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Edward Chang, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurological Surgery
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-502-7346
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.2004 Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    A unique and defining trait of human behavior is our ability to communicate through speech. My laboratory is interested in determining the basic mechanisms that underlie speech perception and production. While much of this processing has been localized to the peri-sylvian cortex, including Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, the fundamental organizational principles of these neural circuits are completely unknown.

    To address this, my laboratory applies a variety of experimental approaches including psychophysics, local field potential and microelectrode array recordings, electrocortical stimulation, and real-time signal processing. These methods allow us to examine both local circuitry and global network dynamics spanning multiple cortical and sub-cortical regions with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in humans.

    Our central goal is to provide a mechanistic account for the major properties of speech behavior in normal speakers and those with language disorders. Our ongoing research is not only deepening understanding of speech and its disorders, but also is leading directly to safer brain mapping methods to preserve language function during awake neurosurgical procedures.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Functional Architecture of Speech Motor Cortex
    NIH/NINDS U01NS098971Sep 30, 2016 - Aug 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional organization of the superior temporal gyrus for speech perception
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC012379Apr 1, 2012 - Jul 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional Architecture of Human Speech Motor Cortex
    NIH DP2OD008627Sep 30, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neocortical Mechanisms of Categorical Speech Perception
    NIH/NINDS R00NS065120Sep 25, 2009 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neocortical Mechanisms of Categorical Speech Perception
    NIH/NINDS K99NS065120Sep 25, 2009 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Radiosurgery vs lobectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy: Phase 3 Clinical Trial
    NIH/NINDS U01NS058634Sep 1, 2009 - Dec 15, 2017
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Electrocorticographic Study of Categorical Phoneme Perception in the Human Tempor
    NIH/NINDS F32NS061552Jul 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Clinical Trials

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Baud MO, Kleen JK, Anumanchipalli GK, Hamilton LS, Tan YL, Knowlton R, Chang EF. Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporal Interictal Discharges in Focal Epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2017 Oct 10. PMID: 29040672.
      View in: PubMed
    2. González Otárula KA, Tan YL, Dubeau F, Correa JA, Chang E, Hall JA, Knowlton RC, Kobayashi E. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in patients with surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy: Presurgical and de novo postsurgical occurrence. Epilepsy Behav. 2017 Oct; 75:252-255. PMID: 28867568.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chiong W, Leonard MK, Chang EF. Neurosurgical Patients as Human Research Subjects: Ethical Considerations in Intracranial Electrophysiology Research. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jul 22. PMID: 28973530.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Wang Q, Hu B, Hu X, Kim H, Squatrito M, Scarpace L, deCarvalho AC, Lyu S, Li P, Li Y, Barthel F, Cho HJ, Lin YH, Satani N, Martinez-Ledesma E, Zheng S, Chang E, Sauvé CG, Olar A, Lan ZD, Finocchiaro G, Phillips JJ, Berger MS, Gabrusiewicz KR, Wang G, Eskilsson E, Hu J, Mikkelsen T, DePinho RA, Muller F, Heimberger AB, Sulman EP, Nam DH, Verhaak RGW. Tumor Evolution of Glioma-Intrinsic Gene Expression Subtypes Associates with Immunological Changes in the Microenvironment. Cancer Cell. 2017 Jul 10; 32(1):42-56.e6. PMID: 28697342.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Rolston JD, Deng H, Wang DD, Englot DJ, Chang EF. Multiple Subpial Transections for Medically Refractory Epilepsy: A Disaggregated Review of Patient-Level Data. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jun 20. PMID: 28637175.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Murugesan S, Bouchard K, Chang E, Dougherty M, Hamann B, Weber GH. Multi-scale visual analysis of time-varying electrocorticography data via clustering of brain regions. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017 Jun 06; 18(Suppl 6):236. PMID: 28617218.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Nahum M, Van Vleet TM, Sohal VS, Mirzabekov JJ, Rao VR, Wallace DL, Lee MB, Dawes H, Stark-Inbar A, Jordan JT, Biagianti B, Merzenich M, Chang EF. Immediate Mood Scaler: Tracking Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Using a Novel Mobile Mood Scale. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017 Apr 12; 5(4):e44. PMID: 28404542.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Rao VR, Leonard MK, Kleen JK, Lucas BA, Mirro EA, Chang EF. Chronic ambulatory electrocorticography from human speech cortex. Neuroimage. 2017 Jun; 153:273-282. PMID: 28396294.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Wang DD, Raygor KP, Cage TA, Ward MM, Westcott S, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Prospective comparison of long-term pain relief rates after first-time microvascular decompression and stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2017 Feb 24; 1-10. PMID: 28298026.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Perry A, Stiso J, Chang EF, Lin JJ, Parvizi J, Knight RT. Mirroring in the Human Brain: Deciphering the Spatial-Temporal Patterns of the Human Mirror Neuron System. Cereb Cortex. 