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    Edward Chang, MD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurological Surgery
    Address513 Parnassus Ave, Med Sci
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-7346

       Overview 
       Overview
      A unique and defining trait of human behavior is our ability to communicate through speech. My laboratory is interested in determining the basic mechanisms that underlie speech perception and production. While much of this processing has been localized to the peri-sylvian cortex, including Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, the fundamental organizational principles of these neural circuits are completely unknown.

      To address this, my laboratory applies a variety of experimental approaches including psychophysics, local field potential and microelectrode array recordings, electrocortical stimulation, and real-time signal processing. These methods allow us to examine both local circuitry and global network dynamics spanning multiple cortical and sub-cortical regions with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in humans.

      Our central goal is to provide a mechanistic account for the major properties of speech behavior in normal speakers and those with language disorders. Our ongoing research is not only deepening understanding of speech and its disorders, but also is leading directly to safer brain mapping methods to preserve language function during awake neurosurgical procedures.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang EF, Barbaro NM. A review of percutaneous treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2014 Mar; 10 Suppl 1:25-33.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Dürschmid S, Quandt F, Krämer UM, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Schulz R, Pannek H, Chang EF, Knight RT. Oscillatory dynamics track motor performance improvement in human cortex. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89576.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Englot DJ, Chang EF. Rates and predictors of seizure freedom in resective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2014 Jul; 37(3):389-405.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Mesgarani N, Cheung C, Johnson K, Chang EF. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus. Science. 2014 Feb 28; 343(6174):1006-10.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Englot DJ, Lee AT, Tsai C, Halabi C, Barbaro NM, Auguste KI, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Seizure types and frequency in patients who "fail" temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2013 Nov; 73(5):838-44; quiz 844.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Tate MC, Guo L, McEvoy J, Chang EF. Safety and efficacy of motor mapping utilizing short pulse train direct cortical stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013; 91(6):379-85.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wissel T, Pfeiffer T, Frysch R, Knight RT, Chang EF, Hinrichs H, Rieger JW, Rose G. Hidden Markov model and support vector machine based decoding of finger movements using electrocorticography. J Neural Eng. 2013 Oct; 10(5):056020.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Conant D, Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Speech map in the human ventral sensory-motor cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014 Feb; 24(1):63-7.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Edwards E, Chang EF. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing. Hear Res. 2013 Nov; 305:113-34.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Burneo JG, Sirven JI, Kiesel LW, Vecht CJ, Jehi L, Chung SS, Uhm J, Politsky JM, Chang EF, Husain AM, Tatum WO, Meador KJ, Noe K, Hesdorffer DC, Herman ST, Wiebe S, Engel J, Schrader S, Parko KL, Dichter MA, Kwan P, Kossoff E, Sperling MR. Managing common complex symptomatic epilepsies: tumors and trauma: american epilepsy society - 2012 annual course summary. Epilepsy Curr. 2013 Sep; 13(5):232-5.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Wang DD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Molinaro AM, Ward M, Chang EF. Trends in surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in the United States of America from 1988 to 2008. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 20(11):1538-45.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Jahangiri A, Wagner JR, Pekmezci M, Hiniker A, Chang EF, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK. A comprehensive long-term retrospective analysis of silent corticotrophic adenomas vs hormone-negative adenomas. Neurosurgery. 2013 Jul; 73(1):8-17; discussion 17-8.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Englot DJ, Breshears JD, Sun PP, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after resective surgery for extra-temporal lobe epilepsy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):126-33.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Sun PP, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after temporal lobectomy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):134-41.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Englot DJ, Rutkowski MJ, Ivan ME, Sun PP, Kuperman RA, Chang EF, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI. Effects of temporal lobectomy on consciousness-impairing and consciousness-sparing seizures in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Oct; 29(10):1915-22.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Hensley-Judge H, Quigg M, Barbaro NM, Newman SA, Ward MM, Chang EF, Broshek DK, Lamborn KR, Laxer KD, Garcia P, Heck CN, Kondziolka D, Beach R, Salanova V, Goodman R. Visual field defects after radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2013 Aug; 54(8):1376-80.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Rowland NC, Breshears J, Chang EF. Neurosurgery and the dawning age of Brain-Machine Interfaces. Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 1):S11-4.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Bouchard KE, Mesgarani N, Johnson K, Chang EF. Functional organization of human sensorimotor cortex for speech articulation. Nature. 2013 Mar 21; 495(7441):327-32.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Chang EF, Niziolek CA, Knight RT, Nagarajan SS, Houde JF. Human cortical sensorimotor network underlying feedback control of vocal pitch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 12; 110(7):2653-8.