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Jim Wells, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Pharmacy
DepartmentPharmaceutical Chemistry
Address1700 4th St
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-514-4498
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    Other Positions
    TitleChair, Pharmaceutical Chemistry


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    1979 - 1981Damon M. Runyon-Walter Winchell Postdoctoral Fellowship
    American Cancer Society1990Pfizer Award for achievements in enzyme chemistry
    Perdue University1991Joseph Foster Award Lecturer
    Washington State University1992Alumni Achievement Award
    Temple University1994Distinguished Award Lecture
    Rockefeller University1995Stein Memorial Award Lecture
    SUNY Stony Brook1997Begelsteil Award Lecture
    1997Frontiers in Biological Sciences Lecture, Case Western Reserve
    Washington State University1997Distinguished Alumni Award
    Protein Society1998Christian B. Anfinsin Awar
    American Peptide Society1998Vincent du Vignead Award
    NAS1999Elected Member to the National Academy of Sciences
    Protein Society2003Hans Neurath Award
    Harvard Medical School2005Otto Krayer Lectureship
    Boston College2005Boston College Distinguished Lectureship in Chemistry
    Stanford University2005Cutting Award Lecture
    2005Braisted Award Lecture
    American Cancer Society, Biotech2006Perlman Lecture Award of the ACS Biotechnology Division
    Nature Biotechnology2006Shortlisted Nominee, Nature Biotechnology’s Who’s Who in Biotech, most significant contribution to b
    CABM, Rutgers University2006Paul Janssen Prize in Adv. Biotech and Medicine
    Yale University2007Fred Richards Distinguished Lecture
    Rockefeller University2008Jane Darnell Distinguished Lecture
    Johns Hopkins University2009Kossiakoff Lecture in Biophysics
    University of Chicago2009Herman S. Bloch Award, “for scientific excellence in industry”
    Thomas Jefferson University2009Weinhouse Lecture in Biochemistry
    ASBMB2010Merck Award
    American Cancer Society2011Smissman Award in Medicinal Chemistry
    University of Illinois2011Ada Doisy Lectures
    Washington University, St Louis2011Carl and Gerty Cori Lecture
    University of Wisconsin, Madison2011Green Lecture
    St Luke's, Boise ID2011Burkholder Award Lecture
    Vanderbilt University, TN2012Lubomir S. Hnilica Endowed Lecture
    University of Washington, Seattle2012Gordon Lecture
    Gladstone, San Francisco2012Keynote at Gladstone Scientific Retreat
    UCSC Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry2013Keynote Speaker
    ICSB and Kyoto University2013Keynote Speaker at ICSB Meeting
    Tsinghua University2013Keynote Speaker, Symposium of Frontier Sciences on New Drug Discovery
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences2015Elected Member of Academy

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    James "Jim" Wells focuses on understanding and modulating signaling processes in human cells through protein and small molecule design. His lab seeks activators as well as inhibitors of signaling molecules, including proteases and kinases, and uses them to study the consequences of triggering specific nodes of signaling circuits. He is especially interested in the inter-protein circuitry of pathways involved in cell death and inflammation, and the intra-protein allosteric circuitry that governs how distant functional sites in one protein communicate.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Antibody Research Technology Center
    NIH/NCI P41CA196276Sep 24, 2014 - Aug 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Affinity-directed tagging of protein binding partners in signaling
    NIH R01CA191018Jun 16, 2014 - May 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Generation of recombinant thiopeptides to target antimicrobial-resistant bacteria
    NIH R21AI111662Mar 1, 2014 - Feb 29, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Automated System for High-Throughput In Vitro Selection of Recombinant Antibodies
    NIH S10OD012037May 15, 2012 - May 14, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulating Proteolysis to Dissect Apoptosis
    NIH R01GM097316Sep 20, 2011 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Approaches to discover and quantify apoptotic biomarkers for cancer treatment
    NIH R01CA154802Feb 1, 2011 - Jan 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Start-up Funds for Junior Faculty in Chemical Biology Group at UCSF
    NIH P30GM092427Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    High-throughput SPR Instrument for Small Molecule Discovery
    NIH S10RR025448Jan 1, 2009 - Dec 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Direct Chemical Activators of Caspases
    NIH R01CA136779Dec 5, 2008 - Nov 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Global Analysis of Proteolysis in Apoptosis
    NIH R01GM081051Apr 1, 2007 - Jul 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Site-specific Allosteric Inhibitors for Inflammatory Caspases
    NIH R01AI070292Mar 15, 2007 - Feb 28, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Activators of Procaspase-7
    NIH R21NS057022Jul 20, 2006 - Jul 19, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    New Advances in Drug Discovery
    NIH R13CA098965Jan 13, 2003 - Dec 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Integrase Drug Discovery Using Tethering Technology
    NIH R43AI052630Jul 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    FRET METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING HORMONE ANTAGONISTS
    NIH R43CA083440Jul 16, 1999 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SITE-DIRECTED DRUG DISCOVERY
    NIH R44CA085141Jul 1, 1999 - Feb 28, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    METHOD FOR DRUG DISCOVERY USING FRAGMENT ASSEMBLY
    NIH R43CA085141Jul 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CANCER INFORMATION MATERIALS FOR LOW LITERACY WOMEN
    NIH R43CA062794Sep 30, 1996 - Mar 29, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    READABLE HIV PREVENTION MATERIALS FOR LOW-LITERACY WOMEN
    NIH R43HD030126Feb 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AIDS RISK REDUCTION AND CONDOM USE IN A NATIONAL SAMPLE
    NIH R01HD026265Sep 1, 1989 - Oct 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANALYSIS OF AIDS BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN A NATIONAL SAMPLE
    NIH R01MH045661Jul 1, 1989 - Jun 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Selected Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Morgan CW, Diaz JE, Zeitlin SG, Gray DC, Wells JA. Engineered cellular gene-replacement platform for selective and inducible proteolytic profiling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 7; 112(27):8344-9. PMID: 26106156; PMCID: PMC4500269 [Available on 01/07/16].
    2. Rettenmaier TJ, Sadowsky JD, Thomsen ND, Chen SC, Doak AK, Arkin MR, Wells JA. A small-molecule mimic of a peptide docking motif inhibits the protein kinase PDK1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 30; 111(52):18590-5. PMID: 25518860; PMCID: PMC4284534.
    3. Koerber JT, Hornsby MJ, Wells JA. An improved single-chain Fab platform for efficient display and recombinant expression. J Mol Biol. 2015 Jan 30; 427(2):576-86. PMID: 25481745; PMCID: PMC4297586 [Available on 01/30/16].
    4. Roberts TA, Norris FC, Carnaghan H, Savery D, Wells JA, Siow B, Scambler PJ, Pierro A, De Coppi P, Eaton S, Lythgoe MF. In amnio MRI of mouse embryos. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109143. PMID: 25330230; PMCID: PMC4198080.
    5. Ordureau A, Sarraf SA, Duda DM, Heo JM, Jedrychowski MP, Sviderskiy VO, Olszewski JL, Koerber JT, Xie T, Beausoleil SA, Wells JA, Gygi SP, Schulman BA, Harper JW. Quantitative proteomics reveal a feedforward mechanism for mitochondrial PARKIN translocation and ubiquitin chain synthesis. Mol Cell. 2014 Nov 6; 56(3):360-75. PMID: 25284222; PMCID: PMC4254048.