2017 Jan 30. PMID: 28137724.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Weiss SA, Asadi-Pooya AA, Vangala S, Moy S, Wyeth DH, Orosz I, Gibbs M, Schrader L, Lerner J, Cheng CK, Chang E, Rajaraman R, Keselman I, Churchman P, Bower-Baca C, Numis AL, Ho MG, Rao L, Bhat A, Suski J, Asadollahi M, Ambrose T, Fernandez A, Nei M, Skidmore C, Mintzer S, Eliashiv DS, Mathern GW, Nuwer MR, Sperling M, Engel J, Stern JM. AR2, a novel automatic artifact reduction software method for ictal EEG interpretation: Validation and comparison of performance with commercially available software. F1000Res. 2017; 6:30. PMID: 28491280.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Imber BS, Kanungo I, Braunstein S, Barani IJ, Fogh SE, Nakamura JL, Berger MS, Chang EF, Molinaro AM, Cabrera JR, McDermott MW, Sneed PK, Aghi MK. Indications and Efficacy of Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent Glioblastoma: 2 Decades of Institutional Experience. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 01; 80(1):129-139. PMID: 27428784.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Leonard MK, Baud MO, Sjerps MJ, Chang EF. Perceptual restoration of masked speech in human cortex. Nat Commun. 2016 Dec 20; 7:13619. PMID: 27996973.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Rolston JD, Han SJ, Chang EF. Systemic inaccuracies in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database: Implications for accuracy and validity for neurosurgery outcomes research. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Mar; 37:44-47. PMID: 27863971.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Simonyan K, Ackermann H, Chang EF, Greenlee JD. New Developments in Understanding the Complexity of Human Speech Production. J Neurosci. 2016 Nov 09; 36(45):11440-11448. PMID: 27911747.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Rübel O, Dougherty M, Denes P, Conant D, Chang EF, Bouchard K. Methods for Specifying Scientific Data Standards and Modeling Relationships with Applications to Neuroscience. Front Neuroinform. 2016; 10:48. PMID: 27867355.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Godlove J, Gulati T, Dichter B, Chang E, Ganguly K. Muscle synergies after stroke are correlated with perilesional high gamma. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2016 Dec; 3(12):956-961. PMID: 28097208.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Johanns TM, Miller CA, Dorward IG, Tsien C, Chang E, Perry A, Uppaluri R, Ferguson C, Schmidt RE, Dahiya S, Ansstas G, Mardis ER, Dunn GP. Immunogenomics of Hypermutated Glioblastoma: A Patient with Germline POLE Deficiency Treated with Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy. Cancer Discov. 2016 Nov; 6(11):1230-1236. PMID: 27683556.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wright CW, Hassnain KH, Chang EF. Rates and Predictors of Seizure Freedom With Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2016 Sep; 79(3):345-53. PMID: 26645965; PMCID: PMC4884552 [Available on 09/01/17].
    20. Muller L, Hamilton LS, Edwards E, Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Spatial resolution dependence on spectral frequency in human speech cortex electrocorticography. J Neural Eng. 2016 Oct; 13(5):056013. PMID: 27578414.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Moses DA, Mesgarani N, Leonard MK, Chang E, et al. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity. J Neural Eng. 2016 Oct; 13(5):056004. PMID: 27484713.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS, Chang E. 206 Spikes, Slowing, and Functional Connectivity: Multimodal Magnetoencephalography in Epilepsy Surgery. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:181. PMID: 27399485.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Muller L, Felix S, Shah KG, Pannu S, Chang EF. Thin-film, high-density micro-electrocorticographic decoding of a human cortical gyrus. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:1528-1531. PMID: 28268617.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Pailla T, Jiang W, Dichter B, Chang EF, Gilja V. ECoG data analyses to inform closed-loop BCI experiments for speech-based prosthetic applications. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:5713-5716. PMID: 28269552.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Jiang W, Pailla T, Dichter B, Chang EF, Gilja V. Decoding speech using the timing of neural signal modulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:1532-1535. PMID: 28268618.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Leonard MK, Cai R, Babiak MC, Ren A, Chang E, et al. The peri-Sylvian cortical network underlying single word repetition revealed by electrocortical stimulation and direct neural recordings. Brain Lang. 2016 Jul 19. PMID: 27450996.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Dichter BK, Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Dynamic Structure of Neural Variability in the Cortical Representation of Speech Sounds. J Neurosci. 2016 Jul 13; 36(28):7453-63. PMID: 27413155; PMCID: PMC4945665 [Available on 01/13/17].
    28. Englot DJ, Birk H, Chang EF. Seizure outcomes in nonresective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2017 Apr; 40(2):181-194. PMID: 27206422.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Knowlton RC, Chang EF. Rate and complications of adult epilepsy surgery in North America: Analysis of multiple databases. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Aug; 124:55-62. PMID: 27259069.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Cheung C, Hamilton LS, Johnson K, Chang EF. Correction: The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex. Elife. 2016 Apr 27; 5. PMID: 27117389.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Bouchard KE, Conant DF, Anumanchipalli GK, Dichter B, Chaisanguanthum KS, Johnson K, Chang EF. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151327. PMID: 27019106; PMCID: PMC4809489.