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Wang DD, Deans AE, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Transmantle sign in focal cortical dysplasia: a unique radiological entity with excellent prognosis for seizure control. J Neurosurg. 2013 Feb; 118(2):337-44.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Ritaccio A, Beauchamp M, Bosman C, Brunner P, Chang E, Crone N, Gunduz A, Gupta D, Knight R, Leuthardt E, Litt B, Moran D, Ojemann J, Parvizi J, Ramsey N, Rieger J, Viventi J, Voytek B, Williams J, Schalk G. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Dec; 25(4):605-13.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Relationship between hospital surgical volume, lobectomy rates, and adverse perioperative events at US epilepsy centers. J Neurosurg. 2013 Jan; 118(1):169-74.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Hassnain KH, Gordon CM, Chang EF. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in posttraumatic versus nontraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2012 Nov; 117(5):970-7.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Englot DJ, Young WL, Han SJ, McCulloch CE, Chang EF, Lawton MT. Seizure predictors and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in 440 patients. Neurosurgery. 2012 Sep; 71(3):572-80; discussion 580.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Cheung C, Chang EF. Real-time, time-frequency mapping of event-related cortical activation. J Neural Eng. 2012 Aug; 9(4):046018.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Southwell DG, Garcia PA, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Long-term seizure control outcomes after resection of gangliogliomas. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jun; 70(6):1406-13; discussion 1413-4.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Air EL, Ryapolova-Webb E, de Hemptinne C, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Larson PS, Chang EF, Starr PA. Acute effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation and thalamotomy on sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in essential tremor. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 123(11):2232-8.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Mesgarani N, Chang EF. Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception. Nature. 2012 May 10; 485(7397):233-6.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Chang EF, Garcia PA. Characteristics and treatment of seizures in patients with high-grade glioma: a review. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Apr; 23(2):227-35, vii-viii.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Extent of surgical resection predicts seizure freedom in low-grade temporal lobe brain tumors. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):921-8; discussion 928.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Potts MB, Chang EF, Young WL, Lawton MT. Transsylvian-transinsular approaches to the insula and basal ganglia: operative techniques and results with vascular lesions. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):824-34; discussion 834.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Epilepsy surgery trends in the United States, 1990-2008. Neurology. 2012 Apr 17; 78(16):1200-6.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Shih T, Chang EF. Comparison of seizure control outcomes and the safety of vagus nerve, thalamic deep brain, and responsive neurostimulation: evidence from randomized controlled trials. Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Mar; 32(3):E14.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Rowland NC, Englot DJ, Cage TA, Sughrue ME, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. A meta-analysis of predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical management of focal cortical dysplasia. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1035-41.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Englot DJ, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Shih TT, Chang EF. Rates and predictors of long-term seizure freedom after frontal lobe epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1042-8.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Pasley BN, David SV, Mesgarani N, Flinker A, Shamma SA, Crone NE, Knight RT, Chang EF. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex. PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan; 10(1):e1001251.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Epilepsy surgery: the emerging field of neuromodulation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):ix-x.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy by patient age, epilepsy duration, and seizure type. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):443-8, v.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Factors associated with seizure freedom in the surgical resection of glioneuronal tumors. Epilepsia. 2012 Jan; 53(1):51-7.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Sughrue ME, Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Aghi MK, Blevins LS. Excess mortality for patients with residual disease following resection of pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2011 Sep; 14(3):276-83.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and predictors of response. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1248-55.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Lawton MT, Chang EF. Predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1169-74.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Chang EF, Wang DD, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM. Predictors of seizure freedom after surgery for malformations of cortical development. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul; 70(1):151-62.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Predictors of seizure freedom after resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. A review. J Neurosurg. 2011 Aug; 115(2):240-4.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Larson PS. Lead cap localization using ultrasound in deep brain stimulation surgery: technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011 Feb; 54(1):48-9.