    6. Julien O, Kampmann M, Bassik MC, Zorn JA, Venditto VJ, Shimbo K, Agard NJ, Shimada K, Rheingold AL, Stockwell BR, Weissman JS, Wells JA. Unraveling the mechanism of cell death induced by chemical fibrils. Nat Chem Biol. 2014 Nov; 10(11):969-76. PMID: 25262416; PMCID: PMC4201873.
    7. Arkin MR, Tang Y, Wells JA. Small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions: progressing toward the reality. Chem Biol. 2014 Sep 18; 21(9):1102-14. PMID: 25237857; PMCID: PMC4179228.
    8. Wells JA, Kossiakoff AA. Cell biology. New tricks for an old dimer. Science. 2014 May 16; 344(6185):703-4. PMID: 24833381.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Wiita AP, Hsu GW, Lu CM, Esensten JH, Wells JA. Circulating proteolytic signatures of chemotherapy-induced cell death in humans discovered by N-terminal labeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 27; 111(21):7594-9. PMID: 24821784; PMCID: PMC4040605.
    10. Lodge JM, Rettenmaier TJ, Wells J, Pomerantz WC, Mapp AK. FP Tethering: a screening technique to rapidly identify compounds that disrupt protein-protein interactions. Medchemcomm. 2014 Mar 1; 5:370-375. PMID: 24795804.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ashkenazi A, Yuan J, Wells JA. Regulated cell death part A: apoptotic mechanisms. Preface. Methods Enzymol. 2014; 544:xv. PMID: 24974300.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Morgan CW, Julien O, Unger EK, Shah NM, Wells JA. Turning on caspases with genetics and small molecules. Methods Enzymol. 2014; 544:179-213. PMID: 24974291; PMCID: PMC4249682.
    13. Wiita AP, Seaman JE, Wells JA. Global analysis of cellular proteolysis by selective enzymatic labeling of protein N-termini. Methods Enzymol. 2014; 544:327-58. PMID: 24974296; PMCID: PMC4260929.
    14. Ashkenazi A, Wells JA, Yuan J. Methods in Enzymology. Regulated cell death part B--necroptotic, autophagic and other non-apoptotic mechanisms. Preface. Methods Enzymol. 2014; 545:xiii. PMID: 25065895.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ostrem JM, Peters U, Sos ML, Wells JA, Shokat KM. K-Ras(G12C) inhibitors allosterically control GTP affinity and effector interactions. Nature. 2013 Nov 28; 503(7477):548-51. PMID: 24256730; PMCID: PMC4274051.
    16. Wiita AP, Ziv E, Wiita PJ, Urisman A, Julien O, Burlingame AL, Weissman JS, Wells JA. Global cellular response to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Elife. 2013; 2:e01236. PMID: 24171104; PMCID: PMC3808542.
    17. Koerber JT, Thomsen ND, Hannigan BT, Degrado WF, Wells JA. Nature-inspired design of motif-specific antibody scaffolds. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Oct; 31(10):916-21. PMID: 23955275; PMCID: PMC3795957.
    18. Carter PJ, Hazuda D, Wells JA. Next generation therapeutics. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013 Jun; 17(3):317-9. PMID: 23683350.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Thomsen ND, Koerber JT, Wells JA. Structural snapshots reveal distinct mechanisms of procaspase-3 and -7 activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 21; 110(21):8477-82. PMID: 23650375; PMCID: PMC3666719.
    20. Wang N, Majmudar CY, Pomerantz WC, Gagnon JK, Sadowsky JD, Meagher JL, Johnson TK, Stuckey JA, Brooks CL, Wells JA, Mapp AK. Ordering a dynamic protein via a small-molecule stabilizer. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Mar 6; 135(9):3363-6. PMID: 23384013; PMCID: PMC3607081.
    21. Datta D, McClendon CL, Jacobson MP, Wells JA. Substrate and inhibitor-induced dimerization and cooperativity in caspase-1 but not caspase-3. J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 5; 288(14):9971-81. PMID: 23386603; PMCID: PMC3617296.
    22. Crawford ED, Seaman JE, Agard N, Hsu GW, Julien O, Mahrus S, Nguyen H, Shimbo K, Yoshihara HA, Zhuang M, Chalkley RJ, Wells JA. The DegraBase: a database of proteolysis in healthy and apoptotic human cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Mar; 12(3):813-24. PMID: 23264352; PMCID: PMC3591672.
    23. Zhuang M, Guan S, Wang H, Burlingame AL, Wells JA. Substrates of IAP ubiquitin ligases identified with a designed orthogonal E3 ligase, the NEDDylator. Mol Cell. 2013 Jan 24; 49(2):273-82. PMID: 23201124; PMCID: PMC3557559.
    24. Crawford ED, Seaman JE, Barber AE, David DC, Babbitt PC, Burlingame AL, Wells JA. Conservation of caspase substrates across metazoans suggests hierarchical importance of signaling pathways over specific targets and cleavage site motifs in apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2012 Dec; 19(12):2040-8. PMID: 22918439; PMCID: PMC3504717.
    25. Zorn JA, Wolan DW, Agard NJ, Wells JA. Fibrils colocalize caspase-3 with procaspase-3 to foster maturation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Sep 28; 287(40):33781-95. PMID: 22872644; PMCID: PMC3460474.
    26. Shimbo K, Hsu GW, Nguyen H, Mahrus S, Trinidad JC, Burlingame AL, Wells JA. Quantitative profiling of caspase-cleaved substrates reveals different drug-induced and cell-type patterns in apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12432-7. PMID: 22802652; PMCID: PMC3412033.
    27. Agard NJ, Mahrus S, Trinidad JC, Lynn A, Burlingame AL, Wells JA. Global kinetic analysis of proteolysis via quantitative targeted proteomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7; 109(6):1913-8. PMID: 22308409; PMCID: PMC3277568.
    28. Gao J, Wells JA. Identification of specific tethered inhibitors for caspase-5. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012 Feb; 79(2):209-15. PMID: 22014003; PMCID: PMC3271850.
    29. Zorn JA, Wille H, Wolan DW, Wells JA. Self-assembling small molecules form nanofibrils that bind procaspase-3 to promote activation. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Dec 14; 133(49):19630-3. PMID: 22066605; PMCID: PMC3253528.
    30. Tang Y, Wells JA, Arkin MR. Structural and enzymatic insights into caspase-2 protein substrate recognition and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 30; 286(39):34147-54. PMID: 21828056; PMCID: PMC3190824.
    31. Sadowsky JD, Burlingame MA, Wolan DW, McClendon CL, Jacobson MP, Wells JA. Turning a protein kinase on or off from a single allosteric site via disulfide trapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 12; 108(15):6056-61. PMID: 21430264; PMCID: PMC3076885.
    32. Crawford ED, Wells JA. Caspase substrates and cellular remodeling. Annu Rev Biochem. 2011; 80:1055-87. PMID: 21456965.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Gray DC, Mahrus S, Wells JA. Activation of specific apoptotic caspases with an engineered small-molecule-activated protease. Cell. 2010 Aug 20; 142(4):637-46. PMID: 20723762; PMCID: PMC3689538.