    32. Cheung C, Hamiton LS, Johnson K, Chang EF. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex. Elife. 2016 Mar 04; 5. PMID: 26943778; PMCID: PMC4786411.
    33. Chang EF, Breshears JD, Raygor KP, Lau D, Molinaro AM, Berger MS. Stereotactic probability and variability of speech arrest and anomia sites during stimulation mapping of the language dominant hemisphere. J Neurosurg. 2017 Jan; 126(1):114-121. PMID: 26894457.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Bennett ML, Bennett FC, Liddelow SA, Ajami B, Zamanian JL, Fernhoff NB, Mulinyawe SB, Bohlen CJ, Adil A, Tucker A, Weissman IL, Chang EF, Li G, Grant GA, Hayden Gephart MG, Barres BA. New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):E1738-46. PMID: 26884166; PMCID: PMC4812770.
    35. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Cornes S, Chang EF. Major and minor complications in extraoperative electrocorticography: A review of a national database. Epilepsy Res. 2016 May; 122:26-9. PMID: 26921853.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Fonken YM, Rieger JW, Tzvi E, Crone NE, Chang E, Parvizi J, Knight RT, Krämer UM. Frontal and motor cortex contributions to response inhibition: evidence from electrocorticography. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Apr; 115(4):2224-36. PMID: 26864760; PMCID: PMC4869511 [Available on 04/01/17].
    37. Hullett PW, Hamilton LS, Mesgarani N, Schreiner CE, Chang EF. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli. J Neurosci. 2016 Feb 10; 36(6):2014-26. PMID: 26865624; PMCID: PMC4748082.
    38. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang EF, Kirsch HE. The sensitivity and significance of lateralized interictal slow activity on magnetoencephalography in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Mar; 121:21-8. PMID: 26871959; PMCID: PMC4769925 [Available on 03/01/17].
    39. Zaghloul KA, Chang EF. Minimally Invasive Epilepsy Surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Jan; 27(1):xiii-xiv. PMID: 26615115.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Vecht CJ. Epilepsy and brain tumors. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016; 134:267-85. PMID: 26948360; PMCID: PMC4803433 [Available on 01/01/17].
    41. Panov F, Li Y, Chang EF, Knowlton R, Cornes SB. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome. Epilepsia. 2016 Feb; 57(2):e33-8. PMID: 26682848.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Zhang Y, Sloan SA, Clarke LE, Caneda C, Plaza CA, Blumenthal PD, Vogel H, Steinberg GK, Edwards MS, Li G, Duncan JA, Cheshier SH, Shuer LM, Chang EF, Grant GA, Gephart MG, Barres BA. Purification and Characterization of Progenitor and Mature Human Astrocytes Reveals Transcriptional and Functional Differences with Mouse. Neuron. 2016 Jan 06; 89(1):37-53. PMID: 26687838; PMCID: PMC4707064 [Available on 01/06/17].
    43. Wang DD, Knox R, Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Knowlton RC, Cornes SB, Chang EF. Surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy in patients with polymicrogyria. Epilepsia. 2016 Jan; 57(1):151-61. PMID: 26647903.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Englot DJ, Magill ST, Han SJ, Chang EF, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Seizures in supratentorial meningioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jun; 124(6):1552-61. PMID: 26636386; PMCID: PMC4889504 [Available on 06/01/17].
    45. Rolston JD, Chang EF. Stereotactic Laser Ablation for Hypothalamic Hamartoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Jan; 27(1):59-67. PMID: 26615108.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Meng L, Han SJ, Rollins MD, Gelb AW, Chang E. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:160-2. PMID: 26498092.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Magaki S, Chang E, Hammond RR, Yang I, Mackenzie IR, Chou BT, Choi SI, Jen JC, Pope WB, Bell DA, Vinters HV. Two cases of rheumatoid meningitis. Neuropathology. 2016 Feb; 36(1):93-102. PMID: 26350538.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Garcia PA, Chang E. Corpus callosotomy versus vagus nerve stimulation for atonic seizures and drop attacks: A systematic review. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Oct; 51:13-7. PMID: 26247311.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Voytek B, Kayser AS, Badre D, Fegen D, Chang EF, Crone NE, Parvizi J, Knight RT, D'Esposito M. Oscillatory dynamics coordinating human frontal networks in support of goal maintenance. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 18(9):1318-24. PMID: 26214371; PMCID: PMC4551604.
    50. Wilson SM, Lam D, Babiak MC, Perry DW, Shih T, Hess CP, Berger MS, Chang EF. Transient aphasias after left hemisphere resective surgery. J Neurosurg. 2015 Sep; 123(3):581-93. PMID: 26115463; PMCID: PMC4558229.
    51. Cibelli ES, Leonard MK, Johnson K, Chang EF. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening. Brain Lang. 2015 Aug; 147:66-75. PMID: 26072003; PMCID: PMC4521602.
