurco JJ, Mody I, Kriegstein AR. Differential activation of glutamate receptors by spontaneously released transmitter in slices of neocortex. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Jul 13; 114(3):265-71.
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      112. Blanton MG, Lo Turco JJ, Kriegstein AR. Whole cell recording from neurons in slices of reptilian and mammalian cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Methods. 1989 Dec; 30(3):203-10.
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      113. Shen JM, Kriegstein AR. The development of bicuculline-induced epileptiform discharges in embryonic turtle cortex. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Mar 27; 98(2):184-8.
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      114. Shen JM, Huguenard JR, Kriegstein AR. Development of GABA responsiveness in embryonic turtle cortical neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Jul 8; 89(3):335-41.
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      115. Schlegel JR, Kriegstein AR. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Nov 22; 265(4):521-9.
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      116. Kriegstein AR. Synaptic responses of cortical pyramidal neurons to light stimulation in the isolated turtle visual system. J Neurosci. 1987 Aug; 7(8):2488-92.
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      117. Kriegstein AR, Suppes T, Prince DA. Cellular and synaptic physiology and epileptogenesis of developing rat neocortical neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 1987 Aug; 431(2):161-71.
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      118. Blanton MG, Shen JM, Kriegstein AR. Evidence for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in aspiny and sparsely spiny nonpyramidal neurons of the turtle dorsal cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1987 May 8; 259(2):277-97.
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      119. Choi DW, Maulucci-Gedde M, Kriegstein AR. Glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cell culture. J Neurosci. 1987 Feb; 7(2):357-68.
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      120. Kriegstein AR, Shen JM, Eshhar N. Monoclonal antibodies to the turtle cortex reveal neuronal subsets, antigenic cross-reactivity with the mammalian neocortex, and forebrain structures sharing a pallial derivation. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Dec 15; 254(3):330-40.
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      121. Shen JM, Kriegstein AR. Turtle hippocampal cortex contains distinct cell types, burst-firing neurons, and an epileptogenic subfield. J Neurophysiol. 1986 Dec; 56(6):1626-49.
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      122. Connors BW, Kriegstein AR. Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: distinctive properties of pyramidal and stellate neurons. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):164-77.
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      123. Kriegstein AR, Connors BW. Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: synaptic properties and intrinsic circuitry. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):178-91.
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      124. Suppes T, Kriegstein AR, Prince DA. The influence of dopamine on epileptiform burst activity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 11; 326(2):273-80.
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      125. Kriegstein A, Dichter MA. Neuron generation in dissociated cell cultures from fetal rat cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1984 Mar 12; 295(1):184-9.
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      126. Kriegstein AR, Dichter MA. Morphological classification of rat cortical neurons in cell culture. J Neurosci. 1983 Aug; 3(8):1634-47.
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      127. Kriegstein AR, Suppes T, Prince DA. Cholinergic enhancement of penicillin-induced epileptiform discharges in pyramidal neurons of the guinea pig hippocampus. Brain Res. 1983 Apr 25; 266(1):137-42.
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      128. Kriegstein AR. Neurology-important advances in clinical medicine: treatment of febrile convulsions. West J Med. 1982 Oct; 137(4):313-4.
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      129. Kandel ER, Kriegstein A, Schacher S. Development of the central nervous system of Aplysia in terms of the differentiation of its specific identifiable cells. Neuroscience. 1980; 5(12):2033-63.
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      130. Kriegstein AR. Stages in the post-hatching development of Aplysia californica. J Exp Zool. 1977 Feb; 199(2):275-88.
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      131. Kriegstein AR. Development of the nervous system of Aplysia californica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jan; 74(1):375-8.
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      132. Kriegstein AR, Castellucci V, Kandel ER. Metamorphosis of Aplysia californica in laboratory culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Sep; 71(9):3654-8.
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