    34. Barkan DT, Hostetter DR, Mahrus S, Pieper U, Wells JA, Craik CS, Sali A. Prediction of protease substrates using sequence and structure features. Bioinformatics. 2010 Jul 15; 26(14):1714-22. PMID: 20505003; PMCID: PMC2894511.
    35. Zorn JA, Wells JA. Turning enzymes ON with small molecules. Nat Chem Biol. 2010 Mar; 6(3):179-188. PMID: 20154666.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Agard NJ, Maltby D, Wells JA. Inflammatory stimuli regulate caspase substrate profiles. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010 May; 9(5):880-93. PMID: 20173201; PMCID: PMC2871421.
    37. Wildes D, Wells JA. Sampling the N-terminal proteome of human blood. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 9; 107(10):4561-6. PMID: 20173099; PMCID: PMC2842036.
    38. Pérez-Payá E, Orzáez M, Mondragón L, Wolan D, Wells JA, Messeguer A, Vicent MJ. Molecules that modulate Apaf-1 activity. Med Res Rev. 2011 Jul; 31(4):649-75. PMID: 20099266.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Brunger AT, Wells JA. Warren L. DeLano 21 June 1972-3 November 2009. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009 Dec; 16(12):1202-3. PMID: 19956203.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Wolan DW, Zorn JA, Gray DC, Wells JA. Small-molecule activators of a proenzyme. Science. 2009 Nov 6; 326(5954):853-8. PMID: 19892984; PMCID: PMC2886848.
    41. Agard NJ, Wells JA. Methods for the proteomic identification of protease substrates. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 Dec; 13(5-6):503-9. PMID: 19729334; PMCID: PMC2787889.
    42. Hardy JA, Wells JA. Dissecting an allosteric switch in caspase-7 using chemical and mutational probes. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):26063-9. PMID: 19581639; PMCID: PMC2758006.
    43. Gao J, Sidhu SS, Wells JA. Two-state selection of conformation-specific antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 3; 106(9):3071-6. PMID: 19208804; PMCID: PMC2651286.
    44. Mahrus S, Trinidad JC, Barkan DT, Sali A, Burlingame AL, Wells JA. Global sequencing of proteolytic cleavage sites in apoptosis by specific labeling of protein N termini. Cell. 2008 Sep 5; 134(5):866-76. PMID: 18722006; PMCID: PMC2566540.
    45. Yoshihara HA, Mahrus S, Wells JA. Tags for labeling protein N-termini with subtiligase for proteomics. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Nov 15; 18(22):6000-3. PMID: 18762420; PMCID: PMC2590642.
    46. Datta D, Scheer JM, Romanowski MJ, Wells JA. An allosteric circuit in caspase-1. J Mol Biol. 2008 Sep 19; 381(5):1157-67. PMID: 18590738; PMCID: PMC2626611.
    47. Wells JA, McClendon CL. Reaching for high-hanging fruit in drug discovery at protein-protein interfaces. Nature. 2007 Dec 13; 450(7172):1001-9. PMID: 18075579.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Tóth G, Mukhyala K, Wells JA. Computational approach to site-directed ligand discovery. Proteins. 2007 Aug 1; 68(2):551-60. PMID: 17444517.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Danis RP, Glassman AR, Aiello LP, Antoszyk AN, Beck RW, Browning DJ, Ciardella AP, Kinyoun JL, Murtha TJ, Topping TM, Shami M, Sharuk GS, Wells JA. Diurnal variation in retinal thickening measurement by optical coherence tomography in center-involved diabetic macular edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Dec; 124(12):1701-7. PMID: 17159029; PMCID: PMC2279019.
    50. Thanos CD, DeLano WL, Wells JA. Hot-spot mimicry of a cytokine receptor by a small molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 17; 103(42):15422-7. PMID: 17032757; PMCID: PMC1592646.
    51. Matioc AA, Wells JA. Positive pressure ventilation with the laryngeal mask airway in the operating room and prehospital: a practical review. J Trauma. 2006 Jun; 60(6):1371-6. PMID: 16766989.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Scheer JM, Romanowski MJ, Wells JA. A common allosteric site and mechanism in caspases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16; 103(20):7595-600. PMID: 16682620; PMCID: PMC1458511.
    53. Scheer JM, Wells JA, Romanowski MJ. Malonate-assisted purification of human caspases. Protein Expr Purif. 2005 May; 41(1):148-53. PMID: 15802232.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Buck E, Wells JA. Disulfide trapping to localize small-molecule agonists and antagonists for a G protein-coupled receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22; 102(8):2719-24. PMID: 15710877; PMCID: PMC549436.
    55. Hardy JA, Wells JA. Searching for new allosteric sites in enzymes. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004 Dec; 14(6):706-15. PMID: 15582395.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Buck E, Bourne H, Wells JA. Site-specific disulfide capture of agonist and antagonist peptides on the C5a receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11; 280(6):4009-12. PMID: 15550394.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Hardy JA, Lam J, Nguyen JT, O'Brien T, Wells JA. Discovery of an allosteric site in the caspases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 24; 101(34):12461-6. PMID: 15314233; PMCID: PMC514654.
    58. Martin AG, Nguyen J, Wells JA, Fearnhead HO. Apo cytochrome c inhibits caspases by preventing apoptosome formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 2; 319(3):944-50. PMID: 15184073.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Stroud RM, Wells JA. Mechanistic diversity of cytokine receptor signaling across cell membranes. Sci STKE. 2004 May 4; 2004(231):re7. PMID: 15126678.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Arkin MR, Wells JA. Small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions: progressing towards the dream. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Apr; 3(4):301-17. PMID: 15060526.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Erlanson DA, Wells JA, Braisted AC. Tethering: fragment-based drug discovery. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2004; 33:199-223. PMID: 15139811.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Thanos CD, Randal M, Wells JA. Potent small-molecule binding to a dynamic hot spot on IL-2. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Dec 17; 125(50):15280-1. PMID: 14664558.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Yaucher NE, Fish JT, Smith HW, Wells JA. Propylene glycol-associated renal toxicity from lorazepam infusion. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Sep; 23(9):1094-9. PMID: 14524641.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Nguyen JT, Wells JA. Direct activation of the apoptosis machinery as a mechanism to target cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 24; 100(13):7533-8. PMID: 12808146; PMCID: PMC164621.
    65. Arkin MR, Randal M, DeLano WL, Hyde J, Luong TN, Oslob JD, Raphael DR, Taylor L, Wang J, McDowell RS, Wells JA, Braisted AC. Binding of small molecules to an adaptive protein-protein interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18; 100(4):1603-8. PMID: 12582206; PMCID: PMC149879.