    52. Chang EF, Englot DJ, Vadera S. Minimally invasive surgical approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Jun; 47:24-33. PMID: 26017774; PMCID: PMC4814159.
    53. Englot DJ, Hinkley LB, Kort NS, Imber BS, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Findlay AM, Garrett C, Cheung PL, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang EF, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy. Brain. 2015 Aug; 138(Pt 8):2249-62. PMID: 25981965; PMCID: PMC4840946.
    54. Breshears JD, Molinaro AM, Chang EF. A probabilistic map of the human ventral sensorimotor cortex using electrical stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug; 123(2):340-9. PMID: 25978714.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Houde JF, Chang EF. The cortical computations underlying feedback control in vocal production. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2015 Aug; 33:174-81. PMID: 25989242; PMCID: PMC4628828.
    56. Leonard MK, Bouchard KE, Tang C, Chang EF. Dynamic encoding of speech sequence probability in human temporal cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7203-14. PMID: 25948269; PMCID: PMC4420784.
    57. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Imber BS, Raygor KP, Honma SM, Mizuiri D, Mantle M, Knowlton RC, Kirsch HE, Chang EF. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2015 Jun; 56(6):949-58. PMID: 25921215; PMCID: PMC4457690.
    58. Chang EF. Towards large-scale, human-based, mesoscopic neurotechnologies. Neuron. 2015 Apr 08; 86(1):68-78. PMID: 25856487.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Meng L, Weston SD, Chang EF, Gelb AW. Awake craniotomy in a patient with ejection fraction of 10%: considerations of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiology. J Clin Anesth. 2015 May; 27(3):256-61. PMID: 25681019.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Rolston JD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Chang EF. National trends and complication rates for invasive extraoperative electrocorticography in the USA. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 May; 22(5):823-7. PMID: 25669117.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Tempel ZJ, Chivukula S, Monaco EA, Bowden G, Kano H, Niranjan A, Chang EF, Sneed PK, Kaufmann AM, Sheehan J, Mathieu D, Lunsford LD. The results of a third Gamma Knife procedure for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jan; 122(1):169-79. PMID: 25361482.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Cheng JS, Salinas R, Molinaro A, Chang EF, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK. A predictive algorithm for evaluating elevated serum prolactin in patients with a sellar mass. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jan; 22(1):155-60. PMID: 25481269.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Englot DJ, Raygor KP, Molinaro AM, Garcia PA, Knowlton RC, Auguste KI, Chang EF. Factors associated with failed focal neocortical epilepsy surgery. Neurosurgery. 2014 Dec; 75(6):648-5;discussion 655; quiz 656. PMID: 25181435; PMCID: PMC4393951.
    64. Chang EF, Raygor KP, Berger MS. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons. J Neurosurg. 2015 Feb; 122(2):250-61. PMID: 25423277.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Wang DD, Benkli B, Auguste KI, Garcia PA, Sullivan J, Barkovich AJ, Chang EF, Tihan T. Unilateral holohemispheric central nervous system lesions associated with medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population: a retrospective series of hemimegalencephaly and Rasmussen's encephalitis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 14(6):573-84. PMID: 25303156.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Control of spoken vowel acoustics and the influence of phonetic context in human speech sensorimotor cortex. J Neurosci. 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12662-77. PMID: 25232105; PMCID: PMC4166154.
    67. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Rolston JD, Ivan ME, Kuperman RA, Chang EF, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Oct; 14(4):386-95. PMID: 25127098; PMCID: PMC4393949.
    68. Yu JP, Wilson DM, Chang EF, Cotter J, Perry A, Mahindra A, Glastonbury CM. Isolated intracerebral light chain deposition disease: novel imaging and pathologic findings. Clin Imaging. 2014 Nov-Dec; 38(6):868-71. PMID: 25084689; PMCID: PMC4854295.
    69. Leonard MK, Chang EF. Dynamic speech representations in the human temporal lobe. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Sep; 18(9):472-9. PMID: 24906217; PMCID: PMC4149812.
    70. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang EF, Barbaro NM. A review of percutaneous treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2014 Mar; 10 Suppl 1:25-33; discussion 33. PMID: 24509496.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Dürschmid S, Quandt F, Krämer UM, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Schulz R, Pannek H, Chang EF, Knight RT. Oscillatory dynamics track motor performance improvement in human cortex. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89576. PMID: 24586885; PMCID: PMC3937444.
    72. Hu JC, Chang E, Natarajan S, Margolis DJ, Macairan M, Lieu P, Huang J, Sonn G, Dorey FJ, Marks LS. Targeted prostate biopsy in select men for active surveillance: do the Epstein criteria still apply? J Urol. 2014 Aug; 192(2):385-90. PMID: 24512956; PMCID: PMC4129939.