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Chang EF, Cheng JS, Richardson RM, Lee C, Starr PA, Larson PS. Incidence and management of venous air embolisms during awake deep brain stimulation surgery in a large clinical series. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011; 89(2):76-82.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Chang EF, Wang DD, Perry DW, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Homotopic organization of essential language sites in right and bilateral cerebral hemispheric dominance. J Neurosurg. 2011 Apr; 114(4):893-902.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang EF, Vincenti V, Merzenich MM. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15326.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Flinker A, Chang EF, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Crone NE, Knight RT. Single-trial speech suppression of auditory cortex activity in humans. J Neurosci. 2010 Dec 8; 30(49):16643-50.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Flinker A, Chang EF, Barbaro NM, Berger MS, Knight RT. Sub-centimeter language organization in the human temporal lobe. Brain Lang. 2011 Jun; 117(3):103-9.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Yang I, Chang EF, Han SJ, Barry JJ, Fang S, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT. Early surgical intervention in adult patients with ganglioglioma is associated with improved clinical seizure outcomes. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan; 18(1):29-33.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Tate MC, Kim CY, Chang EF, Polley MY, Berger MS. Assessment of morbidity following resection of cingulate gyrus gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):640-7.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Chang EF, Rieger JW, Johnson K, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Categorical speech representation in human superior temporal gyrus. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 13(11):1428-32.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Chang EF, Sughrue ME, Zada G, Wilson CB, Blevins LS, Kunwar S. Long term outcome following repeat transsphenoidal surgery for recurrent endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2010 Sep; 13(3):223-9.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Chang EF, Clark A, Smith JS, Polley MY, Chang SM, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Functional mapping-guided resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas of the brain: improvement of long-term survival. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):566-73.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Berger MS, Lawton MT. Supratentorial cavernous malformations in eloquent and deep locations: surgical approaches and outcomes. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):814-27.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Sughrue ME, Rutkowski MJ, Chang EF, Shangari G, Kane AJ, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Parsa AT. Postoperative seizures following the resection of convexity meningiomas: are prophylactic anticonvulsants indicated? Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):705-9.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Chang EF, Schrock LE, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Long-term benefit sustained after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory tardive dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2010; 88(5):304-10.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Chang EF, Edwards E, Nagarajan SS, Fogelson N, Dalal SS, Canolty RT, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Cortical spatio-temporal dynamics underlying phonological target detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Jun; 23(6):1437-46.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Nonresective epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2010 Feb; 51 Suppl 1:87-9.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Chang EF, Quigg M, Oh MC, Dillon WP, Ward MM, Laxer KD, Broshek DK, Barbaro NM. Predictors of efficacy after stereotactic radiosurgery for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2010 Jan 12; 74(2):165-72.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Chang EF, Christie C, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Tihan T, Gupta N, Berger MS, Barbaro NM. Seizure control outcomes after resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 50 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Jan; 5(1):123-30.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Chang EF, Nagarajan SS, Mantle M, Barbaro NM, Kirsch HE. Magnetic source imaging for the surgical evaluation of electroencephalography-confirmed secondary bilateral synchrony in intractable epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2009 Dec; 111(6):1248-56.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Ganguly K, Secundo L, Ranade G, Orsborn A, Chang EF, Dimitrov DF, Wallis JD, Barbaro NM, Knight RT, Carmena JM. Cortical representation of ipsilateral arm movements in monkey and man. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14; 29(41):12948-56.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Chang EF, Clark A, Jensen RL, Bernstein M, Guha A, Carrabba G, Mukhopadhyay D, Kim W, Liau LM, Chang SM, Smith JS, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Multiinstitutional validation of the University of California at San Francisco Low-Grade Glioma Prognostic Scoring System. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009 Aug; 111(2):203-10.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Lawton MT. Seizure characteristics and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jul; 65(1):31-7; discussion 37-8.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Chaichana KL, McDermott MW. Surgical considerations in the management of falcotentorial meningiomas: advantages of the bilateral occipital transtentorial/transfalcine craniotomy for large tumors. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):260-8; discussion 268.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Lim DA, Tarapore P, Chang E, Burt M, Chakalian L, Barbaro N, Chang S, Lamborn KR, McDermott MW. Safety and feasibility of switching from phenytoin to levetiracetam monotherapy for glioma-related seizure control following craniotomy: a randomized phase II pilot study. J Neurooncol. 2009 Jul; 93(3):349-54.