    66. Wells J, Arkin M, Braisted A, DeLano W, McDowell B, Oslob J, Raimundo B, Randal M. Drug discovery at signaling interfaces. Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop. 2003; (42):19-27. PMID: 12664533.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Johnson B, Gorman NT, Hird JF, Wadsworth DE, Wells JA, Dyson SJ, Bleby J. BVA governance. Vet Rec. 2002 Aug 24; 151(8):247; author reply 247. PMID: 12219907.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Chasens ER, Umlauf MG, Pillion DJ, Wells JA. Nocturnal polyuria in type 2 diabetes: a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea. Diabetes Educ. 2002 May-Jun; 28(3):424-34. PMID: 12068651.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Matioc AA, Wells JA. The LMA-unique in a prehospital trauma patient: interaction with a semirigid cervical collar: a case report. J Trauma. 2002 Jan; 52(1):162-4. PMID: 11791069.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Wells JA, Wood KE. Acute barium poisoning treated with hemodialysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2001 Mar; 19(2):175-7. PMID: 11239275.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Gerrard JA, Sparrow AD, Wells JA. Metabolic databases - what next? Trends Biochem Sci. 2001 Feb; 26(2):137-40. PMID: 11166573.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Erlanson DA, Braisted AC, Raphael DR, Randal M, Stroud RM, Gordon EM, Wells JA. Site-directed ligand discovery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 15; 97(17):9367-72. PMID: 10944209; PMCID: PMC16870.
    73. Weiss GA, Wells JA, Sidhu SS. Mutational analysis of the major coat protein of M13 identifies residues that control protein display. Protein Sci. 2000 Apr; 9(4):647-54. PMID: 10794407; PMCID: PMC2144610.
    74. Sidhu SS, Weiss GA, Wells JA. High copy display of large proteins on phage for functional selections. J Mol Biol. 2000 Feb 18; 296(2):487-95. PMID: 10669603.
      View in: PubMed
    75. DeLano WL, Ultsch MH, de Vos AM, Wells JA. Convergent solutions to binding at a protein-protein interface. Science. 2000 Feb 18; 287(5456):1279-83. PMID: 10678837.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Sidhu SS, Lowman HB, Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Phage display for selection of novel binding peptides. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 328:333-63. PMID: 11075354.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Wells JA, Ouslander JG, Meadows E, Johnson VY. Urinary incontinence in a geriatric patient with a complex neurologic history. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1999 Sep; 26(5):270-4; discussion 274-5. PMID: 10795211.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Atwell S, Wells JA. Selection for improved subtiligases by phage display. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 17; 96(17):9497-502. PMID: 10449721; PMCID: PMC22237.
    79. Pearce KH, Cunningham BC, Fuh G, Teeri T, Wells JA. Growth hormone binding affinity for its receptor surpasses the requirements for cellular activity. Biochemistry. 1999 Jan 5; 38(1):81-9. PMID: 9890885.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Fairbrother WJ, Christinger HW, Cochran AG, Fuh G, Keenan CJ, Quan C, Shriver SK, Tom JY, Wells JA, Cunningham BC. Novel peptides selected to bind vascular endothelial growth factor target the receptor-binding site. Biochemistry. 1998 Dec 22; 37(51):17754-64. PMID: 9922141.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Arkin MR, Wells JA. Probing the importance of second sphere residues in an esterolytic antibody by phage display. J Mol Biol. 1998 Dec 11; 284(4):1083-94. PMID: 9837728.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Ballinger MD, Wells JA. Will any dimer do? Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Nov; 5(11):938-40. PMID: 9808034.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Ballinger MD, Jones JT, Lofgren JA, Fairbrother WJ, Akita RW, Sliwkowski MX, Wells JA. Selection of heregulin variants having higher affinity for the ErbB3 receptor by monovalent phage display. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 8; 273(19):11675-84. PMID: 9565588.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Jones JT, Ballinger MD, Pisacane PI, Lofgren JA, Fitzpatrick VD, Fairbrother WJ, Wells JA, Sliwkowski MX. Binding interaction of the heregulinbeta egf domain with ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors assessed by alanine scanning mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 8; 273(19):11667-74. PMID: 9565587.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Fuh G, Li B, Crowley C, Cunningham B, Wells JA. Requirements for binding and signaling of the kinase domain receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 1; 273(18):11197-204. PMID: 9556609.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Clackson T, Ultsch MH, Wells JA, de Vos AM. Structural and functional analysis of the 1:1 growth hormone:receptor complex reveals the molecular basis for receptor affinity. J Mol Biol. 1998 Apr 17; 277(5):1111-28. PMID: 9571026.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Wells JA, Karr D. Interface pressure, wound healing, and satisfaction in the evaluation of a non-powered fluid mattress. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1998 Feb; 44(2):38-42, 44-6, 48 passim. PMID: 9526420.
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    88. Ezra E, Wells JA, Gray RH, Kinsella FM, Orr GM, Grego J, Arden GB, Gregor ZJ. Incidence of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes in fellow eyes. A 5-year prospective natural history study. Ophthalmology. 1998 Feb; 105(2):353-9. PMID: 9479299.
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    89. Eckstein M, Wells JA, Aylward B, Gregor Z. Surgical removal of non-age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes. Eye (Lond). 1998; 12 ( Pt 5):775-80. PMID: 10070507.
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    90. Wiesmann C, Fuh G, Christinger HW, Eigenbrot C, Wells JA, de Vos AM. Crystal structure at 1.7 A resolution of VEGF in complex with domain 2 of the Flt-1 receptor. Cell. 1997 Nov 28; 91(5):695-704. PMID: 9393862.
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    91. Atwell S, Ultsch M, De Vos AM, Wells JA. Structural plasticity in a remodeled protein-protein interface. Science. 1997 Nov 7; 278(5340):1125-8. PMID: 9353194.
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    92. Baca M, Scanlan TS, Stephenson RC, Wells JA. Phage display of a catalytic antibody to optimize affinity for transition-state analog binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16; 94(19):10063-8. PMID: 9294163; PMCID: PMC23305.
    93. Starovasnik MA, Braisted AC, Wells JA. Structural mimicry of a native protein by a minimized binding domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16; 94(19):10080-5. PMID: 9294166; PMCID: PMC23311.
    94. Scheidig AJ, Hynes TR, Pelletier LA, Wells JA, Kossiakoff AA. Crystal structures of bovine chymotrypsin and trypsin complexed to the inhibitor domain of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI): engineering of inhibitors with altered specificities. Protein Sci. 1997 Sep; 6(9):1806-24. PMID: 9300481; PMCID: PMC2143802.
    95. Pearce KH, Potts BJ, Presta LG, Bald LN, Fendly BM, Wells JA. Mutational analysis of thrombopoietin for identification of receptor and neutralizing antibody sites. J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 15; 272(33):20595-602. PMID: 9252374.
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    96. Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Minimized proteins. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1997 Aug; 7(4):457-62. PMID: 9266165.
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    97. Kroodsma DE, Houlihan PW, Fallon PA, Wells J. Song development by grey catbirds Anim Behav. 1997 Aug; 54(2):457-64. PMID: 9268478.
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    98. Muller YA, Li B, Christinger HW, Wells JA, Cunningham BC, de Vos AM. Vascular endothelial growth factor: crystal structure and functional mapping of the kinase domain receptor binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 8; 94(14):7192-7. PMID: 9207067; PMCID: PMC23789.
    99. Atwell S, Ridgway JB, Wells JA, Carter P. Stable heterodimers from remodeling the domain interface of a homodimer using a phage display library. J Mol Biol. 1997 Jul 4; 270(1):26-35. PMID: 9231898.