    73. Englot DJ, Chang EF. Rates and predictors of seizure freedom in resective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2014 Jul; 37(3):389-404; discussion 404-5. PMID: 24497269.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Mesgarani N, Cheung C, Johnson K, Chang EF. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus. Science. 2014 Feb 28; 343(6174):1006-10. PMID: 24482117; PMCID: PMC4350233.
    75. Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Neural decoding of spoken vowels from human sensory-motor cortex with high-density electrocorticography. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014; 2014:6782-5. PMID: 25571553.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Englot DJ, Lee AT, Tsai C, Halabi C, Barbaro NM, Auguste KI, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Seizure types and frequency in patients who "fail" temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2013 Nov; 73(5):838-44; quiz 844. PMID: 23892416.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Tate MC, Guo L, McEvoy J, Chang EF. Safety and efficacy of motor mapping utilizing short pulse train direct cortical stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013; 91(6):379-85. PMID: 24108152.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang E, Barbaro NM. A Review of Percutaneous Treatments for Trigeminal Neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2013 Sep 23. PMID: 24064481.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Wissel T, Pfeiffer T, Frysch R, Knight RT, Chang EF, Hinrichs H, Rieger JW, Rose G. Hidden Markov model and support vector machine based decoding of finger movements using electrocorticography. J Neural Eng. 2013 Oct; 10(5):056020. PMID: 24045504; PMCID: PMC3901317.
    80. Edwards E, Chang EF. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing. Hear Res. 2013 Nov; 305:113-34. PMID: 24035819; PMCID: PMC3830943.
    81. Conant D, Bouchard KE, Chang EF. Speech map in the human ventral sensory-motor cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014 Feb; 24(1):63-7. PMID: 24492080; PMCID: PMC3913904.
    82. Burneo JG, Sirven JI, Kiesel LW, Vecht CJ, Jehi L, Chung SS, Uhm J, Politsky JM, Chang EF, Husain AM, Tatum WO, Meador KJ, Noe K, Hesdorffer DC, Herman ST, Wiebe S, Engel J, Schrader S, Parko KL, Dichter MA, Kwan P, Kossoff E, Sperling MR. Managing common complex symptomatic epilepsies: tumors and trauma: american epilepsy society - 2012 annual course summary. Epilepsy Curr. 2013 Sep; 13(5):232-5. PMID: 24348117; PMCID: PMC3854733.
    83. Wang DD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Molinaro AM, Ward M, Chang EF. Trends in surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in the United States of America from 1988 to 2008. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 20(11):1538-45. PMID: 23932422.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Jahangiri A, Wagner JR, Pekmezci M, Hiniker A, Chang EF, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK. A comprehensive long-term retrospective analysis of silent corticotrophic adenomas vs hormone-negative adenomas. Neurosurgery. 2013 Jul; 73(1):8-17; discussion 17-8. PMID: 23685641.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Sun PP, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after temporal lobectomy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):134-41. PMID: 23768202.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Englot DJ, Breshears JD, Sun PP, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after resective surgery for extra-temporal lobe epilepsy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):126-33. PMID: 23768201.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Bao S, Chang EF, Teng CL, Heiser MA, Merzenich MM. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment. Neuroscience. 2013 Sep 17; 248:30-42. PMID: 23747304; PMCID: PMC3838508.
    88. Englot DJ, Rutkowski MJ, Ivan ME, Sun PP, Kuperman RA, Chang EF, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI. Effects of temporal lobectomy on consciousness-impairing and consciousness-sparing seizures in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Oct; 29(10):1915-22. PMID: 23723065.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Rowland NC, Breshears J, Chang EF. Neurosurgery and the dawning age of Brain-Machine Interfaces. Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 1):S11-4. PMID: 23653884; PMCID: PMC3642748.
    90. Sonn GA, Chang E, Natarajan S, Margolis DJ, Macairan M, Lieu P, Huang J, Dorey FJ, Reiter RE, Marks LS. Value of targeted prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance-ultrasound fusion in men with prior negative biopsy and elevated prostate-specific antigen. Eur Urol. 2014 Apr; 65(4):809-15. PMID: 23523537; PMCID: PMC3858524.
    91. Bouchard KE, Mesgarani N, Johnson K, Chang EF. Functional organization of human sensorimotor cortex for speech articulation. Nature. 2013 Mar 21; 495(7441):327-32. PMID: 23426266; PMCID: PMC3606666.
    92. Chang EF, Niziolek CA, Knight RT, Nagarajan SS, Houde JF. Human cortical sensorimotor network underlying feedback control of vocal pitch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 12; 110(7):2653-8. PMID: 23345447; PMCID: PMC3574939.
    93. Wang DD, Deans AE, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Transmantle sign in focal cortical dysplasia: a unique radiological entity with excellent prognosis for seizure control. J Neurosurg. 2013 Feb; 118(2):337-44. PMID: 23216463.