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Sughrue ME, Chang EF, Tyrell JB, Kunwar S, Wilson CB, Blevins LS. Pre-operative dopamine agonist therapy improves post-operative tumor control following prolactinoma resection. Pituitary. 2009; 12(3):158-64.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Chang EF, Smith JS, Chang SM, Lamborn KR, Prados MD, Butowski N, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, Berger MS, McDermott MM. Preoperative prognostic classification system for hemispheric low-grade gliomas in adults. J Neurosurg. 2008 Nov; 109(5):817-24.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Chang EF, Zada G, Kim S, Lamborn KR, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Tyrrell JB, Wilson CB, Kunwar S. Long-term recurrence and mortality after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Apr; 108(4):736-45.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Smith JS, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Prados MD, Cha S, Tihan T, Vandenberg S, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10; 26(8):1338-45.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Chang EF, Potts MB, Keles GE, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb; 108(2):227-35.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Chang EF, Turner RS, Ostrem JL, Davis VR, Starr PA. Neuronal responses to passive movement in the globus pallidus internus in primary dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Dec; 98(6):3696-707.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Chang EF, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jul; 61(1 Suppl):222-30; discussion 230-1.
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      76. Smith JS, Chang EF, Rosenthal G, Meeker M, von Koch C, Manley GT, Holland MC. The role of early follow-up computed tomography imaging in the management of traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2007 Jul; 63(1):75-82.
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      77. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3; 27(1):180-9.
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      78. Keles GE, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Tihan T, Chang CJ, Chang SM, Berger MS. Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):34-40.
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      79. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Lawton MT. The extended retrosigmoid approach: an alternative to radical cranial base approaches for posterior fossa lesions. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-208-14; discussion ONS-214.
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      80. Chang EF, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4):647-56; discussion 647-56.
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      81. Wang VY, Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Focal cortical dysplasia: a review of pathological features, genetics, and surgical outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2006; 20(1):E7.
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      82. Strata F, deIpolyi AR, Bonham BH, Chang EF, Liu RC, Nakahara H, Merzenich MM. Perinatal anoxia degrades auditory system function in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19156-61.
        View in: PubMed
      83. Chang EF, Claus CP, Vreman HJ, Wong RJ, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme regulation in traumatic brain injury: relevance to the adult and developing brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Nov; 25(11):1401-17.
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      84. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 8; 102(45):16460-5.
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      85. Lawton MT, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Yu T. Thrombotic intracranial aneurysms: classification scheme and management strategies in 68 patients. Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar; 56(3):441-54; discussion 441-54.
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      86. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich MM. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81.
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      87. Keles GE, Lundin DA, Lamborn KR, Chang EF, Ojemann G, Berger MS. Intraoperative subcortical stimulation mapping for hemispherical perirolandic gliomas located within or adjacent to the descending motor pathways: evaluation of morbidity and assessment of functional outcome in 294 patients. J Neurosurg. 2004 Mar; 100(3):369-75.
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      88. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Khan SA, Lawton MT, McDermott MW. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the choroid mimicking intraventricular meningioma. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004 Feb; 31(1):115-20.
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      89. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich MM. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75.
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      90. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, McDermott MW. Falcotentorial meningiomas: clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical features in six patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jun 15; 14(6):e11.
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      91. Chang EF, Wong RJ, Vreman HJ, Igarashi T, Galo E, Sharp FR, Stevenson DK, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme oxygenase-2 protects against lipid peroxidation-mediated cell loss and impaired motor recovery after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2003 May 1; 23(9):3689-96.
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      92. Chang EF, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502.
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      93. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Khan SA, McDermott MW. Isolated trigeminal nerve sarcoid granuloma mimicking trigeminal schwannoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2003 Mar; 52(3):700-5 discussion 704-5.
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      94. Chang E, Dellon AL, Dellon ES, Hendrickson ME. Developing a model of colchicine neuropathy. Microsurgery. 2002; 22(2):46-8.
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