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    100. Baca M, Presta LG, O'Connor SJ, Wells JA. Antibody humanization using monovalent phage display. J Biol Chem. 1997 Apr 18; 272(16):10678-84. PMID: 9099717.
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    101. Braisted AC, Judice JK, Wells JA. Synthesis of proteins by subtiligase. Methods Enzymol. 1997; 289:298-313. PMID: 9353727.
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    102. Ballinger MD, Tom J, Wells JA. Furilisin: a variant of subtilisin BPN' engineered for cleaving tribasic substrates. Biochemistry. 1996 Oct 22; 35(42):13579-85. PMID: 8885837.
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    103. Clark R, Olson K, Fuh G, Marian M, Mortensen D, Teshima G, Chang S, Chu H, Mukku V, Canova-Davis E, Somers T, Cronin M, Winkler M, Wells JA. Long-acting growth hormones produced by conjugation with polyethylene glycol. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 6; 271(36):21969-77. PMID: 8703002.
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    104. Pearce KH, Ultsch MH, Kelley RF, de Vos AM, Wells JA. Structural and mutational analysis of affinity-inert contact residues at the growth hormone-receptor interface. Biochemistry. 1996 Aug 13; 35(32):10300-7. PMID: 8756685.
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    105. Wells JA. Hormone mimicry. Science. 1996 Jul 26; 273(5274):449-50. PMID: 8677438.
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    106. Braisted AC, Wells JA. Minimizing a binding domain from protein A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 11; 93(12):5688-92. PMID: 8650153; PMCID: PMC39121.
    107. Wells JA, Murthy R, Chibber R, Nunn A, Molinatti PA, Kohner EM, Gregor ZJ. Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are elevated in the vitreous of patients with subretinal neovascularisation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr; 80(4):363-6. PMID: 8703891; PMCID: PMC505466.
    108. Wells JA. Binding in the growth hormone receptor complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jan 9; 93(1):1-6. PMID: 8552582; PMCID: PMC40168.
    109. Wells JA, Gregor ZJ. Surgical treatment of full-thickness macular holes using autologous serum. Eye (Lond). 1996; 10 ( Pt 5):593-9. PMID: 8977788.
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    110. Wells JA, de Vos AM. Hematopoietic receptor complexes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1996; 65:609-34. PMID: 8811191.
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    111. Li B, Tom JY, Oare D, Yen R, Fairbrother WJ, Wells JA, Cunningham BC. Minimization of a polypeptide hormone. Science. 1995 Dec 8; 270(5242):1657-60. PMID: 7502074.
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    112. Goddard AD, Covello R, Luoh SM, Clackson T, Attie KM, Gesundheit N, Rundle AC, Wells JA, Carlsson LM. Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. The Growth Hormone Insensitivity Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Oct 26; 333(17):1093-8. PMID: 7565946.
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    113. Ballinger MD, Tom J, Wells JA. Designing subtilisin BPN' to cleave substrates containing dibasic residues. Biochemistry. 1995 Oct 17; 34(41):13312-9. PMID: 7577915.
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    114. Wells JA. Structural and functional epitopes in the growth hormone receptor complex. Biotechnology (N Y). 1995 Jul; 13(7):647-51. PMID: 9634801.
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    115. Fuh G, Wells JA. Prolactin receptor antagonists that inhibit the growth of breast cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 2; 270(22):13133-7. PMID: 7768908.
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    116. Sell RL, Wells JA, Wypij D. The prevalence of homosexual behavior and attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: results of national population-based samples. Arch Sex Behav. 1995 Jun; 24(3):235-48. PMID: 7611844.
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    117. Clackson T, Wells JA. A hot spot of binding energy in a hormone-receptor interface. Science. 1995 Jan 20; 267(5196):383-6. PMID: 7529940.
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    118. Chang TK, Jackson DY, Burnier JP, Wells JA. Subtiligase: a tool for semisynthesis of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20; 91(26):12544-8. PMID: 7809074; PMCID: PMC45475.
    119. Jin L, Wells JA. Dissecting the energetics of an antibody-antigen interface by alanine shaving and molecular grafting. Protein Sci. 1994 Dec; 3(12):2351-7. PMID: 7538848; PMCID: PMC2142782.
    120. Wells JA. Readability of HIV/AIDS educational materials: the role of the medium of communication, target audience, and producer characteristics. Patient Educ Couns. 1994 Dec; 24(3):249-59. PMID: 7753718.
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    121. Wroblewski JJ, Wells JA, Eckstein A, Fitzke FW, Jubb C, Keen TJ, Inglehearn CF, Bhattacharya SS, Arden GB, Jay MR. Ocular findings associated with a 3 base pair deletion in the peripherin-RDS gene in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994 Nov; 78(11):831-6. PMID: 7848979; PMCID: PMC504967.
    122. Jackson DY, Burnier J, Quan C, Stanley M, Tom J, Wells JA. A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues. Science. 1994 Oct 14; 266(5183):243-7. PMID: 7939659.
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    123. Matthews DJ, Wells JA. Engineering an interfacial zinc site to increase hormone-receptor affinity. Chem Biol. 1994 Sep; 1(1):25-30. PMID: 9383367.
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    124. Holz FG, Wolfensberger TJ, Piguet B, Gross-Jendroska M, Wells JA, Minassian DC, Chisholm IH, Bird AC. Bilateral macular drusen in age-related macular degeneration. Prognosis and risk factors. Ophthalmology. 1994 Sep; 101(9):1522-8. PMID: 8090455.
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    125. Matthews DJ, Goodman LJ, Gorman CM, Wells JA. A survey of furin substrate specificity using substrate phage display. Protein Sci. 1994 Aug; 3(8):1197-205. PMID: 7987214; PMCID: PMC2142928.
    126. Wells JA, Doughty DB. Pouching principles and products. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1994 Jul-Aug; 40(6):50-8, 60-3. PMID: 7880372.
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    127. Ilondo MM, Damholt AB, Cunningham BA, Wells JA, De Meyts P, Shymko RM. Receptor dimerization determines the effects of growth hormone in primary rat adipocytes and cultured human IM-9 lymphocytes. Endocrinology. 1994 Jun; 134(6):2397-403. PMID: 8194466.
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    128. Cunningham BC, Lowe DG, Li B, Bennett BD, Wells JA. Production of an atrial natriuretic peptide variant that is specific for type A receptor. EMBO J. 1994 Jun 1; 13(11):2508-15. PMID: 8013451; PMCID: PMC395124.
    129. Jamieson AC, Kim SH, Wells JA. In vitro selection of zinc fingers with altered DNA-binding specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 May 17; 33(19):5689-95. PMID: 8180194.
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    130. Wells JA, Fairbrother WJ, Otlewski J, Laskowski M, Burnier J. A reinvestigation of a synthetic peptide (TrPepz) designed to mimic trypsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 May 10; 91(10):4110-4. PMID: 8183880; PMCID: PMC43734.
    131. Clackson T, Wells JA. In vitro selection from protein and peptide libraries. Trends Biotechnol. 1994 May; 12(5):173-84. PMID: 7764900.