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    94. Ritaccio A, Beauchamp M, Bosman C, Brunner P, Chang E, Crone N, Gunduz A, Gupta D, Knight R, Leuthardt E, Litt B, Moran D, Ojemann J, Parvizi J, Ramsey N, Rieger J, Viventi J, Voytek B, Williams J, Schalk G. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Dec; 25(4):605-13. PMID: 23160096; PMCID: PMC4041796.
    95. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Garcia PA, Chang EF. Relationship between hospital surgical volume, lobectomy rates, and adverse perioperative events at US epilepsy centers. J Neurosurg. 2013 Jan; 118(1):169-74. PMID: 23101453.
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    96. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Hassnain KH, Gordon CM, Chang EF. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in posttraumatic versus nontraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2012 Nov; 117(5):970-7. PMID: 22978542.
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    97. Englot DJ, Young WL, Han SJ, McCulloch CE, Chang EF, Lawton MT. Seizure predictors and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in 440 patients. Neurosurgery. 2012 Sep; 71(3):572-80; discussion 580. PMID: 22592327.
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    98. Cheung C, Chang EF. Real-time, time-frequency mapping of event-related cortical activation. J Neural Eng. 2012 Aug; 9(4):046018. PMID: 22814190.
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    99. Southwell DG, Garcia PA, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Long-term seizure control outcomes after resection of gangliogliomas. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jun; 70(6):1406-13; discussion 1413-4. PMID: 22353798.
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    100. Air EL, Ryapolova-Webb E, de Hemptinne C, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Larson PS, Chang EF, Starr PA. Acute effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation and thalamotomy on sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in essential tremor. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 123(11):2232-8. PMID: 22633916; PMCID: PMC3577937.
    101. Mesgarani N, Chang EF. Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception. Nature. 2012 May 10; 485(7397):233-6. PMID: 22522927; PMCID: PMC3870007.
    102. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Chang EF, Garcia PA. Characteristics and treatment of seizures in patients with high-grade glioma: a review. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Apr; 23(2):227-35, vii-viii. PMID: 22440866.
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    103. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Extent of surgical resection predicts seizure freedom in low-grade temporal lobe brain tumors. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):921-8; discussion 928. PMID: 21997540.
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    104. Potts MB, Chang EF, Young WL, Lawton MT. Transsylvian-transinsular approaches to the insula and basal ganglia: operative techniques and results with vascular lesions. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):824-34; discussion 834. PMID: 21937930; PMCID: PMC3303997.
    105. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Epilepsy surgery trends in the United States, 1990-2008. Neurology. 2012 Apr 17; 78(16):1200-6. PMID: 22442428; PMCID: PMC3324320.
    106. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Shih T, Chang EF. Comparison of seizure control outcomes and the safety of vagus nerve, thalamic deep brain, and responsive neurostimulation: evidence from randomized controlled trials. Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Mar; 32(3):E14. PMID: 22380855.
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    107. Rowland NC, Englot DJ, Cage TA, Sughrue ME, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. A meta-analysis of predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical management of focal cortical dysplasia. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1035-41. PMID: 22324422.
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    108. Englot DJ, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Shih TT, Chang EF. Rates and predictors of long-term seizure freedom after frontal lobe epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1042-8. PMID: 22304450.
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    109. Pasley BN, David SV, Mesgarani N, Flinker A, Shamma SA, Crone NE, Knight RT, Chang EF. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex. PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan; 10(1):e1001251. PMID: 22303281; PMCID: PMC3269422.
    110. Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Epilepsy surgery: the emerging field of neuromodulation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):ix-x. PMID: 21939840.
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    111. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy by patient age, epilepsy duration, and seizure type. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):443-8, v. PMID: 21939842.
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    112. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Factors associated with seizure freedom in the surgical resection of glioneuronal tumors. Epilepsia. 2012 Jan; 53(1):51-7. PMID: 21933181.
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    113. Sughrue ME, Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Aghi MK, Blevins LS. Excess mortality for patients with residual disease following resection of pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2011 Sep; 14(3):276-83. PMID: 21476061.
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    114. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and predictors of response. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1248-55. PMID: 21838505.
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    115. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Lawton MT, Chang EF. Predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1169-74. PMID: 21819194.
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    116. Chang EF, Wang DD, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM. Predictors of seizure freedom after surgery for malformations of cortical development. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul; 70(1):151-62. PMID: 21761443.
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    117. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang EF. Predictors of seizure freedom after resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. A review. J Neurosurg. 2011 Aug; 115(2):240-4. PMID: 21529134.
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    118. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Larson PS. Lead cap localization using ultrasound in deep brain stimulation surgery: technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011 Feb; 54(1):48-9. PMID: 21506069.
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    119. Chang EF, Cheng JS, Richardson RM, Lee C, Starr PA, Larson PS. Incidence and management of venous air embolisms during awake deep brain stimulation surgery in a large clinical series. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011; 89(2):76-82. PMID: 21293166.
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    120. Chang EF, Wang DD, Perry DW, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Homotopic organization of essential language sites in right and bilateral cerebral hemispheric dominance. J Neurosurg. 2011 Apr; 114(4):893-902. PMID: 21235314.
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    121. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang EF, Vincenti V, Merzenich MM. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 23; 5(12):e15326. PMID: 21203459; PMCID: PMC3009724.
    122. Flinker A, Chang EF, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Crone NE, Knight RT. Single-trial speech suppression of auditory cortex activity in humans. J Neurosci. 2010 Dec 08; 30(49):16643-50. PMID: 21148003; PMCID: PMC3010242.
    123. Flinker A, Chang EF, Barbaro NM, Berger MS, Knight RT. Sub-centimeter language organization in the human temporal lobe. Brain Lang. 2011 Jun; 117(3):103-9. PMID: 20961611; PMCID: PMC3025271.
    124. Yang I, Chang EF, Han SJ, Barry JJ, Fang S, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT. Early surgical intervention in adult patients with ganglioglioma is associated with improved clinical seizure outcomes. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan; 18(1):29-33. PMID: 20961765.
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    125. Tate MC, Kim CY, Chang EF, Polley MY, Berger MS. Assessment of morbidity following resection of cingulate gyrus gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):640-7. PMID: 20932098.
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    126. Chang EF, Rieger JW, Johnson K, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Categorical speech representation in human superior temporal gyrus. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 13(11):1428-32. PMID: 20890293; PMCID: PMC2967728.
    127. Chang EF, Sughrue ME, Zada G, Wilson CB, Blevins LS, Kunwar S. Long term outcome following repeat transsphenoidal surgery for recurrent endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2010 Sep; 13(3):223-9. PMID: 20217484; PMCID: PMC2913003.
    128. Chang EF, Clark A, Smith JS, Polley MY, Chang SM, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Functional mapping-guided resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas of the brain: improvement of long-term survival. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):566-73. PMID: 20635853; PMCID: PMC3877621.
    129. Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Berger MS, Lawton MT. Supratentorial cavernous malformations in eloquent and deep locations: surgical approaches and outcomes. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):814-27. PMID: 20597603.
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    130. Sughrue ME, Rutkowski MJ, Chang EF, Shangari G, Kane AJ, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Parsa AT. Postoperative seizures following the resection of convexity meningiomas: are prophylactic anticonvulsants indicated? Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):705-9. PMID: 20578801.
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    131. Chang EF, Schrock LE, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Long-term benefit sustained after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory tardive dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2010; 88(5):304-10. PMID: 20588082.
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    132. Chang EF, Edwards E, Nagarajan SS, Fogelson N, Dalal SS, Canolty RT, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Cortical spatio-temporal dynamics underlying phonological target detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Jun; 23(6):1437-46. PMID: 20465359; PMCID: PMC3895406.
    133. Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Nonresective epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2010 Feb; 51 Suppl 1:87-9. PMID: 20331727.
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    134. Chang EF, Quigg M, Oh MC, Dillon WP, Ward MM, Laxer KD, Broshek DK, Barbaro NM. Predictors of efficacy after stereotactic radiosurgery for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2010 Jan 12; 74(2):165-72. PMID: 20065252; PMCID: PMC2809028.
    135. Chang EF, Christie C, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Tihan T, Gupta N, Berger MS, Barbaro NM. Seizure control outcomes after resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 50 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Jan; 5(1):123-30. PMID: 20043747.
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    136. Chang EF, Nagarajan SS, Mantle M, Barbaro NM, Kirsch HE. Magnetic source imaging for the surgical evaluation of electroencephalography-confirmed secondary bilateral synchrony in intractable epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2009 Dec; 111(6):1248-56. PMID: 19575574; PMCID: PMC3151560.
    137. Ganguly K, Secundo L, Ranade G, Orsborn A, Chang EF, Dimitrov DF, Wallis JD, Barbaro NM, Knight RT, Carmena JM. Cortical representation of ipsilateral arm movements in monkey and man. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14; 29(41):12948-56. PMID: 19828809; PMCID: PMC3376707.
    138. Chang EF, Clark A, Jensen RL, Bernstein M, Guha A, Carrabba G, Mukhopadhyay D, Kim W, Liau LM, Chang SM, Smith JS, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Multiinstitutional validation of the University of California at San Francisco Low-Grade Glioma Prognostic Scoring System. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009 Aug; 111(2):203-10. PMID: 19267536.
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    139. Chang EF, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Lawton MT. Seizure characteristics and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jul; 65(1):31-7; discussion 37-8. PMID: 19574823.
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    140. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Chaichana KL, McDermott MW. Surgical considerations in the management of falcotentorial meningiomas: advantages of the bilateral occipital transtentorial/transfalcine craniotomy for large tumors. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):260-8; discussion 268. PMID: 19287325.
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    141. Lim DA, Tarapore P, Chang E, Burt M, Chakalian L, Barbaro N, Chang S, Lamborn KR, McDermott MW. Safety and feasibility of switching from phenytoin to levetiracetam monotherapy for glioma-related seizure control following craniotomy: a randomized phase II pilot study. J Neurooncol. 2009 Jul; 93(3):349-54. PMID: 19169651; PMCID: PMC2687520.