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    132. Baumann G, Lowman HB, Mercado M, Wells JA. The stoichiometry of growth hormone-binding protein complexes in human plasma: comparison with cell surface receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 May; 78(5):1113-8. PMID: 8175967.
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    133. Whittemore R, Wells JA, Castellsague X. A second-generation study of 427 probands with congenital heart defects and their 837 children. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994 May; 23(6):1459-67. PMID: 8176107.
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    134. Wells JA, Ruscavage D, Parker B, McArthur L. Literacy of women attending family planning clinics in Virginia and reading levels of brochures on HIV prevention. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994 May-Jun; 26(3):113-5, 131. PMID: 8070547.
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    135. Wells JA, Ellerine NP, Fernhoff PM, Waring GO. Corneal opacities in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. Cornea. 1994 May; 13(3):280-3. PMID: 8033583.
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    136. Wells JA. Structural and functional basis for hormone binding and receptor oligomerization. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994 Apr; 6(2):163-73. PMID: 8024806.
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    137. Jin L, Cohen FE, Wells JA. Structure from function: screening structural models with functional data. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jan 4; 91(1):113-7. PMID: 7506411; PMCID: PMC42896.
    138. Wroblewski JJ, Wells JA, Eckstein A, Fitzke F, Jubb C, Keen TJ, Inglehearn C, Bhattacharya S, Arden GB, Jay M. Macular dystrophy associated with mutations at codon 172 in the human retinal degeneration slow gene. Ophthalmology. 1994 Jan; 101(1):12-22. PMID: 8302543.
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    139. Lowman HB, Wells JA. Affinity maturation of human growth hormone by monovalent phage display. J Mol Biol. 1993 Dec 5; 234(3):564-78. PMID: 8254660.
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    140. Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Comparison of a structural and a functional epitope. J Mol Biol. 1993 Dec 5; 234(3):554-63. PMID: 7504735.
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    141. Feldman M, Ruan W, Cunningham BC, Wells JA, Kleinberg DL. Evidence that the growth hormone receptor mediates differentiation and development of the mammary gland. Endocrinology. 1993 Oct; 133(4):1602-8. PMID: 8404600.
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    142. Piguet B, Wells JA, Palmvang IB, Wormald R, Chisholm IH, Bird AC. Age-related Bruch's membrane change: a clinical study of the relative role of heredity and environment. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993 Jul; 77(7):400-3. PMID: 8343465; PMCID: PMC504547.
    143. Matthews DJ, Wells JA. Substrate phage: selection of protease substrates by monovalent phage display. Science. 1993 May 21; 260(5111):1113-7. PMID: 8493554.
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    144. Fuh G, Colosi P, Wood WI, Wells JA. Mechanism-based design of prolactin receptor antagonists. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15; 268(8):5376-81. PMID: 8449901.
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    145. Wells JA, Cunningham BC, Fuh G, Lowman HB, Bass SH, Mulkerrin MG, Ultsch M, deVos AM. The molecular basis for growth hormone-receptor interactions. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1993; 48:253-75. PMID: 8441850.
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    146. Wells JA, de Vos AM. Structure and function of human growth hormone: implications for the hematopoietins. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 1993; 22:329-51. PMID: 7688610.
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    147. Retchin SM, Wells J, Valleron AJ, Albrecht GL. Health behavior changes in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. J Gen Intern Med. 1992 Nov-Dec; 7(6):615-22. PMID: 1453245.
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    148. Weber JR, Nelson C, Cunningham BC, Wells JA, Fong S. Immunodominant structures of human growth hormone identified by homolog-scanning mutagenesis. Mol Immunol. 1992 Sep; 29(9):1081-8. PMID: 1495498.
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    149. Braxton S, Wells JA. Incorporation of a stabilizing Ca(2+)-binding loop into subtilisin BPN'. Biochemistry. 1992 Sep 1; 31(34):7796-801. PMID: 1510966.
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    150. Jin L, Fendly BM, Wells JA. High resolution functional analysis of antibody-antigen interactions. J Mol Biol. 1992 Aug 5; 226(3):851-65. PMID: 1380563.
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    151. Wells JA, Lowman HB. Rapid evolution of peptide and protein binding properties in vitro. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1992 Aug; 3(4):355-62. PMID: 1368436.
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    152. Kern M, Dolan PL, Mazzeo RS, Wells J, Dohm GL. Effect of aging and exercise on GLUT-4 glucose transporters in muscle. Am J Physiol. 1992 Aug; 263(2 Pt 1):E362-7. PMID: 1514619.
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    153. Laurier D, Guiguet M, Chau NP, Wells J, Valleron AJ. Prevalence of obesity: a comparative survey in France, the United Kingdom and the United States. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992 Aug; 16(8):565-72. PMID: 1326486.
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    154. Fuh G, Cunningham BC, Fukunaga R, Nagata S, Goeddel DV, Wells JA. Rational design of potent antagonists to the human growth hormone receptor. Science. 1992 Jun 19; 256(5064):1677-80. PMID: 1535167.
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    155. Fu YK, Arkins S, Fuh G, Cunningham BC, Wells JA, Fong S, Cronin MJ, Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor. J Clin Invest. 1992 Feb; 89(2):451-7. PMID: 1310696; PMCID: PMC442872.
    156. Laurier D, Guiguet M, Chau NP, Wells J, Valleron AJ. [Prevalence of obesity in France]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1992; 40(5):365-7. PMID: 1480813.
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    157. Bechara SJ, Grossniklaus HE, Waring GO, Wells J. Keratoconus associated with posterior polymorphous dystrophy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991 Dec 15; 112(6):729-31. PMID: 1957913.
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    158. Lowman HB, Bass SH, Simpson N, Wells JA. Selecting high-affinity binding proteins by monovalent phage display. Biochemistry. 1991 Nov 12; 30(45):10832-8. PMID: 1932005.
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    159. Cunningham BC, Ultsch M, De Vos AM, Mulkerrin MG, Clauser KR, Wells JA. Dimerization of the extracellular domain of the human growth hormone receptor by a single hormone molecule. Science. 1991 Nov 8; 254(5033):821-5. PMID: 1948064.
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    160. Cunningham BC, Mulkerrin MG, Wells JA. Dimerization of human growth hormone by zinc. Science. 1991 Aug 2; 253(5019):545-8. PMID: 1907025.
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    161. Guiguet M, Cohen M, Flahault A, Wells J, Valleron AJ. French intravenous drug users: knowledge and sexual behavior change. Eur J Epidemiol. 1991 Jul; 7(4):423-6. PMID: 1915793.
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    162. Braxton S, Wells JA. The importance of a distal hydrogen bonding group in stabilizing the transition state in subtilisin BPN'. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 25; 266(18):11797-800. PMID: 1904870.
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    163. Carter P, Abrahmsén L, Wells JA. Probing the mechanism and improving the rate of substrate-assisted catalysis in subtilisin BPN'. Biochemistry. 1991 Jun 25; 30(25):6142-8. PMID: 2059622.
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    164. Lowman HB, Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Mutational analysis and protein engineering of receptor-binding determinants in human placental lactogen. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15; 266(17):10982-8. PMID: 2040614.
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    165. Bass SH, Mulkerrin MG, Wells JA. A systematic mutational analysis of hormone-binding determinants in the human growth hormone receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15; 88(10):4498-502. PMID: 2034689; PMCID: PMC51688.
    166. Abrahmsén L, Tom J, Burnier J, Butcher KA, Kossiakoff A, Wells J. Engineering subtilisin and its substrates for efficient ligation of peptide bonds in aqueous solution. Biochemistry. 1991 Apr 30; 30(17):4151-9. PMID: 2021606.
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    167. Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Rational design of receptor-specific variants of human growth hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 15; 88(8):3407-11. PMID: 2014261; PMCID: PMC51456.
    168. Wells J. Systematic mutational analyses of protein-protein interfaces. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 202:390-411. PMID: 1723781.
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    169. Cunningham BC, Bass S, Fuh G, Wells JA. Zinc mediation of the binding of human growth hormone to the human prolactin receptor. Science. 1990 Dec 21; 250(4988):1709-12. PMID: 2270485.
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    170. Wells J. Additivity of mutational effects in proteins. Biochemistry. 1990 Sep 18; 29(37):8509-17. PMID: 2271534.
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    171. Kern M, Wells J, Stephens JM, Elton CW, Friedman JE, Tapscott EB, Pekala PH, Dohm GL. Insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is determined by glucose transporter (Glut4) protein level. Biochem J. 1990 Sep 1; 270(2):397-400. PMID: 2205203; PMCID: PMC1131735.
    172. Casla A, Rovira A, Wells J, Dohm GL. Increased glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein expression in hyperthyroidism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Aug 31; 171(1):182-8. PMID: 2203344.
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    173. Ellerby LM, Escobar WA, Fink AL, Mitchinson C, Wells JA. The role of lysine-234 in beta-lactamase catalysis probed by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 1990 Jun 19; 29(24):5797-806. PMID: 1974463.
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    174. Cunningham BC, Henner DJ, Wells JA. Engineering human prolactin to bind to the human growth hormone receptor. Science. 1990 Mar 23; 247(4949 Pt 1):1461-5. PMID: 2321008.
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    175. Fuh G, Mulkerrin MG, Bass S, McFarland N, Brochier M, Bourell JH, Light DR, Wells JA. The human growth hormone receptor. Secretion from Escherichia coli and disulfide bonding pattern of the extracellular binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 25; 265(6):3111-5. PMID: 2406245.
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    176. Contreras I, Dohm GL, Abdallah S, Wells J, Mooney N, Rovira A, Caro JF. The effect of fasting on the activation in vivo of the insulin receptor kinase. Biochem J. 1990 Feb 1; 265(3):887-90. PMID: 2407238; PMCID: PMC1133714.
    177. Kesten S, Maleki-Yazdi R, Sanders BR, Wells J, McKillop SL, Chapman KR, Rebuck AS. Respiratory rate during acute asthma. Chest. 1990 Jan; 97(1):58-62. PMID: 2403901.
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    178. Zonana HV, Bartel RL, Wells J, Buchanan JA, Getz MA. Part II: Sex differences in persons found not guilty by reason of insanity: analysis of data from the Connecticut NGRI Registry. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1990; 18(2):129-42. PMID: 2372574.
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    179. Zonana HV, Wells J, Getz MA, Buchanan J. Part I: The NGRI Registry: initial analyses of data collected on Connecticut insanity acquittees. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1990; 18(2):115-28. PMID: 2372573.
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    180. Bass S, Greene R, Wells J. Hormone phage: an enrichment method for variant proteins with altered binding properties. Proteins. 1990; 8(4):309-14. PMID: 1708882.
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    181. Carter P, Wells JA. Functional interaction among catalytic residues in subtilisin BPN'. Proteins. 1990; 7(4):335-42. PMID: 2199971.
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    182. Wells JA, Cunningham BC. Identification and design of binding determinants in proteins. Biochem Soc Symp. 1990; 57:143-5. PMID: 2099738.
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    183. Cunningham BC, Wells JA. High-resolution epitope mapping of hGH-receptor interactions by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Science. 1989 Jun 2; 244(4908):1081-5. PMID: 2471267.
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    184. Mitchinson C, Wells JA. Protein engineering of disulfide bonds in subtilisin BPN'. Biochemistry. 1989 May 30; 28(11):4807-15. PMID: 2504281.
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    185. Fushiki T, Wells J, Tapscott EB, Dohm GL. Changes in glucose transporters in muscle in response to exercise. Am J Physiol. 1989 May; 256(5 Pt 1):E580-7. PMID: 2655468.
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    186. Cunningham BC, Jhurani P, Ng P, Wells JA. Receptor and antibody epitopes in human growth hormone identified by homolog-scanning mutagenesis. Science. 1989 Mar 10; 243(4896):1330-6. PMID: 2466339.
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    187. Carter P, Nilsson B, Burnier JP, Burdick D, Wells JA. Engineering subtilisin BPN' for site-specific proteolysis. Proteins. 1989; 6(3):240-8. PMID: 2516317.
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    188. Dunlop BD, Wells JA, Wilensky GR. The influence of source of insurance coverage on the health care utilization patterns of the elderly. J Health Hum Resour Adm. 1989; 11(3):285-311. PMID: 10303344.
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    189. Wells JA, Estell DA. Subtilisin--an enzyme designed to be engineered. Trends Biochem Sci. 1988 Aug; 13(8):291-7. PMID: 3154281.
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    190. Carter P, Wells JA. Dissecting the catalytic triad of a serine protease. Nature. 1988 Apr 7; 332(6164):564-8. PMID: 3282170.
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    191. Wells J, Zuercher A, Clinton J. GrantWatch. Foundation funding for AIDS education. Health Aff (Millwood). 1988; 7(5):146-58. PMID: 3229713.
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    192. Wells JA, Cunningham BC, Graycar TP, Estell DA. Recruitment of substrate-specificity properties from one enzyme into a related one by protein engineering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug; 84(15):5167-71. PMID: 3299378; PMCID: PMC298815.
    193. Cunningham BC, Wells JA. Improvement in the alkaline stability of subtilisin using an efficient random mutagenesis and screening procedure. Protein Eng. 1987 Aug-Sep; 1(4):319-25. PMID: 3334089.
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    194. Carter P, Wells JA. Engineering enzyme specificity by "substrate-assisted catalysis". Science. 1987 Jul 24; 237(4813):394-9. PMID: 3299704.
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    195. Pearson HA, Guiliotis DK, Rink L, Wells JA. Patient age distribution in thalassemia major: changes from 1973 to 1985. Pediatrics. 1987 Jul; 80(1):53-7. PMID: 3601518.
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    196. Wells JA, Powers DB, Bott RR, Graycar TP, Estell DA. Designing substrate specificity by protein engineering of electrostatic interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar; 84(5):1219-23. PMID: 3547407; PMCID: PMC304398.
    197. Wells JA, Cunningham BC, Graycar TP, Estell DA, Carter P. On the evolution of specificity and catalysis in subtilisin. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1987; 52:647-52. PMID: 3331349.
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    198. Wells JA. Foundation funding for AIDS programs. Health Aff (Millwood). 1987; 6(3):113-23. PMID: 3679069.