    142. Sughrue ME, Chang EF, Tyrell JB, Kunwar S, Wilson CB, Blevins LS. Pre-operative dopamine agonist therapy improves post-operative tumor control following prolactinoma resection. Pituitary. 2009; 12(3):158-64. PMID: 18651225.
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    143. Chang EF, Smith JS, Chang SM, Lamborn KR, Prados MD, Butowski N, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, Berger MS, McDermott MM. Preoperative prognostic classification system for hemispheric low-grade gliomas in adults. J Neurosurg. 2008 Nov; 109(5):817-24. PMID: 18976070.
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    144. Chang EF, Zada G, Kim S, Lamborn KR, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Tyrrell JB, Wilson CB, Kunwar S. Long-term recurrence and mortality after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Apr; 108(4):736-45. PMID: 18377253.
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    145. Smith JS, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Prados MD, Cha S, Tihan T, Vandenberg S, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10; 26(8):1338-45. PMID: 18323558.
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    146. Chang EF, Potts MB, Keles GE, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb; 108(2):227-35. PMID: 18240916.
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    147. Chang EF, Turner RS, Ostrem JL, Davis VR, Starr PA. Neuronal responses to passive movement in the globus pallidus internus in primary dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Dec; 98(6):3696-707. PMID: 17942626.
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    148. Chang EF, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jul; 61(1 Suppl):222-30; discussion 230-1. PMID: 18813167.
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    149. Smith JS, Chang EF, Rosenthal G, Meeker M, von Koch C, Manley GT, Holland MC. The role of early follow-up computed tomography imaging in the management of traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2007 Jul; 63(1):75-82. PMID: 17622872.
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    150. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 03; 27(1):180-9. PMID: 17202485.
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    151. Keles GE, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Tihan T, Chang CJ, Chang SM, Berger MS. Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):34-40. PMID: 16871879.
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    152. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Lawton MT. The extended retrosigmoid approach: an alternative to radical cranial base approaches for posterior fossa lesions. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-208-14; discussion ONS-214. PMID: 16582642.
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    153. Chang EF, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4):647-56; discussion 647-56. PMID: 16575328.
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    154. Chang EF, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute Traumatic Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr 01; 58(4):647-656. PMID: 28180542.
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    155. Wang VY, Chang EF, Barbaro NM. Focal cortical dysplasia: a review of pathological features, genetics, and surgical outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Jan 15; 20(1):E7. PMID: 16459997.
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    156. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 08; 102(45):16460-5. PMID: 16263924; PMCID: PMC1283465.
    157. Chang EF, Claus CP, Vreman HJ, Wong RJ, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme regulation in traumatic brain injury: relevance to the adult and developing brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Nov; 25(11):1401-17. PMID: 15917748.
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    158. Chang EF, Keles EG, Potts M, Chang S, Lamborn KL, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Seizure Characteristics and Postoperative Seizure Control in Patients with Low-grade Gliomas. Neurosurgery. 2005 Aug 01; 57(2):430. PMID: 28184794.
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    159. Lawton MT, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Yu T. Thrombotic intracranial aneurysms: classification scheme and management strategies in 68 patients. Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar; 56(3):441-54; discussion 441-54. PMID: 15730569.
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    160. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich MM. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81. PMID: 15286790.
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    161. Keles GE, Lundin DA, Lamborn KR, Chang EF, Ojemann G, Berger MS. Intraoperative subcortical stimulation mapping for hemispherical perirolandic gliomas located within or adjacent to the descending motor pathways: evaluation of morbidity and assessment of functional outcome in 294 patients. J Neurosurg. 2004 Mar; 100(3):369-75. PMID: 15035270.
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    162. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Khan SA, Lawton MT, McDermott MW. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the choroid mimicking intraventricular meningioma. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004 Feb; 31(1):115-20. PMID: 15038482.
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    163. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich MM. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75. PMID: 14645468.
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    164. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, McDermott MW. Falcotentorial meningiomas: clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical features in six patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jun 15; 14(6):e11. PMID: 15669786.
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    165. Chang EF, Wong RJ, Vreman HJ, Igarashi T, Galo E, Sharp FR, Stevenson DK, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme oxygenase-2 protects against lipid peroxidation-mediated cell loss and impaired motor recovery after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2003 May 01; 23(9):3689-96. PMID: 12736340.
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    166. Chang EF, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502. PMID: 12702879.
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    167. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang EF, Khan SA, McDermott MW. Isolated trigeminal nerve sarcoid granuloma mimicking trigeminal schwannoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2003 Mar; 52(3):700-5 discussion 704-5. PMID: 12590697.
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    168. Chang E, Dellon AL, Dellon ES, Hendrickson ME. Developing a model of colchicine neuropathy. Microsurgery. 2002; 22(2):46-8. PMID: 11921069.
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