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    199. Wells J, Smyth RJ, Rebuck AS. Thoracoabdominal motion in response to treadmill and cycle exercise. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986 Dec; 134(6):1125-8. PMID: 3098144.
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    200. Estell DA, Graycar TP, Miller JV, Powers DB, Wells JA, Burnier JP, Ng PG. Probing steric and hydrophobic effects on enzyme-substrate interactions by protein engineering. Science. 1986 Aug 8; 233(4764):659-63. PMID: 17835820.
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    201. Wells JA, Powers DB. In vivo formation and stability of engineered disulfide bonds in subtilisin. J Biol Chem. 1986 May 15; 261(14):6564-70. PMID: 3516996.
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    202. Power SD, Adams RM, Wells JA. Secretion and autoproteolytic maturation of subtilisin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 May; 83(10):3096-100. PMID: 3517850; PMCID: PMC323459.
    203. Nakamaye KL, Wells JA, Bridenbaugh RL, Okamoto Y, Yount RG. 2-[(4-Azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]ethyl triphosphate, a novel chromophoric and photoaffinity analogue of ATP. Synthesis, characterization, and interaction with myosin subfragment 1. Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 10; 24(19):5226-35. PMID: 4074691.
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    204. Estell DA, Graycar TP, Wells JA. Engineering an enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis to be resistant to chemical oxidation. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jun 10; 260(11):6518-21. PMID: 3922976.
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    205. Wells JA, Vasser M, Powers DB. Cassette mutagenesis: an efficient method for generation of multiple mutations at defined sites. Gene. 1985; 34(2-3):315-23. PMID: 3891521.
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    206. Perkins WJ, Wells JA, Yount RG. Characterization of the properties of ethenoadenosine nucleotides bound or trapped at the active site of myosin subfragment 1. Biochemistry. 1984 Aug 14; 23(17):3994-4002. PMID: 6237680.
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    207. Wells JA, Swyryd EA, Stark GR. An improved method for purifying 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jan 25; 259(2):1363-70. PMID: 6693390.
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    208. Griffith MJ, Wells JA. Awareness by consumers and the adoption of a new service: an HMO example. J Health Care Mark. 1984; 4(1):17-24. PMID: 10266249.
      View in: PubMed
    209. Wells JA, Ferrari E, Henner DJ, Estell DA, Chen EY. Cloning, sequencing, and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Nov 25; 11(22):7911-25. PMID: 6316278; PMCID: PMC326549.
    210. Wells JA, Zipp JF, Schuette PT, McEleney J. Musculoskeletal disorders among letter carriers. A comparison of weight carrying, walking & sedentary occupations. J Occup Med. 1983 Nov; 25(11):814-20. PMID: 6644392.
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    211. Dalbey RE, Wells JA, Yount RG. Trapping of transition metal-nucleotide complexes in myosin subfragment 1 by cross-linking thiols; divalent transition metal probes of the active site. Biochemistry. 1983 Jan 18; 22(2):490-6. PMID: 6824640.
      View in: PubMed
    212. Wells JA, Strickland DE. Physiogenic bias as invalidity in psychiatric symptom scales. J Health Soc Behav. 1982 Sep; 23(3):235-52. PMID: 7175160.
      View in: PubMed
    213. Wells JA, Yount RG. Chemical modification of myosin by active-site trapping of metal-nucleotides with thiol crosslinking reagents. Methods Enzymol. 1982; 85 Pt B:93-116. PMID: 7121292.
      View in: PubMed
    214. Wells JA, Knoeber C, Sheldon MC, Werber MM, Yount RG. Cross-linking of myosin subfragment 1. Nucleotide-enhanced modification by a variety of bifunctional reagents. J Biol Chem. 1980 Dec 10; 255(23):11135-40. PMID: 7440533.
      View in: PubMed
    215. Wells JA, Werber MM, Yount RG. Mechanism of inactivation of myosin subfragment 1 by Co(III)phenATP. A reinvestigation. J Biol Chem. 1980 Aug 25; 255(16):7552-5. PMID: 6447149.
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    216. Wells JA, Yount RG. Reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) with myosin subfragment one: evidence for formation of a single protein disulfide with trapping of metal nucleotide at the active site. Biochemistry. 1980 Apr 15; 19(8):1711-7. PMID: 6445748.
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    217. Wells JA, Sheldon M, Yount RG. Magnesium nucleotide is stoichiometrically trapped at the active site of myosin and its active proteolytic fragments by thiol cross-linking reagents. J Biol Chem. 1980 Feb 25; 255(4):1598-602. PMID: 6444414.
      View in: PubMed
    218. Wells, J.A. and Yount, R.G. . "Reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) with myosin subfragment one: Evidence for formation of a single protein disulfide with trapping of metal nucleotide at the active site". Biochemistry. 1980; 19:1711-1717.
    219. Wells, J.A., Sheldon, M., and Yount, R.G. "Magnesium nucleotide is stoichiometrically trapped at the active site of myosin and its proteolytic subfragments by thiol cross-linking reagents". J. Biol. Chem. 1980; 255:1598-1602.
    220. Wells J, Werber MM, Yount RG. Inactivation of myosin subfragment one by cobalt(II)/cobalt(III) phenanthroline complexes. 2. Cobalt chelation of two critical SH groups. Biochemistry. 1979 Oct 30; 18(22):4800-5. PMID: 159719.
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    221. Wells J, Werber MM, Legg JI, Yount RG. Inactivation of myosin subfragment one by cobalt(II)/cobalt(III) phenanthroline complexes. I. Incorporation of Co(III) by in situ oxidation of Co(II). Biochemistry. 1979 Oct 30; 18(22):4793-9. PMID: 41570.
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    222. Wells J, Yount RG. Active site trapping of nucleotides by crosslinking two sulfhydryls in myosin subfragment 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct; 76(10):4966-70. PMID: 159451; PMCID: PMC413059.
    223. House JS, McMichael AJ, Wells J, Kaplan BH, Landerman LR. Occupational stress and health among factory workers. J Health Soc Behav. 1979 Jun; 20(2):139-60. PMID: 479526.
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    224. Wells, J.A., Werber, M.M. and Yount, R.G. . "Inactivation of myosin subfragment one by cobalt (II)/cobalt (III) phenanthroline complexes. 1. Incorporation of Co(III) by in situ oxidation of Co(II)". Biochemistry. 1979; 18:4793-4799. .
    225. Wells, J.A., Werber, M.M., Legg, J.I., and Yount, R.G. . "Inactivation of myosin subfragment one by cobalt (II)/cobalt (III) phenanthroline complexes. 2. Cobalt chelation of two critical SH groups". Biochemistry. 1979; 18:4800-4805.
    226. Wells, J.A. and Yount, R.G. . "Active site trapping of nucleotides by crosslinking two sulfhydryls in myosin sub-fragment 1". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1979; 76:4966-4970.
    227. Fisher JC, Wells J, Fulwider BT, Edgerton MT. Do we need a burn severity grading system. J Trauma. 1977 Mar; 17(3):252-5. PMID: 850285.
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    228. Wells J. Issues in specialty certification. ANA Publ. 1975; (PMH-2):6-14. PMID: 1045880.
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